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Teacher  uf  History  in  the  MUlersville  State  Normal  School. 




Iv  AN  CASTER,    PA., 


Cy      -7/./ 

Copyrighted,  1891,  by 




TN  teaching  the  history  of  the  United  States,  I  have 
-*-  found  that  Pennsylvania  students  are  lacking  in 
knowledge  of  their  own  Commonwealth,  and  that  there 
is  even  greater  lack  of  intelligence  concerning  the 
county  to  which  they  belong. 

This  has  enabled  me  to  understand  and  appreciate 
the  demand  that  has  come  from  the  teachers  and  other 
persons  officially  connected  with  the  schools  of  Lan- 
caster county,  for  a  history  of  the  county  which  shall 
be  available  for  the  school  and  the  family. 

Lancaster  county  is  one  that  demands  attention  and 
interest,  because  of  its  rich  material  resources,  its  large 
population,  and  its  historical  associations. 

Then,  too,  being  one  of  the  portions  of  Pennsylvania 
that  was  earliest  settled,  when  emigration  to  '  'the  West' ' 
began,  the  people  seemed  to  feel  that  the  population 
was  crowding  here  ;  and  with  an  inherited  hardihood 
and  enterprise  many  of  them  became  the  pioneers  of 
the  nearer  and  more  remote  Western  States,  and  we 
think  it  is  not  exaggeration  to  say  that  there  is  hardly 
a  State  or  Territory  included  within  our  great  domain 
which  has  not  a  representative  from  this  county. 

It  is  also  honorably  represented  in  almost  every  de- 
partment of  art,  in  almost  every  industry,  in  science, 
and  in  literature.  It  has  had  a  fair  share  of  able  states- 
men and  of  gallant  soldiers,  and  of  hardy  naval  heroes, 
men  who  have  shed  lustre  upon  its  past  arid  who  are 
fit  exemplars  for  the  youth  of  to-day. 


All  these  things  considered,  we  have  abundant  reason 
to  expect  this  county  to  take  and  maintain  a  leadership 
in  both  material  and  intellectual  affairs. 

A  better  knowledge  of  its  history  we  feel  assured 
would  have  a  tendency  to  excite  an  appreciation  of  its 
importance,  and  thus  tend  to  arouse  a  stronger  local 
patriotism,  something  most  devoutly  to  be  wished  ;  for 
while  a  man's  patriotism  should  not  be  hemmed  in  by 
county  or  by  State  lines,  but  should  reach  to  the  utmost 
bounds  of  his  Nation,  yet  there  is  due  to  his  narrower 
domain  of  neighborhood  a  good  share  of  his  patriotic 

It  is  of  these  apparently  smaller  interests  that  he  is 
the  special  custodian.  A  fidelity  in  guarding  and  car- 
ing for  these  is  fair  evidence  that  he  will  be  faithful  in 
guarding  larger  and  greater  ones.  If  the  man  best  fitted 
to  fill  a  township  office  is  elected  to  fill  that  office,  the 
offices  of  the  county  and  State  will  most  likely  be  filled 
with  capable  men  ;  and  that  being  so,  greater  care  will 
almost  of  necessity  be  exercised  in  the  choice  of  men 
to  fill  our  National  councils.  If  men  in  a  neighborhood 
are  wise  enough  to  elect  efficient  school  directors,  they 
can  most  probably  be  counted  upon  to  cast  an  inteli- 
gent  vote  for  the  Nation's  Chief  Magistrate,  and  thus 
give  the  people  a  wise  and  intelligent  National  adminis- 

This  brief  preface  indicates  the  object  of  this  book, 
which  the  editor  hopes  may  contribute  something  to- 
ward the  attainment  of  the  purpose  at  which  it  aims. 

Anna  I^yle. 


Millersville,  Pa.,  April  i,  1892. 

Table  of  Contents. 

The  Indian.— The  Tribes  ;  Their  Character  ;  Their  Wars.       i 

The  Indian  Trader. — His  Character  ;  His  Life 26 

First  vSetti.ers. — Settlements  and  Their  Progress.     ...      45 

Early  Mode  of  Life 83 

Geography 95 

Before  the  French  and  Indian  War. —  Organization 

of  the  County,  and  Erection  of  Townships 108 

During  the  French  and  Indian  War. — Dealings  With 

the  Delawares  and  Shawanese 135 

During  the  Revolution 151 

After  the  Revolution 163 


During  thk  Civii,  War  and  Since 174 

AgricuIvTure. —  Indian    Farming;  Later    Farming;    The 

Soil i7« 


Education. — History   of   the   Early  Schools,    and  of   the 

Public  Schools  and  Higher  Institutions 195 

Early  Printing 230 

ReIvIGion 234 

Biography. — Weiser,  Ross,  Hand,Yeates,  Shippen,  Mifflin, 
Snyder,  Muhlenberg,  Ramsay,  Fulton,  Murray,  Bu- 
chanan, Stevens,  Reynolds,  Heintzelman,  Forney, 
Cameron,  Bowman,  Nevin,  Atlee,  Burrowes,  Beck, 
Haldeman,  RathvOn,  Wickersham, 240 

Government 271 

Manufactures,  Banking,  Etc.,     275 

Natural  History. — Geology  ;  Flora  ;  Fauna 280 

Indian  Legends 3^3 

List  of  Illustrations. 

1.  Black  Jasper  Spear, ,  15 

2.  Greenstone  Pipe, 22 

3.  Brown  Jasper  Arrow-point, 24 

4.  Grooved  Granite  Axe, 25 

5.  CoNESTOGA  Team, 91 


7.  House  of  Martin  Mylin, 127 

8.  The  Old  Jail, 145 

9.  The  Old  Court  House, 158 

10.  Washington  Hotel 162 

11.  George  Ross, 242 

12.  Rev.  G.  H.  E.  Muhlenberg, 246 

13.  Robert  Fulton, 249 

14.  James  Buchanan, 251 

15.  Thaddeus  Stevens, 252 

16.  Gen.  J.  F.  Reynolds 254 

17.  Dr.  J.  L.  Atlee, 261 

18.  Thomas  H.  Burrowes, 262 

19.  John  Beck, 263 

20.  J.  P.  WiCKERSHAM, 268 

21.  Locust  Borer, 297 

22.  Tobacco  Moth,  Worm,  and  Chrysalis,    ....  299 


1.  Pennsylvania  Before  the  Organization  of 

THE  County, 44 

2.  Lancaster  County,  1892, 94 

3.  Lancaster  County,  1729, 109 




T  ANCASTER  COUNTY  is  rich  in  Indian  tradi- 
•^  tions.  This  fertile  and  well-wooded  country, 
wnth  its  abundance  of  wild  animals  in  the  forests 
and  fish  in  the  streams,  attracted  the  Indians  to  this 
locality.  The  Sitsqiiehaitnocks^  afterwards  called 
Mhigoes  or  Conestogas^  whose  chief  seat  was  in  the 
present  Manor  township,  were  the  most  important 
tribe  within  the  limits  of  the  present  Lancaster 
county,  and  their  best-known  chief  was  Captain 
Civility.  The  place  where  the  Conestogas  had  their 
last  home  is  still  called  Indiantozvn.  The  next 
important  tribe  were  the  Shaiuanese,  who  came 
here  from  the  South  in  William  Penn's  time, 
lived  here  half  a  century,  and  then  moved  to  the 
West.  While  in  this  locality  their  chief  seat  was 
Pequehan,  where  the  Pequea  creek  empties 
into  the  Susquehanna  river.  They  also  had 
two  towns  on  the  Octoraro,  one  a  few  miles 
above  the  present  village  of  Christiana,  and 
the  other  several  miles  below  the  site  of 
that  village.  The  greatest  sachem  of  the  Shawa- 
nese  while  at  Pequehan  was  Opessah.  The  Conoys 
were  a  small  tribe  located  at  the  mouth  of  Conoy 


creek.  The  Delawares,  from  the  Delaware  river, 
and  the  Nanticokes^  from  the  eastern  shore  of  Ches- 
apeake bay,  roamed  over  these  parts  to  hunt  and 
fish,  but  had  no  towns  here. 


The  Indians  here  lived  on  the  flesh  of  wild  ani- 
mils  which  they  killed  in  the  forest,  especially  the 
deer  and  the  bear,  and  on  the  fish  which  they 
caught  in  the  streams,  as  well  as  on  Indian 
corn  and  the  few  vegetables  which  they  raised. 
They  lived  in  villages  consisting  of  collections  of 
rude  wigwams  made  of  poles  and  covered  with 
skins  and  the  bark  and  leaves  of  trees.  They 
dressed  in  the  skins  of  beasts  during  winter,  and 
went  almost  naked  in  summer.  After  the  whites 
settled  among  them  they  changed  their  mode  of 
life  slightly,  and  began  to  wear  clothes  and  made 
attempts  at  farming.  But  they  were  miserably  poor. 
As  their  hunting-grounds  were  reduced  by  the 
white  settlements,  many  of  them  begged  their 
living  from  farm  house  to  farm  house.  They  sold 
willow  baskets  and  brooms  to  the  white  settlers, 
but  spent  most  of  the  money  they  earned  for  rum. 


There  were  Indian  burying-grounds  in  many 
places  throughout  what  is  now  Lancaster  county. 
There  are  Indian  hieroglyphics,  or  picture-writ- 
ings, on  the  rocks  in  the  Susquehanna  river,  a 
little  below  Safe  Harbor.  The  influence  of  the 
Indians  upon  the  geographical  nomenclature  of  our 


county  is  seen  in  the  names  of  the  streams  here, 
large  and  small.  The  Susquehanna  river  derives  its 
name  from  the  Susquehannock  Indians.  The  Con- 
estoga  and  Little  Conestoga  creeks  are  named  after 
the  Conestoga  Indians,  and  the  Conoy  creek  after 
the  Conoy  Indians.  The  Pequea  creek  derived  its 
name  from  the  Shawanese  town  of  Pequehan,  at  the 
mouth  of  that  stream.  The  Big  Chickies  and  Lit- 
tle Chickies  creeks  are  names  contracted  from  the 
Indian  word  Chickesalunga^  the  name  which  the 
Indians  gave  those  streams.  Octoraro,  Conowingo, 
Conewago  and  Cocalico  are  also  Indian  names. 


The  first  contact  of  the  Indians  with  the  whites 
was  when  the  white  Indian  traders  came  among 
them  almost  two  hundred  years  ago,  and  when  the 
white  settlers  came  here  soon  afterward.  They 
traded  with  these  and  with  the  w^hite  settlers,  giv- 
ing skins,  furs,  venison  and  fish  in  exchange  for 
clothes,  bread  and  other  kinds  of  food.  Their  first 
contact  with  the  civil  authorities  was  when  they 
took  part  in  the  Indian  treaty  with  William  Penn 
at  Shackamaxon,  on  the  site  of  Philadelphia,  in 
1682,  and  their  treaties  with  Governors  Keith  and 
Gordon  of  Pennsylvania,  at  the  Conestoga  Indian 
Town,  in  the  present  Manor  township,  at  different 
times  from  1718  to  1728. 


The  Indians  who  occupied  the  territory  em- 
braced within  the  limits  of  the  present  Lancaster 


county  were  nomadic  in  their  character,  as  were 
the  Indians  of  every  other  portion  of  the  United 
States.  It  has  been  asserted  that  no  tribe  had  a 
permanent  home  in  any  one  place  for  a  period 
of  half  a  century,  except,  perhaps,  the  Susque- 
hannocks,  who  lived  at  the  old  Indian  town  in 
Manor  township  as  early  as  1608,  when  Captain 
John  Smith,  the  celebrated  Virginia  pioneer, 
entered  the  mouth  of  the  Susquehanna  river. 


The  Shawanese,  an  Algonquin  tribe,  wandered 
from  place  to  place,  like  the  Arabs,  and  were  a 
brave  and  warlike  race,  but  perfidious  and  treach- 
erous. Their  base  conduct  toward  other  Indian 
tribes  and  toward  the  white  people  caused  them  to 
be  despised  and  hated  wherever  they  went.  They 
migrated  from  the  Ohio  to  Alabama,  theuec  to 
Georgia,  where  they  soon  became  involved  in  war 
with  the  Catawbas  and  the  Cherokees.  They 
finally  came  north  to  save  the  remnant  of  their 
nation  from  total  extinction. 


The  Shawanese  came  as  far  north  as  the  Poto- 
mac, whence  they  sent  some  of  their  chiefs  to  the 
Susquehannock  Indians  and  to  Philadelphia  to  ask 
permission  from  William  Penn  to  locate  near  the 
Susquehannocks,  who  became  responsible  for  their 
good  behavior.  In  1697  sixty  Shawanese  families 
came  from  the  Potomac,  and  the  nation  gradually 
followed  in  the  same  direction,  locating  near  the 


mouth  of  thePequea  creek,  where  they  remained 
thirty-four  years,  and  where  their  sachem  Opessah 
and  his  successor  resided. 


The  Shawanese  did  not  stay  together  in  one 
place,  but  split  and  scattered  in  various  directions. 
There  was  a  Shawanese  town  in  Sadsbury  towil- 
ship,  on  the  Octoraro,  about  two  miles  above  the 
site  of  Christiana.  There  was  also  a  Shawanese 
town  on  the  same  stream  just  below  the  site  of 
Christiana.  The  same  nation  had  a  town  along 
Shawanese  Run,  on  the  site  of  Columbia,  which 
remained  until  several  years  after  the  English  set- 
tlers, Wright,  Barber  and  Blunston,  had  estab- 
lished themselves  there. 


The  vShawanese  mingled  with  the  early  settlers, 
and  appeared  to  be  on  good  terms  with  them  ;  but 
their  small  war  parties  would  leave  stealthily  in 
the  night,  and  travel  hundreds  of  miles  to  strike 
an  enemy  in  the  distant  South.  They  generally 
brought  something  back  with  them,  often  inducing 
negro  slaves  in  Virginia  to  go  with  them.  When 
the  Governor  or  Council  of  Pennsylvania,  or  the 
Conestoga  Indians,  questioned  them  about  their 
conduct,  they  professed  to  be  very  innocent,  assur- 
ing them  that  they  had  kept  all  their  treaties  with 
"  Onas"  (William  Penn)  and  with  their  cousins, 
the  Delawares  and  the  Conestogas.     The  colonial 


authorities  and  the  neighboring  Indian  tribes  pro- 
fessed to  believe  what  the  Shawanese  said  in  their 
presence,  but  were  not  able  to  conceal  their  fears 
when  they  did  not  see  them.  The  proprietors  of 
Pennsylvania  expended  vast  sums  of  money  to 
win  them  to  their  cause,  but  were  unable  to  do  so. 
The  Penns  could  not  win  these  wayward  and 
treacherous  savages  by  cajolery,  or  by  promises  of 
land,  or  by  constant  presents  of  goods.  Many 
years  were  wasted  in  trying  to  secure  their  friend- 
ship, even  after  they  had  murdered  many  of  the 
frontier  settlers. 


Martin  Chartiere  and  Joseph  Jessup,  French 
Canadian  traders,  established  trading  posts  with  the 
Shawanese  Indians  at  Pequea.  Jessup  remained 
there  only  a  few  years,  and  then  removed  more 
than  a  hundred  miles  up  the  Susquehanna;  and  a 
few  Shawanese  families  moved  to  the  same  place 
about  the  same  time.  Jessup  spoke  the  Shawanese 
and  Delaware  languages,  and  often  acted  as  inter- 
preter at  councils  when  treaties  were  made  with 
these  Indians.  Chartiere  married  an  Indian  squaw, 
probably  of  the  Shawanese  tribe.  Several  years  be- 
fore his  death,  which  occurred  in  1708,  he  removed 
his  trading-post  to  a  point  about  a  mile  above  the 
"Indian  Fort,"  in  Manor  township.  His  son, 
Peter  Chartiere,  married  a  Shawanese  squaw,  and 
induced  the  most  warlike  portion  of  the  tribe  to 
join  the  French  against  the  English  during  the 
French  and  Indian  War  of  1754-1763. 



On  June  27,  1707,  Governor  John  Evans,  of 
Pennsylvania,  with  Messrs.  French,  Mitchell,  Biz- 
aillon,  Gray  and  four  servants,  left  New  Castle, 
Delaware,  and  reached  the  Octoraro  creek  the  next 
morning.  The  Shawanese  met  them  there  and 
presented  the  Governor  with  some  skins.  The  same 
night  the  Governor  and  his  party  arrived  at  Peque- 
han,  the  Indian  town,  and  were  received  at  Martin 
Chartiere's  by  Opessah,  their  sachem,  and  some 
chiefs,  who  took  them  to  their  town,  where  they 
were  received  with  a  salute  of  fire-arms.  On  Mon- 
day the  Governor  and  his  party  proceeded  to  the 
Conestoga  Indian  town,  and  there  met  delegations 
of  the  Shawanese,  the  Senequois,  the  Ganawese, 
or  Canoise,  and  the  Nanticokes.  These  Shawa- 
nese were  near  the  Indian  town  at  Pequea,  but 
belonged  to  several  towns  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Juniata  and  further  up  that  river. 


On  the  30th  (June,  1707)  the  Governor  re- 
returned  to  Pequehan,  and  was  there  received  by 
Opessah,  who  spoke  in  behalf  of  the  youth  of  the 
town.  The  Governor  remained  there  a  few  days, 
during  which  several  Shawanese  families  arrived 
from  Carolina,  where  450  Flathead  Indians  had 
besieged  their  town.  Peter  Bizaillon,  who  was 
present,  informed  the  Governor  that  the  Shawa- 
nese in  the  South  had  killed  several  white  people. 



On  July  ist  (1707)  the  Governor  and  his  party 
went  to  Conestoga,  where  they  remained  all  night. 
The  next  day  they  went  to  within  three  miles  of 
Paxtang  village.  Martin  Chartiere,  who  was  with 
the  party,  went  into  the  town  and  brought  Joseph 
Jessup  and  James  Le  Tort  back  with  him.  Nichole 
Godin,  a  French  Canadian  Indian  trader,  who  had 
no  license,  was  then  and  there  arrested  and  taken 
to  Philadelphia. 


In  June,  1709,  the  Governor  offered  each  of  the 
young  Shawanese  warriors  a  gun  if  they  would 
join  an  English  expedition  against  the  French  in 
Canada,  but  the  Shawanese  declined  his  offer. 


In  171 1  Opessah  left  his  tribe,  and  remained 
absent  from  them  for  more  than  three  years.  On 
his  return  he  gave  out  that  he  had  been  hunting 
game;  but  he  really  was  spending  his  time  among 
the  Delawares,  then  located  along  the  Brandywine. 
In  October,  17 14,  the  Shawanese  chose  a  new 
sachem  in  place  of  Optssah^named Ca kundawanna. 


On  June  22,  1715,  Opessah  appeared  before  the 
Governor  and  his  Council  in  behalf  of  his  tribe  ; 
but  he  was  never  reinstated  in  his  old  position,  and 
he  gradually  sunk  out  of  notice.  His  speeches  and 
bearing  at  several  councils  showed  that  he  was  a 


man  of  some  talent.  He  was  frank  in  speech  and 
seemingly  friendly  to  the  whites,  but  he  gave  bad 
advice  to  his  tribe. 


In  1 715  Thomas  Chalkley,  a  Quaker  English- 
man, visited  the  Shawanese  and  Conestoga  towns, 
where  he  preached  to  the  Indians.  Governor  Wil- 
liam Keith,  of  Pennsylvania,  visited  the  Shawa- 
nese and  held  a  conference  with  them  and  other 
Indians  at  Conestoga,  July  18,  1717,  and  also  in 
June,  1722. 


James  Logan  also  held  a  conference  with  the 
Indians  at  the  same  place,  in  1720,  and  denounced 
the  French  Jesuits  for  inducing  the  Indians  to  take 
sides  with  the  French  in  their  wars  against  the 
English.  Bizaillon,  Le  Tort,  Chartiere  and  Jes- 
sup — the  French  Canadian  Indian  traders — fell 
under  suspicion,  and  were  arrested  and  locked  up 
in  jail,  but  upon  giving  bail  for  their  good  behavior 
they  were  released. 


The  Governor  of  Virginia  often  complained  to 
Governor  Keith  of  Pennsylvania  about  the  Shawa- 
nese for  sheltering  runaway  slaves.  They  became 
more  restless  under  the  restraints  in  which  they 
were  held  by  the  Governor  and  the  Conestogas, 
who  had  become  answerable  for  their  good  beha- 
vior.    In  May,  1728,  they  killed  two  of  the  Cones- 


togas.  In  1 73 1  that  part  of  the  Shawanese  tribe 
which  lived  within  the  present  limits  of  I^ancaster 
county  suddenly  stole  away  at  night  and  encamped 
along  the  Allegheny  river.  The  Governor  of  Penn- 
sylvania and  his  Council,  and  also  the  Conestoga 
Indians,  were  very  much  alarmed,  and  tried  to  coax 
them  back.  John  Wright  and  Samuel  Blunston 
were  sent  to  the  Cumberland  Valley  to  survey  and 
lay  out  a  reservation  for  the  Shawanese  in  1732, 
and  told  them  that  no  white  man  but  Peter  Cliar- 
tiere,  whose  wife  was  a  Shawanese  squaw,  was  to 
live  among  them;  but  the  Shawanese  could  not  be 
induced  to  return.  The  Pennsylvania  authorities 
then  tried  to  prevent  the  Indian  traders  from  cross- 
ing the  Allegheny  mountains  and  trading  with 
them,  but  they  also  failed  in  that  undertaking. 


In  1735  the  Six  Nations  of  Indians  in  New  York, 
who  many  years  before  that  time  had  compelled 
the  Shawanese  along  the  Allegheny  river  to 
behave  themselves,  or  leave  that  hunting-ground, 
tried  to  urge  them  to  return  east  of  the  Allegheny 
mountains,  but  failed  in  the  effort.  As  the  Six 
Nations  were  not  satisfied  with  the  Shawanese 
they  sent  out  a  chief  to  talk  with  them.  A 
Shawanese  tribe,  consisting  of  thirty  young  men 
and  ten  old  men,  and  several  women  and  children, 
murdered  this  chief  and  fled  to  the  South,  the  place 
from  which  they  had  come  to  settle  on  the  Poto- 
mac.    A  few  of  the   Shawanese  returned  to  the 


the  Cumberland  Valley.     In   1737  there  were  130 
Shawanese  living  along  the  Susquehanna. 


For  nearly  half  a  century  the  Shawanese  along 
the  Ohio  were  engaged  in  almost  constant  war 
with  the  whites.  They  were  the  most  active  allies 
of  the  French  against  the  English  during  the 
French  and  Indian  War,  and  after  the  English 
conquest  of  Canada  they  joined  with  the  Dela- 
wares  in  their  hostilities,  which  were  only  ended 
after  General  Bouquet's  successful  campaign  in 
1764.  The  white  settlers  who  crossed  the  Alle- 
gheny mountains  and  were  pressing  forward  to 
the  Ohio  river  had  to  fight  the  perfidious  Shaw- 
anese all  the  way.  Accounts  of  their  bloody 
deeds  fill  the  Western  annals.  Their  losses  on 
account  of  their  constant  wars  were  made  good  by 
recruits  from  other  hostile  tribes.  The  weakness 
of  the  English  colonial  authorities  in  dealing  with 
these  treacherous  savages  cost  the  lives  of  thou- 
sands of  whites.  The  Shawanese  have  given  their 
name  to  more  places  in  the  United  States  than 
any  other  Indian  tribe,  split  into  more  fragments 
than  any  other,  changed  their  places  of  abode 
more  frequently,  and  were  the  most  treacherous  of 
all  the  savage  tribes  of  this  country. 


The  Gawanese  migrated  from  Piscataway  to  an 
island  in  the  Potomac  river,  whence  their  sachem 
and  chiefs  went  to    Philadelphia  in    1698   to  see 


William  Penii  and  get  his  permission  to  settle  in 
Pennsylvania.  Penn  allowed  them  to  do  so,  and 
they  returned  and  brought  their  entire  tribe  with 
them  to  Conejohala,  the  site  of  the  present  borough 
of  Washington,  where  they  built  a  town  on  the 
land  now  owned  by  Mr.  Staman.  After  remaining 
there  several  years  they  asked  and  obtained 
permission  to  move  farther  up  the  Susquehanna 
river,  and  settled  on  the  land  now  owned  by  John 
Haldeman,  a  little  below  the  mouth  of  Conoy  creek. 
This  tribe  was  also  known  as  Canoise,  or  Conoys, 
whence  the  creek  took  its  name.  They  were  also 
called  Nanticokes,  and  were  probably  an  offshoot 
of  the  Nanticokes  proper,  as  they  came  from  the 
eastern  part  of  Maryland.  This  tribe  was  small, 
and  was  under  the  control  of  the  Six  Nations. 
They  were  generally  peaceful,  and  were  wholly 
surrounded  by  Indian  traders,  who  found  it  profit- 
able to  trade  with  them.  Like  the  Shawanese, 
they  were  nomadic  ;  but  becoming  dissatisfied 
when  game  became  scarce  and  white  settlers  in 
Donegal  township  encroached  upon  their  hunting- 
ground,  they  asked  and  obtained  permission  to 
move  farther  up  the  river.  In  1743  they  removed 
to  Shamokin,  now  Sunbury,  and  asked  the 
proprietors  of  Pennsylvania  to  pay  them  for  the 
land  which  they  had  given  up  in  Conoy.  Treaties 
with  the  whites  were  made  in  their  town,  and 
their  chiefs  took  part  in  treaties  made  with  the 
whites  at  Conestoga,  Lancaster  and   Philadelphia  ; 


but   their  tribe    had   little   influence,    and    before 
many  years  they  were  heard  of  no  more. 


The  Delawares  carried  on  a  bloody  war  with  the 
Iroquois,  or  Six  Nations  ;  but  being  conquered 
they  became  their  dependents.  The  Six  Nations 
selected  one  of  their  own  chiefs  to  rule  over  the 
Delawares.  The  greatest  of  these  was  the  Ca- 
vuea  chief,  Shikellimv,  the  father  of  the  famous 
Western  chief,  Logan.  Shikellimy  was  an  able 
man,  and  was  a  true  friend  of  the  whites  all  his 
life  ;  but  he  could  not  control  the  whole  tribe, 
and  they  gave  much  trouble  to  the  whites. 
Penn  bought  all  their  lands,  but  they  acted 
as  though  they  were  dissatisfied  and  wanted  their 
lands  as  well  as  the  presents  they  received  for 
them,  and  were  always  asking  for  more.  Pem- 
berton  and  several  other  English  Quakers  listen- 
ed to  their  falsehoods,  and  this  gave  the  pro- 
prietors of  Pennsylvania  much  trouble.  Their 
dealings  with  the  Connecticut  people  caused  much 
trouble  all  around.  The  Six  Nations  treated  them 
as  women,  and  did  not  allow  them  to  be  heard 
in  their  councils.  A  part  of  the  Delawares  located 
along  the  Brandywine,  whence  small  bands  of  the 
tribe  moved  to  the  streams  in  the  present  Lancas- 
ter county,  and  after  staying  here  several  years 
they  settled  near  the  Shawanese,  with  whom  they 
traveled  on  the  war-path,  partaking  of  their  treach- 
erous character.  The  Delawares  called  themselves 
Le7tni  Lenapes^  or  the  "Original  People." 



The  Nanticokes  located  upon  the  eastern  shores 
of  Chesapeake  bay.  They  were  quite  numerous, 
but  were  subdued  by  the  more  powerful  Six 
Nations,  who  made  them  their  vassals.  They 
were  allowed  to  move  to  Tulpehocken  valley,  and 
remained  there  until  1721,  when  the  large  settle- 
ment of  Germans  which  came  from  New  York 
made  them  restless,  and  many  of  the  tribe  moved 
to  Cocalico  township  in  lyancaster  county,  settling 
along  "Indian  River"  at  the  place  known  as 
"Indian  Town."  As  late  as  1758,  there  were 
still  several  scattered  families  of  the  tribe  along 
the  little  streams  and  springs  in  that  vicinity. 
The  town  covered  500  acres,  which  came  into  the 
possession  of  John  Wistar  and  Henry  Carpenter. 
Another  part  of  the  Nanticoke  tribe  had  a  town 
upon  the  land  now  owned  by  Levi  S.  Reist,  called 
"Ivchoy."  That  land  was  also  bought  from  the 
Penn  family  by  John  Wistar.  The  Nanticokes 
understood  the  English  language,  and  they  there- 
fore mingled  with  the  white  settlers,  with  whom 
they  were  friendly.  They  afterward  moved  up  the 
West  Branch  of  the  Susquehanna.  The  Nanti- 
cokes and  Gawanese  spoke  a  kindred  language. 
At  the  time  of  their  greatest  power  they  were 
constantly  obliged  to  act  on  the  defensive  against 
their  more  powerful  neighbors,  the  Susquehan- 
nocks,  afterward  called  the  Conestogas,  who  sent 
out  small  war  parties  to  kill  the  Nanticoke  hun- 
ters, whom  they  found  in  the  woods  away  from 
their  principal  towns. 




The  Susquehannocks  were  once  the  most  power- 
ful and  aggressive  of  'all  the  Indian  tribes  along 
the  Susquehanna  river  and  Chesapeake  bay.  They 
conquered  the  weaker  tribes,  but  they  did  not 
absorb  them  or  form  a  confederation  like  the  Six 
Nations  of  New  York,  and  force  their  enemies  to 
pay  tribute  every  year  or  to  furnish  young  war- 
riors to  recruit  their  war  parties.  The  Susque- 
hannocks were  strictly  a  warlike  and  hunting 
nation,  and  failed  to  adapt  themselves  to  agricul- 
ture even  after  an  intercourse  with  the  white  set- 
tlers for  more  than  a  century  and  a-half. 


Captain  John  Smith,  the  celebrated  Virginia 
pioneer,  during  one  of  his  ex- 
ploring tours,  reached  the  head 
of  Chesapeake  bay,  and  there 
met  a  hunting  party  of  Susque- 
hannocks. He  described  them 
as  taller  and  more  muscular  than 
any  other  Indians  whom  he  had 
seen.  He  made  a  map  of  the 
shores  of  the  Chesapeake  and 
the  streams  flowing  into  it,  and 
also  drew  a  picture  of  a  Susque- 
hannock   chief.      The    Indians 

met     Smith's    party     with     skins.    Black  Ja^^^p ear,  from 
i_  j^  J  1  -I  Manor  Township. 

bows,     arrows,     targets,     beads,      size,  6x/x2f^  inches, 
spears  and  tobacco-pipes  for  presents. 



In  describing  the  Susquehannock  chief,  Captain 
Smith  said  that  "the  calves  of  his  legs  were  three- 
quarters  of  a  yard  about,  and  all  the  rest  of  his 
limbs  so  answerable  to  that  proportion,  and  he 
seemed  the  goodliest  man  I  ever  saw."  *  *  * 
"They  seemed  like  giants,  and  were  the  strangest 
people  in  all  these  countries,  both  in  language  and 
attire  ;  their  language  well  becomes  their  propor- 
tions, sounding  from  them  as  a  voice  in  a  vault. 
Their  attire  is  the  skins  of  bears  and  wolves,  some 
have  cassocks  made  of  bears'  heads,  and  skins 
that  a  man's  head  goes  through  the  skin's  neck, 
and  the  ears  of  the  bear  fastened  to  his  shoulder, 
the  nose  and  teeth  hanging  down  his  breast, 
another  bear's  face  split  behind  him,  and  at  the 
end  of  their  nose  hung  a  paw,  the  half-sleeves  com- 
ing to  the  elbows,  where  the  neck  of  bears  and  the 
arms  through  the  mouth,  with  paws  hanging  at 
their  noses.  One  had  the  head  of  a  wolf  hanging 
in  a  chain  for  a  jewel,  his  tobacco-pipe,  three- 
quarters  of  a  yard  long,  prettily  carved,  with  a 
bird,  a  deer,  or  some  such  device  at  the  great  end 
sufficient  to  beat  out  one's  brains,  with  bows, 
arrows  and  clubs  suitable  to  their  greatness." 


Captain  Smith's  account  of  the  gigantic  stature 
of  the  Susquehannock.s  has  been  corroborated  by 
subsequent  discoveries.  This  tribe  had  a  small 
stockade  on  the  Susquehanna  river  at  the  mouth 


of  the  Octoraro.  The  foundations  of  the  bridofe 
across  the  Octoraro  at  this  point  were  excavated 
when  the  Columbia  &  Port  Deposit  Railruad  was 
constructed,  and  very  large  human  skeletons  were 
then  and  there  found. 


In  Captian  Smith's  time  the  Susquehannocks 
mustered  600  warriors.  They  had  a  stockade  fort 
upon  the  land  now  owned  by  John  H.  Wittmer, 
about  halfway  between  Wittmer's  Mill  and  Strick- 
ler's  Run,  at  the  foot  of  Turkey  Hill,  in  Manor 
township.  This  fort  was  large  enough  to  protect 
their  entire  tiibe,  along  with  their  warriors. 


The  Susquehannocks  roamed  over  the  forests  as 
far  north  as  the  St.  Lawrence  river  and  Lake 
Champlain,  and  often  skirmished  with  the  Iroquois, 
or  Six  Nations,  who  protected  their  towns  by 
stockades.  After  a  warfare  of  a  century  with  the 
Six  Nations,  the  Susquehannocks  were  conquered 
and  their  tribe  broken  up  by  the  Cayugas  and  Sen- 
ecas,  two  of  the  Six  Nations. 


The  Susquehannocks  ceded  to  the  English  all 
the  land  on  the  eastern  shore  of  the  Chesapeake 
and  about  the  head  of  that  bay.  Very  soon  the  fur 
trade  with  the  Susquehannocks  became  so  great 
and  profitable  that  a  number  of  Englishmen  set- 
tled on  Kent  Island,  in  the  Chesapeake;  but  wlien 


they  discovered  the  greed  of  the  English  traders 
they  refused  to  trade  with  them  and  broke  up 
their  settlement. 


In  1630  William  Clayborne,  a  member  of  the 
Virginia  Council,  established  a  trading-post  on 
Kent  Island;  but  soon  afterward  a  body  of  Eng- 
lishmen called  "  Pilgrims  "  bought  the  island  from 
the  Yoacomacoes  Indians,  who  were  constantly 
annoyed  by  the  Susquehannocks,  who  ravaged 
their  country.  Clayborne  instigated  the  Susque- 
hannocks to  make  war  on  the  "  Pilgrim  "  settlers. 
The  "Pilgrims"  made  war  on  Clayborne,  who 
had  rebelled  against  Lord  Baltimore,  the  founder 
of  Maryland,  but  who  was  finally  defeated  in  1637 
and  arrested  for  high  treason.  In  1642  he  returned 
and  recaptured  Kent  Island  and  drove  Governor 
Calvert,  of  Maryland,  to' Virginia. 


The  Susquehannocks  frequently  attacked  the 
Yoacomacoes  and  the  Massawomekes,  another  war- 
like tribe  along  the  Chesapeake,  and  also  gave  the 
Maryland  colony  at  St.  Mary's  constant  trouble; 
but  they  were  finally  obliged  to  use  all  their 
strength  to  defend  themselves  against  the  attacks 
of  the  Six  Nations  from  New  York,  who  invaded 
their  country.  On  July  5,  1652,  the  Susquehan- 
nocks made  a  treaty  of  alliance,  offensive  and 
defensive,  with  the  Maryland  colony,  on  the  site 
of  Annapolis,  the  Susquehannocks  ceding  to  the 


Marylanders  all  the  land  from  the  Patuxent  river 
to  Kent  Island,  on  the  western  side  of  the  Chesa- 
peake bay,  and  from  the  Choptauk  river  to  the 
northeast  branch  and  to  the  north  of  Elk  river,  on 
the  eastern  side  of  the  bay. 


In  1661  the  Susquehannocks  were  at  war  with 
the  Senecas,  one  of  the  Six  Nations,  who  crossed 
the  Susquehanna  many  miles  above  the  fort  of  the 
Susquehannocks,  and  robbed  and  killed  some  of 
the  white  settlers.  In  June,  1664,  one  of  the 
Senecas  was  captured  ;  and  forty  Susquehannocks, 
who  were  present  at  his  trial,  wanted  him  burned 
as  a  punishment  for  his  cruelty.  In  1664  about 
100  Seneca  warriors  came  to  the  Chesapeake,  and 
killed  several  of  the  Maryland  settlers  and  some 
Susquehannocks  whom  they  caught  hunting.  In 
June  of  that  year  the  Maryland  colony  declared 
war  against  the  Senecas,  who  went  on  the  war- 
path against  the  Susquehannocks  the  next  year. 
The  Marylanders,  as  allies  of  the  Susquehannocks, 
sent  several  expeditions  against  the  Senecas,  who 
threatened  to  exterminate  both  the  Susquehan- 
nocks and  the  English  settlers  of  Maryland. 


After  the  war  between  the  Susquehannocks  and 
the  Senecas  had  gone  on  for  several  years,  the 
Susquehannocks  were  hard  pressed  by  their 
enemies.  The  Marylanders  became  alarmed  for 
their  own  safety,   and  sent  an    expedition  under 


Colonel  Ninian  Be^ll  to  the  aid  of  the  Susqiiehan- 
nocks,  Avho  were  besieged  in  their  fort  by  the 
Senecas.  The  Marylanders  marched  np  the  east 
bank  of  the  Snsquehanna  river  to  the  town  and 
fort  of  the  Susqnehannocks  in  Manor  township, 
taking  several  cannon  with  them.  The  Senecas 
were  badly  defeated  by  the  Marylanders,  who  thus 
rescued  the  Susqnehannocks  from  their  peril. 
This  victory  occurred  some  time  between  1675 
and  1682.  Several  years  afterwards  the  Susqne- 
hannocks suffered  so  crushing  a  defeat  from  the 
Senecas  and  Cayugas  that  the  tribe  was  broken 
up  and  scattered. 


When  William  Penn  came  to  Pennsylvania  in 
1682  he  visited  the  Susqnehannocks  at  their  fort. 
After  their  great  defeat  and  overthrow  by  the 
Senecas  and  Cayugas,  the  Susqnehannocks  gath- 
ered their  few  remaining  warriors,  their  old  men 
and  their  women  and  children,  and  left  their  old  fort 
on  the  banks  of  the  Susquehanna,  and  located  on 
Turkey  Hill,  four  miles  southeast  of  their  former 
abode.  There  was  plenty  of  spring  water  (it  their 
new  home,  and  Penn  gave  them  a  reservation  of 
500  acres.  The  Penns  were  obliged  to  furnish  a 
person  to  cultivate  the  land  and  manage  the  tribe 
until  it  became  extinct.  This  tract  of  land  caused 
the  Penn  family  much  expense  and  trouble  while 
they  owned  it. 



Although  their  great  defeat  by  the  Senecas  and 
Cayiigas  completely  broke  their  militar}'  power, 
the  Susqiiehannocks,  who  were  called  Conestogas 
from  the  time  of  their  settlement  in  their  new 
home,  continued  to  exert  much  influence  upon  the 
neighboring  Indian  tribes  and  upon  the  colonial 
authorities  of  Pennsylvania,  until  they  were  exter- 
minated in  1763. 


Governors  Evans,  Gookin,  Keith  and  Logan  of 
Pennsylvania  had  conferences  with  the  Conestogas 
at  their  new  town,  and  William  Penn  again  visited 
them  in  1700.  In  1710  the  tribe  was  ruled  by  a 
female.  The  Conestogas  afterwards  lived  as  vaga- 
bonds, begging  from  farm-house  to  farm-house. 
Their  only  articles  of  trade  were  brooms  and 
willow  baskets.  All  the  money  they  received  they 
spent  for  rum.  They  were  constantly  begging 
the  colonial  authorities  for  clothing  and  moccasins. 
They  wandered  through  the  community  bare- 
footed, and  many  of  them  had  no  clothing  except 
a  breechclout,  while  many  went  to  Philadelphia 
naked.  To  keep  them  from  starving,  James 
Wright,  who  lived  in  the  stone  house  on  Second 
street  in  Columbia,  was  appointed  by  the  Gover- 
nor of  the  colony  to  furnish  them  with  clothing 
and  food — a  duty  which  he  performed  faithfully. 
He  got  the  clothing  in  Philadelphia ;  and  the 
flour  which  he  obtained  was  made  at  the  "little 



stone  mill  "  on  Shawanese  Run,  which  was  torn 
down  many  years  ago. 


The  account  of  the  sad  and  melancholy  fate  of 
this  once  powerful  tribe  will  be  related  in  our 
account  of  the  French  and  Indian  War,  which 
ended  in  1763. 


lyocalities  in  I^ancaster  county  where  Indian 
relics  have  been  found  are  very  numerous.  Along 
the  Susquehanna  river  shore  and  on  the  islands  of 
the  river,  along  both  banks  of  the  Conestoga,  the 
Pequea,  the  Octoraro,  the  Cocalico  and  other 
streams,  are  the  evidences  of  Indian  fishing  camps 
and  burying  -  grounds.  Indian 
burying-grounds  also  existed  on 
the  various  hills  throughout 
the  county,  as  attested  by  the 
numerous  relics  of  stone,  bone, 
shell  and  clay.  Almost  every 
township  in  the  county  is  rich 
in  Indian  relics. 

The  entire  Susquehanna  shore 
and  the  islands  of  the  river  bear 

Greenstone  Pipe,  from     evidcUCCS     of     haviug     bcCU     the 
Strasburg  Township.  ^^ 

Size,  3Kx2K  Inches,  sitcs  of  ludiau  villagcs,  fishing 
camps  or  grave-yards.  The  most  important  of  these 
Indian  sites  on  the  river  in  this  county  are  at 
Locust  Grove  and  Haldeman's  quarries,  near  Bain- 
bridge;  at    Shoch's  Mill,  above    Marietta;  on  the 


site  of  the  Shawnee  town  at  Columbia;  at  several 
places  between  Washington  borough  and  Turkey 
Hill;  at  the  mouth  of  the  Pequea,  and  at  other 
places  along  the  river. 

Indian  relics  have  been  found  all  along  the 
Conestoga,  especially  opposite  the  City  Mill  and 
Water  Works,  at  Fehl's  Point  and  at  Rock  Hill. 
On  the  Pequea,  about  a  mile  above  its  mouth,  the 
Indians  quarried  soapstone  for  pottery  and  cooking 

Professor  Haldeman  found  many  relics  in  the 
cave  on  Chickies  Rock.  The  great  flood  of  1889 
washed  out  numerous  remains  in  a  number  of 


In  the  center  of  what  is  now  Lancaster  city  was 
a  favorite  hickory  tree  of  the  Indians.  This  tree 
stood  in  front  of  Gibson's  tavern,  which  was  on 
the  site  of  the  First  National  Bank,  on  East 
King  street.  South  of  Gibson's  tavern  was  a  large 
spring,  walled  in  in  a  rough  manner  by  the  Indians, 
and  covered  with  a  large  flat  stone.  The  site  of 
this  spring  was  found  in  1882,  on  Julius  Loeb's 
property,  on  South  Queen  street.  That  was  evi- 
dently the  site  of  an  Indian  camping  ground. 
Many  relics,  among  which  was  considerable  earth- 
enware, have  been  found.  There  were  many  hick- 
ory trees  between  the  spring  and  Roaring  Brook, 
now  W^ater  street.  The  Conestoga  Indians  mur- 
dered by  the   Paxton  Boys,  at  the  old  jail,  were 



buried  on  what  is  now  the  property  of  Henry 
Martin,  on  East  Chestnut  street. 


Among  the  numerous  Indian  relics  are  many 
which  excite  our  wonder  and  interest,  because  of 
the  skill  and  ingenuity  displayed 
in  the  rude  construction  of  the 
implements  and  weapons  which 
the  savage  aborigines  of  this 
^.  beautiful  county  used  in  their 
everyday  life  and  in  their  wars 
with  their  enemies.  No  part  of 
the  country  is  richer  in  beautiful 
and  curious  remains  of  the  rude 
art  of  the  Red   Man  than  is  this 

Brown  Jasp^rrow-   GardcU    SpOt  of   thc    old    KcyStOUC 
Point,     from     Rapho  C^qfp 
Township.  '' 

Size,  2%xi>4  Inches.  'Xhe  various  kinds  of  stone  of 
which  many  of  these  relics  are  composed  are  flint, 
bluestone  and  #ther  kinds  of  limestone,  granite, 
jasper,  quartz,  trap,  greenstone,  iron  stone,  sand- 
stone, soapstone,  slate,  etc. 

The  most  numerous  of  these  relics  are  flint 
arrow  heads.  Among  other  stone  relics  are  axes, 
hammers,  tomahawks,  cooking  vessels,  needles, 
drills,  drilled  ceremonial  stones,  cutting  tools,  dig- 
ging tools,  beads,  dressing  stones,  pipes,  rolling 
pins,  grinding  and  rubbing  stones,  etc.  Soapstone 
pipes  and  soapstone  pots  have  been  found. 

Among   other   interesting   relics   are   decorated 



pottery,  scalping  knives  and  other  implements  of 
bone,  clay  pipes  and  other  clay  relics,  and  copper 
remains.  Beads  made  of  elass, 
elks'  teeth,  bears'  tusks,  shell, 
bone  and  stone  are  also  to  be 
seen  in  our  Indian  collections. 
Cakes  of  Indian  paint  have  been 
found  near  Shoch's  Mill,  above 
Marietta.  Such  are  some  of  the 
Indian  relics  collected  from  every 
ery  part  of  our  great  county  by 
our  local  antiquarians.  These 
Grooved  Ax  (Granite),    interesting     rcmaius     are    jcon- 

from  Drumore  Township.  ^  ' 

Size,  4  by  aVg.  stautly  bciug  fouud  by  those  who 
make  it  their  business  to  look  for  them.  They 
are  found  along  our  noble  streams,  on  our  wo'oded 
hills,  and  on  freshly  plowed  ground.  They  are 
often  turned  up  by  the  farmer's  plow,  but  are 
unobserved  by  people  in  general,  and  are  only 
noticed  by  those  who  are  interested  in  the  collec- 
tion of  such  remains  of  savage  art  and  skill. 




^"T^HE  Indian  Trader  was  one  of  the  early 
frontiersmen  who,  instead  of  taking  to  farming 
or  trading  in  the  neighborhood  in  which  he  lived, 
would  make  long  and  dangerous  journeys  into  the 
wilderness  inhabited  by  the  Indians.  There,  far 
from  the  settlements  of  the  white  man,  he  went 
for  the  purpose  of  exchanging  such  wares  as  were 
most  likely  to  take  the  fancy  of  the  Indian  and  his 
squaw.  The  Indian  women  were  very  much 
attracted  by  the  showy  trinkets  and  the  goods  of 
bright  colors  which  the  trader  would  take  in  his 
wagons  and  display  at  the  far  distant  Indian  vil- 
lages. These  cheap  articles  they  exchanged  for 
pelts  (skins  of  all  kinds  of  fur-bearing  animals), 
giving  a  small  price  for  the  pelts  and  making  a 
large  profit  on  their  goods.  The  trader  nearly 
always  carried  a  liberal  supply  of  rum  or  whiskey, 
of  which  the  Indians,  like  all  savages,  were  very 
fond.  Some  of  the  red  men  would  readily  trade  all 
they  had  for  the  fire-water.  This  would  oft-times 
cause  trouble  and  bring  on  a  fight  in  wliich  some  of 
the  savages  would  be  killed.  vSometimes  the  trader 
himself  was  killed   and    his   stock    of  goods  and 


wagon  were  taken  by  the  Indians.  For  this  cause 
many  traders  would  travel  together  for  mutual  pro- 
tection ;  but  even  then  they  were  often  attacked 
by  Indian  parties,  and  pitched  battles  followed  in 
which  some  on  both  sides  were  killed  or  wounded. 

Many  traders  went  as  far  as  the  Ohio  long  before 
there  were  any  wdiite  settlers  beyond  the  Alle- 
gheny mountains.  On  these  trips  they  traveled 
many  hundreds  of  miles,  at  the  risk  of  life  and 
property,  for  the  sake  of  the  rich  profits  of  the 
Indian  trade. 

Some  of  the  most  prominent  traders  of  this 
county,  and  indeed  of  Pennsylvania,  were  Scotch- 
Iri^h  from  w^hat  is  now  Donegal  township.  These 
were  followed  closely  by  the  German  settlers,  both 
of  whom  established  trading-posts  beyond  the 
white  settlements.  Many  of  these  posts  were 
located  at  or  near  Indian  villages,  along  the  rivers, 
or  on  Indian  trails  or  pathways  through  the  for- 
ests. The  traders  in  many  cases  were  the  most 
prominent  and  influential  men  of  colonial  times. 


That  adventurous  class  of  whites  during  the  col- 
onial period  who  were  known  as  Indian  traders, 
and  wdio  established  themselves  on  the  outskirts 
of  civilization,  made  Lancaster  county  a  prolific 
field  for  their  operations,  and  their  influence  was 
most  powerfully  felt  in  moulding  popular  sentiment 
among  the  frontier  settlers.  The  region  which 
became  Donegal  township  was  the  nursery  of  most 


of  these  traders,  who  were  mainly  Scotch-Irish; 
and  Scotch-Irish  Presbyterians  followed  up  the 
traders  and  pressed  the  Indians  beyond  the  Alle- 
gheny mountains.  The  Germans  of  the  Lutheran 
and  Reformed  denominations  kept  on  the  right 
flank  of  the  Scotch-Irish  from  Big  Chickies  creek, 
where  it  entered  Lebanon  township.  The  left 
flank  of  the  Scotch-Irish  pushed  across  the  Sus- 
quehanna river  as  far  south  as  the  Maryland  line. 
When  the  traders  moved  their  stations  to  the  Yel- 
low Breeches  Creek  and  Conecocheague,  the  van  of 
the  Scotch-Irish  pioneers  pressed  on  and  occupied 
the  Cumberland  Valley.  The  pioneer  Indian  tra- 
ders within  the  territory  embraced  in  the  present 
limits  of  Lancaster  county  were  French  Canadians, 
who  had  first  located  along  the  Schuylkill  and  the 


The  CharTierES. — Martin  Chartiere,  one  of 
the  most  noted  of  these  French  Canadian  traders, 
and  who  married  an  Indian  squaw,  established  his 
permanent  residence  with  the  Shawanese  Indians 
when  they  came  from  the  south  and  settled  at  Pequea 
creek.  He  spoke  the  language  of  the  Delaware 
Indians  flueatly,  and  obtained  much  influence  with 
the  savages.  The  Shawanese  chief,  Logan,  desired 
to  be  on  peaceful  terms  with  him,  and  tried  to 
gain  his  friendship.  The  loan  commissioners,  who 
were  the  Penns'  agents  for  the  sale  of  their  lands, 
gave  him  a  vast  tract  of  land  extending  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Conestoga  creek  several  miles  up  the 


Susquehanna.  He  built  his  trading-post,  and  at 
last  settled  upon  the  farm  afterwards  owned  by 
the  Stamans,  at  or  near  where  they  built  a  saw- 
mill, in  Washington  borough.  He  died  there  in 
1708.  A  message  announcing  Chartiere's  death 
was  sent  to  Chief  Logan,  who  attended  his  funeral. 
He  left  all  his  property  to  his  only  son,  Pierre 
Chartiere,  who  also  married  a  Shawanese  squaw. 
Pierre  sold  his  farm  in  Manor  to  Stephen  Atkin- 
son in  1727,  and  moved  to  the  mouth  of  Yellow 
Breeches  Creek,  thence  to  Conecocheague,  and 
thence  to  the  Ohio.  He  joined  the  Shawanese 
Indians  against  the  English  during  the  French  and 
Indian  War.  He  gave  the  English  and  the  pro- 
prietors of  Pennsylvania  much  trouble  during  his 
whole  life. 

BiZAiLLox. — Pierre  Bizaillon,  also  a  French 
Canadian,  established  a  trading-post  near  the 
Schuylkill,  but  soon  settled  permanently  in  East 
Cain  township,  in  Chester  county.  His  trading- 
post  was  among  the  Paxtang  Indians.  In  I7i9his 
wife  Martha  obtained  a  patent  for  700  acres  of  land 
in  Donegal  township,  a  little  below  Conoy  creek, 
adjoining  the  Conoy  Indian  town.  She  sold  this 
land  to  the  Brennemans  and  Hesses.  Pierre  Bizail- 
lon died  in  1740  at  a  great  age.  His  wife  died 
several  years  later.  Both  were  members  of  the 
Church  of  England. 

Le  Tort. — Jacques  Le  Tort,  another  French 
Canadian,  first  located  on  the  Brandywine,  but 
afterwards  established  a  trading-post  at  the  Conoy 


Indian  town.  His  wife  took  up  900  acres  of  land 
in  Donegal  township,  at  Sparks'  Mill,  which  after- 
wards came  into  the  possession  of  the  Groves,  the 
Zieglers  and  the  Stehmans.  Le  Tort  moved  to  the 
spring  bearing  his  name  near  Carlisle,  in  Cumber- 
land county.  He  afterwards  moved  to  the  forks  of 
the  North  and  West  Branches  of  the  Susquehanna, 
where  he  established  a  store.  Both  Le  Tort  and 
Bizaillon  often  made  trading  trips  to  the  Ohio  and 
Mississippi  rivers,  being  absent  sometimes  for  a 
year  or  two. 


The  Cartridges. — Edmund  Cartlidge  and  his 
brother  John  were  English  Quakers  who  traded 
with  the  Indians.  Edmund  was  a  Justice  of  the 
Peace  for  Chester  county  several  years  before  the 
organization  of  Lancaster  county.  He  settled  on 
the  west  side  of  Conestoga  creek  near  its  mouth, 
near  the  Conestoga  Indian  town.  Several  Indian  con- 
ferences were  held  at  his  house.  His  brother  John 
settled  several  miles  east  of  the  Conestoga.  While 
they  were  at  the  Monocacy,  in  Maryland,  they 
killed  an  intoxicated  Indian,  who  had  attacked  them 
because  they  refused  to  give  him  more  rum.  They 
were  imprisoned  for  this  affair,  but  were  released 
at  the  intercession  of  the  Indians  themselves.  They 
never  wholly  recovered  the  public  confidence,  but 
remained  at  the  Conestoga  for  twenty  years. 

James  Patterson. — James  Paterson,  a  Scotch- 
Irishman,  located  a  mile  back  of  Martin  Chartiere, 


along  the  northern  border  of  Conestoga  Manor, 
in  1717,  and  there  established  a  trading-post.  He 
took  up  several  hundred  acres  of  land  in  Conejo- 
hera  valley,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Susquehanna 
river,  and  there  kept  the  pack-horses  with  which  he 
used  to  bring  the  peltries  which  he  bought  from  the 
Indians  along  the  Potomac  river.  Some  of  this 
land  was  cleared  for  grazing  purposes.  Patterson's 
Indian  trade  west  of  the  river  was  broken  up  by 
the  border  struggle  between  the  Pennsylvanians 
and  the  ^Marylanders,  called  Cresap" s  War. 

James  Patterson  died  at  his  home  in  the  ]\Ianor 
in  1735,  before  the  end  of  these  border  troubles. 
He  gave  his  son  James  300  acres  of  land  along  the 
Conecocheague,  in  the  Cumberland  Valley,  whence 
James  moved  after  his  father's  death.  James  was 
the  father  of  Colonel  William  Patterson,  who  set- 
tled at  Lewistown,  on  the  Juniata,  and  who  was  a 
prominent  officer  in  the  French  and  Indian  War, 
and  also  in  the  War  of  the  Revolution.  William's 
son  Robert  married  Sarah  Shippen,  daughter  of 
Robert  Shippen.  ]\Ir.  Patterson,  the  late  superin- 
tendent of  the  Safe  Harbor  iron- works,  is  a  descen- 
dant of  Robert  Patterson.  The  elder  James  Pat- 
terson's son  Thomas  died  in  his  minority.  He  had 
three  daughters — Susanna,  who  married  James 
Lowry,  an  Indian  trader,  who  lived  in  Donegal 
township;  vSarah,  who  married  Benjamin  Cham- 
bers, the  founder  of  Chambersburg;  and  Rebecca, 
who  married  John  Keagy,  who  bought  the  inter- 
est of  her  mother  and  sisters  in  the  old  mansion 
farm,  now  the  property  of  Jacob  B.  Shuman. 


John  Harris. — John  Harris,  a  Quaker  and  a 
native  of  Yorkshire,  England,  was  a  noted  Indian 
trader.  He  first  intended  to  settle  near  the  mouth 
of  Conoy  creek,  not  far  from  the  site  of  Bainbridge. 
He  was  the  first  white  settler  at  Paxton,  the  site 
of  Harrisburg,  where  he  established  his  trading- 
post  in  1 719.  He  was  also  the  first  person  who 
introduced  the  plow  on  the  Susquehanna,  within 
the  limits  of  the  present  Dauphin  county.  An 
interesting  incident  occurred  in  his  life  at  Paxton. 
On  one  occasion,  a  band  of  Indians,  who  had  been 
down  the  river  on  a  trading  excursion,  came  to  his 
house,  most  of  them  being  intoxicated.  They 
asked  for  more  rum;  but,  as  they  were  already 
very  much  intoxicated,  he  refused  to  give  them 
more.  They  became  enraged,  and  tied  him  to  a 
mulberry  tree  to  burn  him  alive;  but  other 
Indians  of  the  neighborhood  came  to  his  rescue, 
and  released  him  after  a  struggle.  In  remembrance 
of  that  event,  he  afterward  directed  that  on  his 
death  he  should  be  buried  under  the  shade  of  that 
mulberry  tree.  He  died  in  1748,  and  was  buried 
there,  as  were  some  of  his  children.  The  title  to 
the  grave-yard,  to  the  extent  of  fifteen  feet  square, 
was  secured  for  the  family.  The  Rev.  John  Elder 
said  of  John  Harris:  "  He  was  as  honest  a  man  as 
ever  broke  bread."  His  son,  John  Harris,  the  foun- 
der of  Harrisburg,  was  born  on  the  site  of  that 
city  in  1726,  and  was  the  first  white  child  born  in 
Pennsylvania  west  of  the  Conewago  hills.  He  was 
a  colonel  in  the  American  army  during  the  Revo- 
lution, and  died  in  1791,  aged  65. 


Peter  Allen. — Peter  iVllen,  an  English  Indian 
trader,  settled  on  the  north  side  of  Chickies  creek, 
in  1718  ;  bnt  several  years  later  sold  his  land  to 
the  Rev.  James  Anderson,  a  Scotch-Irish  Presby- 
terian preacher,  who  sold  it  to  William  Wilkins, 
an  English  Indian  trader,  and  who  moved  to  the 
the  eastern  base  of  the  mountains  above  Harris- 

Jonas  Davenport.  — Jonas  Davenport,  who 
located  at  Conoy  creek  in  1718,  was  one  of  the 
first  three  English  Indian  traders  who  crossed  the 
Allegheny  mountains  to  trade  with  the  Indians  on 
the  Ohio.  He  suffered  great  losses  from  hostile 
Indians.  He  lost  many  of  his  old  friends  by  ill- 
treating  an  apprentice,  and  finally  lost  all  his 
property  and  died  poor  at  Patrick  Campbell's  tav- 
ern, near  Conoy  creek. 

Robert  Wilkins. — Robert  Wilkins,  an  English 
Indian  trader,  first  settled  along  the  Conestoga 
creek,  next  to  Richard  Carter,  who  afterward 
moved  farther  up  the  creek.  In  1718  Wilkins  took 
up  200  acres  of  land  along  the  Susquehanna  river, 
and  in  1727  he  sold  it  to  the  Rev.  James  x\nderson, 
whose  descendants  founded  the  town  of  Marietta 
upon  it. 

William  Wilkins.— William  Wilkins  was  first 
"bound  out"  to  Edmund  Cartlidge,  and  was  pres- 
ent w^hen  Cartledge  killed  the  drunken  Indian  at 
the  Monocacy.  Soon  afterward  he  bought  the  Allen 
tract  near  Chickies  and  began  to  trade  for  himself 


with  the  Indians  of  the  Shenandoah  valley,  in  Vir- 
ginia. He  moved  to  Peters  township,  in  Cumber- 
land county,  where  he  died,  leaving  three  sons — 
James,  Robert  and  William. 

Janet,  the  widow  of  William  Wilkins,  after- 
wards married  her  first  husband's  administrator, 
Nathaniel  Lytic,  by  whom  she  had  a  son  named 
John.  Lytic  undertook  to  convey  the  Wilkins 
property  to  his  son  John  ;  but  the  heirs  of  William 
Wilkins  contested  the  matter  in  the  courts  many 
years  after  their  father's  death;  and  Lytic  was 
compelled  to  pay  James  Wilkins,  the  eldest  son  of 
William,  to  obtain  his  release.  The  Pennsylvania 
Assembly  passed  an  act  authorizing  and  legalizing 
a  sale  made  by  John  Lytic  to  Andrew  Hershey. 
In  1772  John  Lytic  removed  to  Upper  Paxtang, 
and  there  established  a  ferry  across  the  Susque- 
hanna river. 

Thomas  Wii^kins. — Thomas  Wilkins  took  up 
150  acres  of  land  on  the  north  side  of  Robert  Wil- 
kins's  tract  on  the  site  of  Marietta,  in  1718.  This 
land  was  afterwards  sold  to  John  Lowry,  a  Scotch- 
Irish  Indian  trader. 

Thomas  Wilkins,  son  of  Robert,  moved  back 
several  miles  from  the  river  and  settled  near  Done- 
gal Church.  He  died  in  1746,  leaving  four  chil- 
dren— Andrew,  John,  Mary  and  Elizabeth. 

John  Wilkins. — John  Wilkins,  another  son  ot 
Robert,  took  up  several  hundred  acres  of  land 
adjoining  Gordon   Howard's,  now  in  Mount  Joy 


township,  on  which  Nissley's  mill  is  located.  He 
was  one  of  the  first  persons  who  went  with  the 
sheriff's  posse  to  arrest  Colonel  Thomas  Cresap, 
but  was  himself  afterward  arrested  by  Cresap,  who 
took  him  to  Annapolis,  in  Maryland,  where  he  was 
imprisoned.  He  traded  with  the  Indians  along 
the  Ohio,  and  died  in  1741,  leaving  two  children, 
Rachel  and  John,  the  latter  of  whom  was  born  in 
Donegal,  in  1733.  John  was  also  an  Indian  trader, 
and  removed  to  Carlisle  in  1763,  where  he  opened 
a  store  in  the  Indian  trade.  He  was  appointed 
county  lieutenant  for  Cumberland  county  during 
the  War  of  the  Revolution.  In  1788  he  removed 
to  Pittsburg,  where  he  died  in  1810. 

Peter  Wilkins,  another  son  of  Robert,  and 
with  whom  his  father  lived,  died  in  1748,  and  left 
three  children — William,  James  and  Margaret. 

Isaac  Miranda. — Isaac  Miranda,  a  Huguenot 
Frenchman  and  an  Indian  trader,  located  on  the 
east  bank  of  Conoy  creek,  below  Ridgeville,  in 
1 71 5,  and  died  in  November,  1732,  leaving  to  his 
son  George,  also  an  Indian  trader,  a  large  tract  of 
land  along  the  Rahway  river  in  New  Jersey,  and 
to  his  son  Samuel  500  acres  in  Donegal  township, 
while  to  his  daughter  Mary  he  left  several  houses 
in  Philadelphia,  and  to  James  Hamilton,  Esq.,  w^ho 
laid  out  the  town  of  Lancaster,  he  gave  several 
thousand  acres  of  land  in  New  Jersey  and  a  large 
amount  of  personal  property,  provided  he  would 
marry  his  daughter  Mary.  His  brother  Joseph 
was  steward  to  the  Duke  of  Tuscany. 


Henry  Bealy. — Henry  Bealy  was  one  of  the 
first  English  Indian  traders  who  crossed  the  Alle- 
gheny monntains  to  trade  with  the  Indians  on  the 
Ohio.     This  was  in  1727.      He  died  in  1745. 

John  Burt. — John  Burt,  an  English  Indian 
trader,  first  located  near  the  Indian  town  in  Manor, 
and  traded  with  the  Indians  several  years  before 
he  took  out  a  license  for  that  purpose  in  1726. 
Thence  he  moved  to  Snaketown  (now  Harrisburg), 
and  there  established  a  trading-post  and  a  store. 
On  Monday,  September  11,  1727,  he  sold  rum  to 
a  party  of  Indians  at  his  store,  and  in  their  intoxi- 
cation he  exasperated  them  and  was  forced  to  flee 
for  his  life  ;  but  Thomas  Wright,  a  drunken  Eng- 
lishman, was  killed  by  the  infuriated  Indians — the 
first  instance  of  the  murder  of  a  white  man  by  the 
Indians  in  Pennsylvania.  Burt  became  intemper- 
ate himself,  and  soon  afterward  located  on  the 

Samuel  Smith. — Samuel  Smith,  an  English 
Indian  trader  and  a  son  of  James  Smith,  also  lived 
at  Conoy,  next  to  Isaac  Miranda.  He  sold  his 
property  to  Patrick  Campbell. 

MoSES  Combs. — Moses  Combs,  an  English 
Indian  trader  and  a  brother  of  Martha  Bizaillon, 
had  a  trading-post  near  Conoy,  and  owned  several 
hundred  acres  of  land  along  the  river.  He  died  in 
East  Cain  township,  Chester  county. 

John  Boggs. — John  Boggs,  also  an  English 
Indian  trader  and  son  of  Andrew  Boggs,  began  to 


trade  with  the  Indians  along  the  Allegheny  and 
Ohio  rivers  in  1763.  In  1784-85  he  and  Colonel 
^Alexander  Lowry  were  selected  to  bring  the  In- 
dians to  Fort  Mcintosh.  He  moved  to  the  Cum- 
berland Valley,  where  he  became  a  prominent  citi- 

Lazarus  Lowry. — Lazarus  Lowry,  a  Scotch- 
Irish  Indian  trader,  settled  in  Donegal  township  in 
1729,  where  he  took  up  333  acres  of  land  now  owned 
by  United  States  Senator  James  Donald  Cameron, 
about  two  miles  from  Marietta.  He  established  a 
trading-post,  and  in  1730  he  took  out  a  license  to 
trade  with  the  Indians  and  also  to  sell  liquor  "by 
the  small."  His  dwelling  is  yet  standing.  He 
was  noted  for  his  energy,  industry  and  courage. 
He  often  made  trading  trips  to  the  Ohio  and  Mis- 
sissippi rivers,  taking  his  sons  James,  John,  Daniel 
and  Alexander  with  him.  He  owmed  several  small 
farms  near  his  first  purchase.  His  second  wife 
had  been  the  widow  of  Thomas  Edwards.  He 
died  in  Philadelphia  in  1755,  leaving  five  children 
by  his  second  wife — Lazarus,  Thomas,  Benjamin, 
William  and  Martha. 

John  Lowry. — John  Lowry,  son  of  the  preced- 
ing, traded  with  his  father  among  the  Indians  west 
of  the  Alleghenies  before  1740.  He  owned  400 
acres  of  land  along  the  Susquehanna  river,  now 
embracing  the  farms  of  the  late  Colonel  James 
Duff"y  and  Benjamin  F.  Hiestand,  the  upper  part 
of  Marietta  and   the  land  north  of  the  Mavtown 


turnpike.  He  and  his  father  owned  the  land 
extending  from  Maytown  to  the  Colebrook  road. 
In  1750  he  bought  300  acres  of  land  at  Carlisle 
from  David  Magaw,  after  which  he  proceeded  to 
the  Ohio  to  trade  with  the  Delaware  and  Shawan- 
ese  Indians,  who  were  then  bitterly  hostile  to  the 
English  and  friendly  to  the  French.  While  he 
was  seated  near  a  keg  of  powder  an  Indian  applied 
a  match,  and  the  explosion  which  followed  killed 
him.  A  French  trader  was  afterwards  arrested  for 
disobeying  the  order  of  the  English  commander  at 
the  fort  where  he  traded.  He  escaped  to  the  Picts, 
who  were  friendly  to  the  English  and  who  deliv- 
ered him  to  James  Lowry  in  Donegal  township. 
The  latter  held  him  as  a  hostage  for  several  weeks, 
but  released  him  when  he  found  that  he  could 
not  compel  the  French  commander  to  deliver 
up  the  Indian  who  killed  his  brother  John. 

James  Lowry. — James  Lowry,  son  of  Lazarus 
Lowry  and  brother  of  John  Lowry,  married 
Susanna,  daughter  of  James  Patterson,  the  famous 
Indian  trader.  He  bought  from  James  Logan  sev- 
eral hundred  acres  of  land  in  Donegal  township, 
several  miles  above  Marietta,  along  the  Suaquehan- 
na  river.  This  tract  was  a  part  of  James  Le  Tort's 
tract  of  900  acres.  He  had  great  influence  with 
the  Indians  along  the  Ohio,  and  he  and  George 
Croghan  prevented  some  of  the  tribes  from  joining 
the  French  in  their  war  against  the  English.  The. 
French  commander  at  Detroit  offered  a  large  re- 
ward for  the  arrest  of  these  two  British    Indian 


traders.     Lowry  was  obliged  to  transfer  his  trade 
to  the  Catawba  Indians  of  the  Carolinas. 


On  January  26,  1753,  while  James  lyowry,  Jacob 
Evans,  Jabez  Evans,  William  Powell,  Thomas 
Hyde,  Alexander  Maginty  and  Daniel  Hendricks, 
all  of  Lancaster  county,  were  returning  from  a 
trading  journey  to  the  Catawbas,  and  were 
encamped  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Kentucky 
river,  about  twenty  miles  from  Blue  lyick  town, 
with  a  large  stock  of  goods,  furs  and  skins,  they 
were  attacked  and  made  prisoners  by  the  French 
Caughnawaga  Indians.  Several  were  wounded  on 
each  side.  While  these  prisoners  were  being  taken 
to  Detroit,  Lowry  escaped  and  returned  to  his 
home  in  Donegal  township.  Jacob  Evans  and 
Thomas  Hyde  were  taken  to  France.  Jabez 
Evans,  Powell  and  Maginty  were  placed  among 
the  Indians  in  Northern  New  York.  Maginty 
informed  the  Governor  and  Council  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, and  Conrad  Weiser  was  sent  to  Albany  to 
secure  the  release  of  the  captive  traders.  Weiser 
found  that  Jabez  Evans  was  adopted  by  an  Indian 
squaw,  and  he  received  his  release  only  after  some 
trouble.  All  these  traders,  except  LowTy,  were 
financially  ruined  by  their  misfortunes.  Maginty 
was  afterward  prominent  in  the  Cumberland  Valley. 


In  1754  the  Indians,  led  by  a  Mingo  Indian 
named  John,  attacked  Lowry' s  traders  at  Gist's, 
killing  several  of  them  and  taking  Andrew  Mc- 
Brier,    Nehemiah    Stevens,   John    Kennedy    and 


Elizabeth  Williams  prisoners.  Kennedy  was  shot 
through  the  leg  and  left  at  Fort  Duquesne  until  he 
could  be  moved,  but  the  others  were  sent  to 
Canada.  The  Indians  demanded  a  ransom  of  forty 
pistoles  for  each  prisoner.  These  traders  had  been 
employed  by  James,  Daniel  and  Alexander  Lowry, 
and  their  goods  were  all  destroyed.  Because  of 
these  repeated  losses,  James  Lowry  sold  his  land  in 
Donegal  township,  and  moved  away  in  1758. 

Daniel  Lowry — Daniel  Lowry  owned  300  acres 
of  land  adjoining  Senator  Cameron's  farm  on  the 
north.  He  afterward  sold  this  farm  and  bought 
the  one  which  his  brother  John  had  previously 
owned.  He  suffered  great  losses  in  the  West. 
W^hen  Colonel  James  Bard  commanded  at  Fort 
Augusta  (Sunbury),  in  1757-58,  Daniel  Lowry  had 
a  fleet  of  bateaux  and  supplied  the  soldiers  with 
provisions.  His  brother  Alexander  bought  his 
farm  on  June  5,  1759.  Daniel  moved  to  the  Juni- 
ata. The  late  John  G.  Lowry,  of  Centre  county, 
was  his  son. 

Alexander  Lowry  —  Alexander  Lowry  was 
the  most  prominent  of  the  Lowry  brothers.  He 
began  to  trade  with  the  Indians  in  1744,  and  often 
made  trips  to  the  Indian  country  for  his  father  and 
brothers  before  that  year  and  while  he  was  a  minor. 
He  easily  learned  the  Indian  languages,  and  was 
able  to  speak  several  of  them.  He  soon  became  a 
great  favorite  with  the  Indians,  and  took  part  in 
their  sports,  hunting  and  trapping  with  them.     He 


created  trading-stations  at  Fort  Pitt  and  at  Carlisle, 
and  engaged  men  to  visit  different  Indian  tribes 
and  trade  for  him.  He  went  as  far  west  as  the 
French  posts  of  Kaskaskia  and  Fort  Chartres,  on 
the  Mississippi  river.  He  often  went  among  hostile 
tribes,  but  was  only  once  molested  by  the  Indians, 
and  then  saved  his  life  by  his  courage  and  his 
swiftness  in  running.  After  his  father's  death  he 
bought  his  mansion,  farm,  and  other  property  be- 
longing to  his  estate,  and  thereafter  accumulated 
large  tracts  of  land,  and  constantly  increased  his 
wealth,  although  he  suffered  great  losses  from  the 
Indians  at  "Bloody  Run."  He  lost  over  /'Sooo 
at  Bloody  Run,  and  afterward  suffered  heavy  losses 
by  advancing  money  to  some  of  the  other  sufferers, 
and  by  expending  money  to  establish  a  title  and 
obtain  possession  of  certain  tracts  of  land  in  Vir- 
ginia. He  traded  with  the  Indians  for  almost  half 
a  century,  and  was  long  interested  with  his  life- 
long friend,  Joseph  Simons,  an  Indian  trader  who 
resided  in  Lancaster.  When  these  two  traders  had 
passed  the  age  of  seventy  they  selected  three  friends, 
one  of  whom  was  Mr.  Adam  Reigart,  to  settle 
their  transactions,  which  had  covered  many  years. 
Neither  had  a  written  account,  and  they  made  a 
verbal  statement  to  these  three  friends  about  all 
their  dealings  with  each  other.  There  was  no  dis- 
pute or  difference  between  them,  and  then  and 
there  they  made  a  settlement  that  their  heirs  could 
not  disturb. 
James  Hamilton — Colonel  James  Hamilton,  of 


Leacock  township,  a  Scotch-Irishman,  established  a 
trading-post  at  Conewago,  where  he  owned  a  farm 
and  a  large  island  opposite  thereto,  owned  by  the 
late  Colonel  James  Dnffy.  He  traded  with  the 
Indians  on  the  Ohio,  and  established  a  store  in 
that  country. 

Joseph  Simons — Joseph  Simons  was  one  of  the 
wealthiest  and  most  noted  Indian  traders  in  Penn- 
sylvania. He  settled  in  Lancaster  in  1740,  and  at 
once  engaged  in  the  Indian  trade.  He  established 
a  store  at  the  south-east  corner  of  Centre  Square, 
and  another  afterward  oa  the  south-west  corner. 
He  made  many  trips  to  the  Ohio  and  Illinois 
country.  He  also  had  an  interest  in  several  other 
stores  in  the  Indian  country  with  a  number  of 
partners.  He  once  owned  many  thousand  acres 
of  land.  He  \vas  one  of  twenty-two  Indian 
traders  who  were  attacked  by  the  Indians  at 
Bloody  Run,  in  1763,  and  lost  a  large  stock  of 
goods.      He  died  in  Lancaster  in  1804. 

Thomas  Harris — Thomas  Harris,  an  English 
Indian  trader,  established  a  trading-post  at  Cone- 
wago creek,  and  became  one  of  the  richest  of  the 
Indian  traders.  He  removed  from  Donegal  town- 
ship to  Harford  county,  Maryland,  before  the 
Revolution,  and  afterward  went  to  Baltimore.  His 
sons  became  eminent  physicians,  one  in  Baltimore, 
another  in  Philadelphia,  and  another  in  New 
Brunswick,  New  Jersey.  Some  of  his  sons  were 
prominent  officers  in  the  American  army  during 
the  Revolution. 


Barnabas  Hughes — Barnabas  Hughes,  an  En- 
glishman, was  an  Indian  trader,  and  kept  a  tavern 
at  Coney  creek,  on  the  site  of  Elizabethtown. 

The  Galbraiths — James  Galbraith,  Jr.,  a 
Scotch-Irishman,  was  an  Indian  trader  for  a  short 
time.  John  Galbraith,  son  of  the  preceding, 
located  on  the  Susquehanna,  at  the  mouth  of 
Conoy  creek,  where  he  established  a  trading-post 
as  early  as  1760.  He  removed  to  the  Cumberland 

John  Gibson — Colonel  John  Gibson,  who  was 
born  in  Lancaster  borough,  of  English  stock,  was 
an  Indian  trader  and  also  an  Indian  fighter,  and 
removed  to  the  Ohio  before  the  Revolution.  He 
was  an  intimate  friend  of  the  famous  Indian  chief, 
Logan,  and  it  has  been  said  that  it  was  to  him  that 
Logan  delivered  his  celebrated  speech  about  the 
murder  of  his  relatives.  He  had  great  influence 
with  the  indians,  but  punished  them  when  they 
were  g-uiltv  of  wrong^s  to  the  whites.  He  was  con- 
nected  with  the  American  army  in  the  West  during 
the  Revolution. 

George  Gibson — Colonel  George  Gibson,  bro- 
ther of  John,  was  also  born  in  Lancaster,  and  also 
became  an  Indian  trader  and  fighter.  He  married 
a  daughter  of  Francis  West,  and  settled  at  Shear- 
man's Creek,  in  Perry  county.  He  commanded  an 
American  regiment  during  the  Revolution,  and 
was  in  many  battles.  He  was  killed  at  General  St. 
Clair's  defeat  bv  the  Indians  in  the  Ohio  country 


in    1 791.     He  was  the  father  of  John    Bannister 
Gibson,  the  able  Chief  Justice  of  Pennsylvania. 

John  Kennedy — John  Kennedy,  a  Scotch- Irish- 
man, traded  for  Lazarus  Lowry  for  some  years,  and 
afterward  for  himself.  He  bought  from  I^azarus 
lyowry  the  farm  upon  which  May  town  was  built. 
He  was  wounded  and  captured  by  the  Indians,  but 
afterward  raised  a  company  and  fought  through  the 
Indian  wars. 

Dennis  Suluvan — Dennis  Sullivan,  also  a 
Scotch-Irishman  and  an  Indian  trader,  once  owned 
the  farm  sold  to  John  Kennedy.  He  traded  to  the 
Ohio,  and  was  deprived  of  everything  by  the 

James  Harris — James  Harris,  an  Englisman 
and  an  Indian  trader,  had  his  post  near  James  lyC 
Tort's,  two  miles  west  of  May  town. 

Gordon  Howard — Gordon  Howard,  an  Englis- 
man, was  one  of  the  earliest  and  most  prominent  of 
the  Indian  traders.  He  owned  and  occupied  the 
farm  now  owned  by  Mr.  Hershey,  two  miles  west 
of  Mount  Joy. 

Simon  Girty — Simon  Girty,  the  famous  rene- 
gade and  Indian  trader,  once  located  in  Lancaster 
county,  establishing  a  post  on  the  Conewago,  whence 
he  moved  to  Shearman's  Creek,  and  thence  to  the 
region  beyond  the  Ohio,  the  scene  of  his  later 




BY  I.  8.  CLARE. 


q ^^0 25  50  75 






TOURING  the  civil  wars  in  England  two  cen- 
^^  turies  and  a-half  ago,  the  extreme  Puritan  sect 
of  Friends,  or  Quakers,  arose.  Their  founder  was 
George  Fox.  Their  fundamental  principles  were 
"freedom  of  mind,  purity  of  morals,  and  universal 
enfranchisement."  They  condemned  war  as  a 
sin,  denounced  capital  punishment,  imprisonment 
for  debt,  extravagance  in  living,  vanity  and 
idle  luxury,  falsehood  in  act  and  speech,  opposed 
a  paid  ministry,  and  rejected  the  ordinanes  of 
baptism  and  the  Lord's  Supper. 

They  zealously  advocated  equal  rights  for 
women,  and  regarded  the  "universal  inner  light" 
in  the  heart  as  the  guide  of  men's  thoughts  and 

The  Friends  shared  in  the  persecution  to  which 
all  Non-conformists  were  subjected  to  in  that  age  of 
intolerance.  Many  were  cruelly  beaten,  or  set  in 
the  stocks  or  exposed  in  the  pillory.  Many  were 
thrust  into  mad  houses,  and  others  condemned  to 
life-long  imprisonment.  Hoping  to  find  a  place  of 
refuge  in  the  new  world,  some  emigrated  to  New 
England;  but  the  Puritans,  who  had  gone  there  to 
establish  their  own  peculiar  faith,  feared  the  influ- 


ence  of  the  Friendj?,  restricted  their  worship,  and 
punished  cases  of  disobedience  to  their  laws  with 
exile  and  even  wath  death. 

One  of  the  ablest  leaders  of  the  society  there  was 
William  Penn,  a  young  man,  ardent,  brave,  wise, 
deeply  religious,  with  well-trained  intellectual  pow- 
ers, gifted  in  speech,  and  a  courtier  in  manner.  In 
favor  with  the  king,  because  of  the  achievements 
of  his  father,  Admiral  Penn,  it  is  not  strange  that 
Charles  II  should  have  granted  him  a  province  in 
America.  To  this  province  the  name  of  Pennsyl- 
vania was  given;  and  here,  in  the  autumn  of  1682, 
Penn  landed  with  a  number  of  English  Quakers, 
at  the  place  where  the  city  of  Chester  now  stands. 
In  this  same  year  he  made  a  treaty  with  the 
Indians  at  Shackamaxon,  on  the  site  of  Philadel- 
phia. A  popular  assembly  and  a  Charter  of  Liber- 
ties were  granted  to  the  people,  and  the  "Holy 
Experiment "  was  thus  begun  on  the  banks  of  the 
Delaware  in  Pennsyvania. 

Pennsylvania  remained  in  the  hands  of  the  Penn 
family  until  their  claims  were  purchased  by  the 
Commonwealth,  in  1776.  Pennsylvania,  together 
with  Delaware  which  Penn  had  purchased,  was 
originally  divided  into  six  counties,  Philadelphia, 
Bucks,  Chester,  and  the  present  counties  of  the 
state  of  Delaware — New  Castle,  Kent  and  Sussex. 


The  present  Lancaster  county  was  a  part  ot 
Chester  county  until  1729.  In  this  year,  by  an 
act  of  the  Legislature,  it  was  declared  that  all  the 


lands  \vithin  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania  lying 
to  the  northwest  of  Octoraro  creek  and  to  the  west- 
ward of  a  line  of  marked  trees  running  from  the 
North  Branch  of  the  said  Octoraro  creek,  north- 
easterly to  the  Schuylkill,  be  erected  into  a  county, 
named  and  from  henceforth  to  be  called  Lancaster 


The  earliest  white  settlers  in  what  is  now  Lan- 
caster county  were  Swiss  and  German  ^Nlennonites, 
French  Huguenots,  Scotch-Irish  Presbyterians, 
Welsh  Episcopalians  and  English  Quakers. 

The  Swiss  and  Germans  came  as  early  as  1709, 
and  settled  in  the  Pequea  valley,  and  on  the  site 
and  in  the  vicinity  of  the  present  city  of  Lancas- 

The  Scotch-Irish,  who  came  on  the  invitation 
of  the  first  proprietor,  located  themselves  on  the 
Chickies  creek  and  in  Donegal  about  1715.  The 
French,  from  Alsace  and  Lorraine,  occupied  lands 
in  the  Pequea  valley.  The  Welsh  settled  in  the  pres- 
ent C£ernar\-on  township  and  on  the  Welsh  moun- 
tains. The  English  Quakers  settled  in  what  are 
now  Sadsbury  and  Salisbury  townships. 

Before  giving  an  account  of  these  various  settle- 
ments, it  may  be  well  to  briefly  state  the  circum- 
stances that  led  to  their  establishment  here. 


This  religious  sect  was  named  from  IMenno 
Simon.     It  had  its  origin  in  Western  Germany,  in 


the  region  known  as  the  Palatinate  of  the  Rhine, 
during  the  stirring  period  of  the  Reformation,  and 
was  at  first  one  of  the  most  extreme  of  the  Protes- 
tant sects.  Its  adherents  have  always  been  dis- 
tinguished for  simplicity  in  dress  and  manners,  for 
their  aversion  to  oaths,  to  military  service  and  to 
the  use  of  law  in  settling  difficulties  or  disputes. 

On  account  of  their  religion  and  political  faith, 
the  Mennonites  suffered  persecutions  for  almost  two 
centuries  in  the  Palatinate  and  in  Switzerland.  In 
the  latter  country  the  severity  of  their  persecution 
was  so  great  as  to  call  for  remonstrances  from  other 
nations.  They  were  condemned  to  pull  galleys  while 
chained  to  their  seats  ;  they  were  sold  to  Barbary 
pirates;  they  were  imprisoned,  beaten  and  beheaded. 

Among  those  who  suffered  in  Switzerland  be- 
tween 1638  and  1643  were  Hans  Landis,  at  Zti- 
rich ;  Hans  Miller,  Hans  Jacob  Herr,  Rudolph 
Bachman,  Ulrich  Miller,  Oswald  Landis,  Fanny 
Landis,  Barbara  Neff,  Hans  Mylin  and  his  two 
sons.  Martin  Mylin,  one  of  these  sons,  was  a 
famous  Mennonite  preacher  and  writer,  and  fled 
for  refuge  first  to  the  Palatinate,  and  afterward  to 
Alsace,  where  in  1645  ^^  wrote  an  account  of  the 
sufferings  of  his  people.  By  an  edict  issued  at 
Schaffhausen  in  1650,  the  Mennonites  were  for- 
bidden the  free  exercise  of  their  worship  in  that 
canton.  A  similar  decree  was  issued  by  the  Prince 
of  Neuberg  in  1653.  These  edicts  led  to  a  perse- 
cution of  such  severity  that  many  fled  from  the 
cantons   of    Berne,    Zurich  and    Schaffhausen  to 


Alsace    above    Strasburg,    where    they    remained 
some  years,  and  then  emigrated  to  Pennsylvania. 

The  offense  for  which  these  people  suffered  so 
grievously  was  simply  their  refusal  to  hear  all 
manner  of  preaching,  they  considering  it  wrong  to 
attend  public  worship  with  other  religious  sects. 
Thus  they  incurred  the  displeasuse  of  other  denom- 
inations and  the  wrath  of  magistrates. 


During  the  series  of  wars  between  Louis  XIV. 
and  the  other  monarchs  of  Europe,  in  the  seven- 
teenth century,  the  Palatinate  of  the  Rhine  was 
invaded  by  the  armies  of  France  and  ravaged  with 
fire  and  sword — first  in  1674,  when  crops,  and 
houses,  and  farms,  and  villages,  and  towns  were 
destroyed  ;  again  in  1688,  when  hundreds  of  flour- 
ishing villages  and  no  less  than  forty  cities  were 
reduced  to  ashes. 

Among  these  were  Manheim,  Heidelberg,  Spires, 
Worms,  Oppenheim  and  Bingen.  The  order  of 
the  Grand  Monarque  to  "desolate  the  whole  land " 
was  most  faithfully  executed. 

In  1693  Heidelberg  was  again  destroyed  ;  and 
1,500  men,  women  and  children  lost  all  their  posses- 
sions, and  fled  in  terror  to  the  fields  for  safety.  The 
people  were  induced  by  the  Elector  to  return  and 
rebuild  their  city,  on  the  promise  that  they  should 
be  exempt  from  taxation  for  thirty  years  and 
should  be  allowed  full  liberty  of  worship.  The 
Elector's  promise  was  not  kept,  and  a  barbarous 


persecution  ensued.  Many  escaped  death  by 
means  of  sudden  flight.  About  6,000  of  these 
found  their  way  to  England,  where  they  were 
welcomed  by  a  public  proclamation  issued  by 
Queen  Anne  in  1708. 


It  was  amid  sufferings  sucli  as  these  that  the 
Mennonites  of  the  Palatinate  and  Switzerland 
resolved  to  seek  a  place  of  safety  in  America — a 
place,  too,  where  they  could  worship  as  their  faith 
approved.  The  Swiss  canton  of  Berne  had  sent 
out  Christopher  de  Graffenried  and  Louis  Michelle 
to  look  for  vacant  lands  iu  Pennsylvania,  Virginia 
and  North  Carolina.  Prior  to  this  time,  in  1706  or 
1707,  Michelle  had  been  in  America,  and  visited 
the  Indians  at  Conestoga,  while  in  search  of  some 
mineral  or  ore.  The  Quaker  colony  of  Pennsyl- 
vania had  already  been  founded  by  William  Penn, 
whose  creed  provided  freedom  of  religious  worship, 
and  here  these  suffering  people  were  offered  an 
asylum.  About  the  same  time — 1706 — a  number 
of  persecuted  Swiss  Mennonites  went  to  England 
and  made  a  special  arrangement  with  Penn  for 
lands  in  his  province.  In  1708  many  Mennonites 
left  Berne  and  went  to  London.  There  they 
pitched  their  tents  around  the  city  and  were  sup- 
ported at  the  public  expense  until  they  could  find  a 
way  to  come  lu  America.  Some  of  these  settled  in 
New  York,  some  in  Pennsylvania,  others  in  North 
Carolina.   In  1709  many  of  these  who  were  living  in 


Strasburg,  in  iVlsace,  whither  they  had  fled  from 
the  Palatinate,  sailed  for  America.  In  the  same 
year  about  3,000  Mennonites,  in  order  to  escape 
persecution  in  the  Palatinate,  found  their  way 
to  England  ;  and  in  1710  they  came  to  New 
York,  some  settling  in  New  York  City,  some  in 
lyivings ton's  Manor,  Columbia  county.  New  York, 
others  in  Germantown  and  in  the  present  I^an- 
caster  county,  Pennsylvania. 


In  1709  several  Swiss  Mennonite  families  whose 
ancestors  had  settled  in  the  Palatinate  emigrated 
to  America  and  settled  in  what  is  now  Lancaster 
county,  Pennsylvania.  Public  documents  and  pri- 
vate papers  in  possession  of  Abram  Mylin  and 
others  of  West  Lampeter  township  seem  to  indicate 
that  this  first  settlement  was  made  near  Willow 
Street,  where  the  Herr's  and  Mylin' s  now  reside. 

In  the  same  year,  1709,  Hans  Mylin  and  his  sons 
Martin  and  John,  Hans  Herr,  John  Rudolph 
Bundely,  Martin  Kendig,  Jacob  Miller,  Martin 
Oberholtzer,  Michael  Oberholtzer,  Hans  Funk, 
Wendel  Bowman  and  others  selected  10,000  acres 
on  the  north  side  of  Pequea  creek,  in  West 
Lampeter  and  adjoining  townships  ;  and  in  17 10 
they  obtained  a  warrant  for  this  land,  which  they 
divided  among  them  in  April,  1711.  Martin  Ken- 
dig  was  granted  1855  acres  in  the  present  Strasburg 
township.  The  others,  together  with  Christopher 
Franciscus,  were  granted  tracts  in  the  same  region. 


In  1 71 2  Amos  Strettle  was  given  3380  acres  in  the 
present  Strasburg  township,  and  before  1734  he 
sold  this  part  in  small  lots  to  a  number  of  pur- 
chasers. Among  these  were  a  few  English  settlers, 
such  as  Septimius  Robinson  and  John  Musgrove, 
and  some  French  Huguenots,  Daniel  Ferree  and 
Isaac  lycfevre;  but  the  larger  part  of  those  who 
secured  lots  were  Swiss  Mennonites.  Among  the 
latter  were  Henry  Shank,  Ulrich  Brackbill,  George 
Suavely,  Christian  Musser,  John  Jacob  Hoover, 
Samuel  Hess,  Samuel  Boyer,  Christian  Stoner  and 
Henry  Zimmerman  (or  Carpenter). 


A  council  of  the  society  was  held  for  the  pur- 
pose of  selecting  by  lot  one  of  the  number  to  go 
to  Europe  to  bring  the  families  of  the  settlers  to 
their  new  home.  The  lot  fell  upon  Hans  Herr, 
their  venerable  preacher.  But  they  could  illy 
spare  one  who  stood  as  a  leader  among  them,  and 
Martin  Kendig  offered  to  take  his  place.  All 
very  readily  acceded  to  this.  Martin  Kendig  at  once 
proceeded  to  Europe,  and  after  the  lapse  of  some 
months  returned  with  the  families  together  with 
many  new  emigrants.  Among  these  were  Jacob  Mil- 
ler, PeterYordea,  Hans  Tschantz,  Henry  Funk,  John 
Houser,  John  Bachman,  Jacob  Weber,  Venerick, 
Schlegel,  Guldin  and  others.  At  this  time  came 
Hans  Herr's  five  sons — Christian,  Emanuel,  John, 
Abraham  and  another  whose  name  is  unknown. 
Three  of  Hans  Herr's  sons  settled  in  what  is  now 


West  Lampeter  township,  and  two  in  Manor  town- 
ship. The  Herrs  of  West  Lampeter,  Strasburg, 
Manor  and  other  townships  are  their  descendants. 


The  settlement  now  consisted  of  thirty  families. 
With  the  Indian  tribes  of  the  vicinity — the  Cones- 
togas,  Pequeas  and  Shawanese — they  lived  on  the 
most  friendly  terms,  mingling  with  them  in  hunt- 
ing and  fishing.  Their  annals  speak  of  the  In- 
dians as  being  "hospitable,  respectful  and  exceed- 
ingly civil." 

The  little  colony  improved  their  lands,  planted 
orchards,  and  erected  dwellings  and  a  meeting  and 
school  house,  in  which  religious  worship  w^as  held 
on  Sunday,  and  reading  and  writing  were  taught 
during  the  week.  The  same  rude  building  served 
both  important  purposes  for  some  years.  Their 
first  preachers  were  Hans  Herr,  Hans  Tschantz  and 
Ulrich  Brackbill,  the  last  of  whom  was  accident- 
ally killed  while  driving  his  team  on  the  road  to 

Around  these  Swiss  Mennonites  some  Germans 
and  French  subsequently  settled.  Among  the  latter 
were  the  Ferrees,  the  Lefevres  and  some  others,  of 
whom  we  shall  give  some  account.  After  the 
Revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes  by  Louis  XIV., 
in  1685,  the  Huguenots  were  the  victims  of  a  S3'ste- 
matic  and  terrible  persecution.  Some  were  brutally 
massacred  by  troops  of  dragoons.  Many  were  sent 
to    the   galleys.      Everything   that  bigotry   could 


devise  was  employed  to  torture  and  to  destroy  these 
defenceless  people.  Half  a  million  fled  to  Eng- 
land, Holland  and  Germany,  carrying  their  arts 
and  industry  with  them.  Daniel  Ferree  and  his 
wife  Mary,  with  their  sons  Daniel,  Philip  and  John, 
and  their  daughters  Catharine,  Mary  and  Jane, 
escaped  from  their  home  at  Lindau,  near  the  Rhine, 
across  the  river  into  Germany,  where  they  remained 
two  years.  Accompanying  them  in  their  flight  was 
a  young  man  named  Isaac  Lefevre,  whose  family 
had  been  killed  by  the  soldiers.  Daniel  Ferree 
died,  and  his  widow  resolved  to  go  to  Ivondon  to 
see  William  Penn  with  a  view  of  making  her  home 
in  Pennsylvania.  Upon  arriving  in  London  she 
asked  to  be  be  directed  to  Penn's  residence.  The 
orentleman  who  was  about  to  direct  her,  at  that 
moment  observed  Penn's  carriage  approaching. 
The  carriage  was  stopped.  Penn  invited  her  to  a 
seat  in  it,  and  drove  her  to  his  home.  He  treated 
her  with  the  greatest  kindness,  gave  her  a  recom- 
mendation to  his  agent  in  Pennsylvania,  and  intro- 
duced her  to  Queen  Anne,  who  received  her  very 
graciously.  The  Ferree  family  remained  in  Lon- 
don six  months,  and  then  embarked  for  America. 
After  arriving  at  New  York  City  they  moved  up 
the  Hudson  river  to  Esopus,  where  they  remained 
two  years,  then  went  to  Philadelphia,  thence  to 
the  Mennonite  settlement  in  the  Pequea  valley. 
Queen  Anne  granted  them  letters-patent,  giving 
them  the  rights  and  privileges  of  English  subjects, 
with  the  right  to  buy  and  hold  land  in  their  new 


settlement.  Before  they  left  London  the  queen  pre- 
sented them  with  a  variety  of  farming  implements. 
These  they  used  in  clearing  the  land  upon  which 
they  settled.  Isaac  Lefevre  remained  as  one  of  the 
family  until  they  arrived  in  America,  when  he 
married  one  of  the  daughters,  Catharine  Ferree. 
From  this  union  have  descended  all  the  Lefevres 
in  Lancaster  county,  in  other  parts  of  Pennsylva- 
nia, and  in  all  parts  of  the  United  States.  Phillip 
Ferree,  one  of  the  sons,  lived  for  one  year  with 
Abraham  Dubois,  a  French  farmer  at  Esopus,  and 
mairied  his  daughter  Leah  at  the  end  of  that  time, 
after  which  he  brought  her  to  the  Mennonite  set- 
tlement in  the  Pequea  valley.  The  Ferrees  and 
Lefevres  settled  in  what  is  now  Paradise  town- 
ship, on  a  tract  of  2,000  acres,  which  was  part  of 
the  10,000  acres  Martin  Kendig  had  purchased 
from  Penn's  Commissioners.  Philip  Ferree  located 
on  a  tract  of  land  on  the  north  side  of  the  Pequea 
creek,  in  the  present  Leacok  township. 


In  171 2  all  that  part  of  Chester  county  lying 
west  of  Octoraro  creek,  or  west  of  the  present  Ches- 
ter county,  and  thus  including  all  of  the  present 
Lancaster  county  and  that  part  of  Pennsylvania  to 
the  northward  and  westward,  w^as  erected  into  a 
township  called  Conestoga^  named  after  Conestoga 
creek,  which  derived  its  name  from  the  Conestoga 


Settlements  had  been  made  among  the  Indians 
prior   to    1 713.     In    the    latter    year   Christopher 


Schlegel,  a  German  from  Saxony,  took  up  i,ooo 
acres  on  a  stream  flowing  into  the  Conestoga,  but 
soon  transferred  his  interest  to  others. 

At  this  place  the  English  Indian  agents,  John 
and    Edmund   Cartlidge,    afterward    resided.     In 

1 715  Benedictus  Venerick,  also  a  German,  settled 
upon  a  tract  near  the  Palatines.  These  were  joined 
by   some    Swiss   Mennonites  who   came   in  1715, 

1716  and  171 7.  Among  these  were  Hans  Mayer, 
Hans  Kaigy,  Christian  Hershey,  Hans  Graaf  (who 
afterwards  settled  Graaf's  Thai),  Hans  Brubacher, 
Michael  Shank,  Henry  Bare,  Peter  Leman,  Mel- 
chior  Brenneman,  Henry  Funk,  Hans  Faber, 
Isaac  Kauffman,  Melchior  Erisman,  Michael  Mil- 
ler, Jacob  Landis,  Jacob  Boehm,  Theodorus  Eby, 
Benedictus  Witmer.  In  171 7  Jacob  Greider 
(or  Kreider),  Jacob  Hostetter,  Hans  Frantz,  Shenk 
and  other  Swiss  Mennonites  settled  along  the  Con- 


Among  the  most  prominent  of  these  Swiss  Men- 
nonite  settlers  were  the  well-known  brothers, 
Francis  Neff  and  Doctor  Hans  Heinrich  Neff, 
whose  descendants  are  very  numerous  in  Lan- 
caster and  Huntingdon  counties,  Pennsylvania, 
and  in  Virginia.  They  had  fled  from  persecution 
in  Switzerland  to  Alsace,  whence  they  emigrated 
to  America,  and  early  settled  on  a  small  stream, 
Neff''s  Run,  which  empties  into  the  West  Branch 
of  the  Little  Conestoga.  Here  Francis  NefF  took  up 
a  large  tract  of  land.     Hans  Heinrich  Neff",  famil- 


iarly  called  the  "Old  Doctor,"  was  quite  eminent 
as  a  physician.  Hans  Brubacher  located  in  what 
is  now  East  Hempfield  township.  His  descendants 
are  numerous  in  this  and  other  townships. 

Persecution  drove  the  Kreiders  and  the  Hostet- 
ters  from  their  homes  in  Switzerland  to  Wurtem- 
berg.  From  the  latter  place  they  came  to  America, 
and  settled  on  the  north  side  of  Conestoga  creek, 
about  two  miles  south  of  the  site  of  the  present 
Lancaster  city,  and  there  took  up  800  acres  of  land. 
Jacob  Kreider's  first  home  was  a  tent  made  of  tow 
cloth.  This  afforded  him  and  his  family  tem- 
porary shelter  until  autumn,  when  he  erected  a  log 

During  the  winter  he  was  visited  regularly  by 
the  neighboring  Indians,  who  sought  shelter  in 
his  cabin  and  comfort  by  his  fire.  They  lived  on 
terms  of  closest  friendship  with  the  Kreiders,  sup- 
plying them  with  fish  and  venison,  for  which  they 
received  bread  in  exchange.  Fish  were  abundant 
in  the  Conestoga  and  in  the  other  streams  of  Lan- 
caster county.  The  Indians  caught  them  with 
nets  made  of  bark,  or  speared  them  with  a  gig 
made  of  ash  wood.  On  one  occasion  when  Kreider 
was  visited  by  his  Indian  neighbors  he  looked  at 
his  almanac,  for  the  purpose  of  regulating  his 
clock  by  its  indication  of  the  rising  and  setting  of 
the  sun. 

He  noticed  that  the  moon  w^ould  be  eclipsed  In 
a  few  weeks.  Turning  to  his  Indian  visitors,  he 
told  them  that  on  a  certain  evening   a  few  weeks 


hence  the  moon  would  hide  her  face  just  as  the 
clock  would  strike  a  certain  hour.  They  had 
often  observed  eclipses,  but  couldn't  understand 
how  their  white  neighbor  should  know  this  before 
it  occurred.  At  the  appointed  evening  fifty  or 
sixty  Indians  met  at  the  house,  and  were  utterly 
amazed  to  see  the  moon's  face  lessen  as  soon  as  the 
clock  had  struck.  One  of  them  then  said:  "It  is 
the  white  man's  God  tells  him  this,  else  he  would 
not  know  it  beforehand." 


In  1 715  some  English  and  Welsh  settlers  came 
and  located  around  Smoketown.  The  names  of 
these  were  Peter  Bellas,  Daniel  Harman,  William 
Evans  and  James  Smith.  In  17 16  Richard  Carter, 
an  Englishman,  took  up  a  tract  of  land  between 
the  Conestoga  and  Pequea  creeks,  near  the  Sus- 
quehanna river,  and  therefore  in  the  present  Con- 
estoga township.  In  the  same  year  other  English 
settlers  took  up  tracts  on  the  south  side  of  the 
Conestoga — Alexander  Bews,  Anthony  Pretter  of 
East  Jersey,  and  John  Gardiner  of  Philadelphia 
county.  In  171 7  Joseph  Cloud  secured  500  acres 
near  the  Pequea. 


In  1717  English  Quakers  and  Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterians  settled  along  the  Octoraro  creek. 
Among  these  were  William  Grimson  (constable  of 
Sadsbury  township),  the  Cooksons,  Jervises,  Irwins 
and   Mayes.     Some  years  later  came  the  Patter- 


sons,  Darbys,  Leonards,  Joneses,  Steeles,  Math- 
ewses,  Cowens,  Murrays,  Millers,  Allisons,  Mitch- 
ells and  others. 


Between  1716  and  1719  settlements  were  made 
down  the  Conestoga  creek  towards  the  Susque- 
hanna river.  Two  English  Quakers,  John  Cart- 
lidge  and  his  brother  Edmund,  and  David  Jones,  a 
Welshman,  took  up  lands  there.  Edmund  Cart- 
lidge  resided  in  Darby  township,  Chester  county, 
as  early  as  1698,  and  in  Philadelphia  county  in 
1711.  John  Cartlidge  was  an  Indian  trader  for 
many  years.  He  was  appointed  Justice  of  the 
Peace  in  17 18.  The  public  records  at  West  Ches- 
ter state  that  he  sold  liquor  "by  the  small"  among 
his  neighbors  on  the  banks  of  the  Conestoga  before 

Before  1719  Christian  and  Joseph  Stehman  and 
Sigismund  Landart — all  Germans — took  up  land 
on  and  near  the  banks  of  the  Conestoga  creek. 
In  1 7 19  Jenkin  Davis,  a  Welshman,  secured 
a  piece  of  land  on  a  branch  of  the  Conestoga,  and 
George  Stewart,  a  Scotch-Irishman,  located  near 
the  Susquehanna. 


James  Le  Tort,  the  French  Canadian  Indian 
trader,  was  granted  100  acres  along  the  Susque- 
hanna. Martin  Chartiere,  Peter  Bizaillon  and  Le 
Tort — all  French  Canadians — had  resided  among 
the   Indians   as   traders   some  years  before  settle- 


ments  were  made  in  the  present  Ivancaster  county. 
Martin  Chartiere  had  a  trading-post  on  the  site  of 
Washington  borough  before  1704,  and  in  171 7  he 
was  granted  300  acres.  This  was  transmitted  to 
his  son,  Peter  Chartiere.  Peter  Bizaillon  had  a 
license  to  trade  with  the  Indians  before  1703,  and 
in  1 7 14  he  was  granted  a  tract  on  the  Susquehanna 
at  Paxtanof  or  wherever  he  wished  to  locate. 


In  1 717  and  1718  the  French  settlement  of  the 
Ferrees  and  the  Lefevres  was  increased  by  a  number 
of  Swiss  Mennonites,  among  whom  were  the  Slay- 
makers,  the  Witmers,  the  lyightners,  Bshleman, 
Herr,  Hershey,  Ksbenshade,  Baer,  Grofif,  Graaf, 
Koenig,  Keneagy,  Denlinger,  Beck,  Becker, 
Souder,  Ream,  Zimmerman  and  many  others. 
The  most  notable  among  these  new  settlers  were 
Matthias  Schleiermacher  (afterward  Anglicized  as 
Slaymaker)  and  the  Zimmermans.  Matthias 
Schliermacher  emigrated  from  Strasburg,  in  Ger- 
many, to  Lancaster  county  about  17 10.  He  was 
born  and  reared  in  Hesse  Cassel.  The  place  he 
settled  in  America  was  known  as  the  London 
Lands,  a  tract  of  1,000  acres,  in  what  is  now  Para- 
dise township,  the  name  Strasburg  having  been 
conferred  by  Schleiermacher.  One  of  the  broth- 
ers of  the  latter  was  Secretary  of  Legation  from 
the  German  Empire  to  Great  Britain,  and  another 
was  major  in  the  King  of  Prussia's  full  regiment. 

Henry    Zimmerman   (or    Carpenter)    arrived    in 


Pennsylvania  in  1698,  and  afterward  returned  to 
Europe,  and  brought  his  family  over  in  1706,  first  set- 
tling in  Germantown,  and  in  171 7  within  the  limits 
of.  the  present  Lancaster  county.  His  son,  Eman- 
uel Zimmerman,  born  in  Switzerland  in  1702,  was 
a  citizen  of  great  influence  in  Lancaster  county. 
He  died  in  1780.  His  descendants  are  numerous. 
Some  are  called  Zimmerman,  while  others  have 
their  name  Anglicized  as  Carpenter.  There  are 
also    Carpenters  of  English  descent. 


From  1 7 14  to  1718  surveys  of  land  were  made  in 
different  parts  of  the  present  county  of  Lancaster. 
In  the  southern  part  a  survey  was  made  for  Alex- 
ander Ross,  an  Englishman,  on  Little  Conowingo 
creek.  In  171 7  a  survey  of  700  acres  was  made  to 
Edward  Sleadwell,  an  Englishman,  on  the  Octo- 
raro  creek,  in  the  present  township  of  Little  Brit- 
ain. A  Maryland  grant  was  made  in  the  same 
township  to  Mary  Graham  in  17 15. 

Large  tracts  were  also  granted  by  Maryland  to 
Emanuel  Grubb  in  1716  and  1720;  and  one  to 
Thomas  Jacobs  in  the  last-named  year,  in  the  same 


Among  the  Swiss  and  German  Mennonites  who 
came  before  17 18  and  who  had  purchased  and 
held  lands  before  1729,  and  who  subsequently 
became  naturalized  subjects  of  the  King  of  Great 
Britain,    were    such    common    names    as    Mylin, 


NefF,  Burkholder,  Graaf,  Funk,  Ken  dig,  Bowman, 
Herr,  Brenneman,  Brubaker,  Nissley,  Buckwalter, 
Landis,  Mayer,  Bare,  Erisman,  Harnish,  Snavely, 
Good,  Eshleman,  Hess,  Boyer,  Leaman,  Kaiiffman, 
Shultz,  Honser,  Miller,  Zimmerman,  Slaymaker, 
Shenk,  Hoover,  Newcomer,  Longenecker,  Mussel- 
man,  Eby,  Stoner,  Frantz,  Stehman,  Ream,  Royer, 
Weaver,  Lichty,  Herman,  Schneider  or  Snyder, 


In  1 718  the  Conestoga  Manor — afterward  Manor 
township — was  surveyed  for  the  use  of  the  proprie- 
tary of  the  province  of  Pennsylvania,  William 
Penn  and  his  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  by  order 
of  the  Commissioners  of  Property,  by  Jacob  Taylor, 
Surveyor  General  of  the  province.  The  Conestoga 
Manor  embraced  all  the  land  between  the  Susque- 
hanna river  and  Conestoga  creek  as  far  up  the 
river  as  the  land  already  granted  to  Peter  Char- 
tiere,  on  the  site  of  Washington  borough,  and 
thence  by  a  line  running  east  from  that  river  to 
Conestoga  creek.  There  were  two  Manors  in  the 
original  Chester  county — Brandywine  Manor  and 
Conestoga  Manor.  The  latter  was  subsequently 
divided  and  sold  to  purchasers,  among  whom  were 
many  whose  descendants  still  occupy  the  lands  on 
which  the  original  Swiss  Mennonites  located.  The 
principal  English  landowners  in  the  Manor  were 
the  Wrights,  who  had  1,500  acres,  and  John  Cart- 
lidge,  who  had  a  large  tract  between  one  and  two 
miles  north-east  of  the  present  Safe  Harbor.    James 


Patterson,  a  Scotch-Irishman  and  an  Indian  trader, 
owned  a  tract  of  land  about  a  mile  east  of  Wash- 
ington borough.  This  is  now  in  the  possession  of 
Jacob  B.  Shuman.  Another  Scotch-Irishman, 
named  James  Logan,  owned  a  tract  a  little  north 
of  Safe  Harbor.  414  acres  of  this  land  was  granted 
to  Indian  Town,  and  Blue  Rock  comprised  800 
acres.  Among  the  Swiss  Mennonite  settlers  here 
we  readily  recognize  many  familiar  names,  such 
as  Herr,  Kauffman,  Witmer,  Wissler,  Eshleman, 
Kendig,  Stoner,  Mayer,  Stehman,  Newcomer,  Bach- 
man,  Kilhaver,  Miller,  Charles,  Shank,  Hostetter, 
Stauffer,  Landis,  Hershey,  Oberholtzer,  Lintner, 
Ziegler,  Funk  and  others. 

The  Shumans  settled  near  the  site  of  Washing- 
ton borough  in  1772.  The  Manns  located  a  little 
east  of  this  place  about  the  same  time. 


In  1718  Hans  Graaf  settled  Graaf's  Thai,  or 
Groff's  Dale,  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  present 
West  Earl  township.  Hans  Graaf  was  a  very 
prominent  man  in  the  early  history  of  the  county. 
He  was  born  in  Switzerland,  and  was  among  those 
who  fled  from  persecution  in  that  country  to 
Alsace.  In  1695  or  1696  he  emigrated  to  Amer- 
ica. After  remaining  a  short  time  at  Germantown, 
he  came  to  the  Swiss  settlement  in  the  Pequea 
valley.  One  day  his  horses  strayed  away;  and 
while  in  pursuit  of  them,  in  a  northerly  direc- 
tion, he  discovered  a  fine  spring,  in  a  very  thickly 


wooded  spot.  He  at  once  resolved  to  settle  there. 
After  finding  his  horses  he  returned  to  the  Pequea 
settlement,  merely  to  inform  his  friends  of  his 
"find"  and  of  his  determination  to  locate  near 
the  spring.  To  the  latter  place  he  then  removed 
with  his  family,  and  built  a  cabin  under  a  large 
white  oak  tree,  half  a  mile  distant.  In  the  spring 
of  1718  he  took  up  a  large  tract  of  land,  and  built 
a  house  near  the  cabin.  The  spot  where  the  origi- 
nal house  stood  is  shown  to-day.  Here  he  was 
often  visited  by  the  Indians,  who  brought  baskets 
and  hickory  brooms  to  sell.  He  had  six  sons.  As 
some  of  them  grew  up  he  formed  a  partnership 
with  them,  and  opened  trade  with  the  Indians  liv- 
ing at  Harris's  Ferry,  now  Harrisburg.  The 
trade  consisted  of  an  exchange  of  blankets  and 
other  articles,  which  he  purchased  in  Philadelphia, 
for  skins,  furs,  etc.  It  is  said  that  he  spoke  the 
Indian  language  fluently.  The  descendants  of 
Hans  Graaf  are  very  numerous  throughout  the 
county.  The  name  has  undergone  various  changes 
— Groif,  Grove  and  Graeff  being  among  these. 

One  of  Hans  Graaf  s  sons — Samuel — was  called 
"Graaf  der  Jaeger"  (the  hunter).  When  the 
magistrates  and  citizens  of  Lancaster  county  met 
to  settle  upon  the  boundaries  and  names  of  the 
townships  of  the  county,  June  9,  1729,  they  named 
the  township  in  which  Graaf  lived,  Earl^  in 
honor  of  him — the  word  Earl  being  the  Eng- 
lish word  for  Graaf.  In  1719  Mr.  Wenger,  a 
Swiss,    became   one   of  Hans   Graaf  s   neighbors. 


There  are  many  of  his  descendants  to  be  found  in 
various  parts  of  the  county. 


After  1 718  settlements  became  very  general  in  the 
county.  In  17 19  or  1720  some  Germans  located 
along  Cocalico  creek  and  in  other  places.  In  1708 
the  religious  sect  of  the  Dii7ikers^  or  Tunkers^  or 
First  Day  German  Baptists^  was  founded  in  Ger- 
many by  Alexander  Mack,  of  Shriesheim,  and  four 
men  and  three  women  from  Schwarzenau,  who 
met  for  religious  worship.  Like  the  Quakers  and 
Mennonites,  the  Dunkers  were  simple  in  their 
dress  and  habits,  and  averse  to  oaths,  to  military 
service  and  the  use  of  law. 

Like  the  Mennonites,  they  were  severely  perse- 
cuted in  Germany,  in  consequence  of  which  they 
fled  to  Holland  and  to  other  parts  of  the  continent. 

The  original  society,  however,  removed  to  Serus- 
tervin,  in  Friesland,  and  from  there  emigrated  to 
America  and  settled  in  Pennsylvania.  Some  of 
these  settled  at  Germantown;  others  at  Oley  and 
Skippack,  near  the  Schuylkill;  and  others  along 
the  Conestoga  and  Cocalico  creeks,  in  the  present 
Lancaster  county.  x\mong  the  early  settlers  along 
Cocalico  creek  were  Conrad  Beissel,  Joseph  Shaef- 
fer,  Hans  Mayer,  Heinrich  Hoehn  and  several 


The  town  of  Lancaster  might  be  said  to  have' 
begun  as  early  as  1721  or  1722,  but  it  was  not  laid 


out  until  1730.  This  was  done  by  James  Hamil- 
ton, Esq.,  of  Philadelphia.  Tradition  says  that  an 
Indian  village  occupied  the  site  of  Lancaster;  that 
a  hickory  tree  stood  in  the  centre  of  the  village, 
near  a  spring;  that  the  Indian  councils  were  held 
under  this  tree,  and  that  it  was  from  one  of  these 
councils  that  a  deputation  was  sent  to  confer  with 
William  Penn  at  Shackamaxon  in  1683.  This 
Indian  nation  was  called  Hickory,  and  the  village 
was  called  Hickory  Town  before  Lancaster  was 
laid  out.     ' 

George  Gibson,  a  tavern  keeper,  had  a  hickory 
tree  painted  on  his  sign  in  1722.  This  tavern  was 
in  the  place  now  occupied  by  the  First  National 
Bank,  on  East  King  street.  Another  Indian  town 
was  situated  near  the  Conestoga,  and  a  poplar  tree 
which  stood  on  its  bank  was  the  emblem  of  that 


In  the  meantime  some  persons,  without  any 
legal  right,  settled  on  the  west  side  of  the  Susque- 
hanna river.  John  Grist,  one  of  these,  abused  the 
Indians  to  such  an  extent  that  they  complained  to 
the  Governor  of  the  province.  John  Cartlidge,  by 
•the  Governor's  authority,  raised  a  posse  comitatus, 
to  destroy  the  buildings  of  Grist  and  his  accom- 
plices. Cartlidge,  however,  simply  requested  Grist 
and  his  party  to  move  from  the  land.  This  they 
refused  to  do.  The  Indians  then  destroyed  some 
of  their]cattle.  Grist  went  to  Philadelphia  to  make 
complaint  against  them,  but  was  lodged  in   jail. 


from  which  he  was  realeased  by  the  Governor's 
council  on  condition  that  he  would  remove  from 
the  land  he  was  illegally  occupying.  He  returned 
home  in  August,  1722,  and,  after  gathering  in  his 
corn,  left  the  place. 


Late  in  April,  17 19,  the  Cones  toga  Indians,  by  a 
letter  to  Secretary  James  Logan,  informed  Gover- 
nor Patrick  Gordon  that  several  of  their  tribe, 
while  hunting  near  the  Potomac,  had  been  at- 
tacked and  killed  by  a  party  of  Virginia  Indians, 
who  were  on  the  war  path  against  the  Five  Na- 
tions. Governor  Gordon  endeavored  to  quiet  their 
fears,  without  avail.  They  addressed  a  letter  to 
him  early  in  June.  He  then  sent  Colonel  French 
to  meet  them  in  council  at  Conestoga.  This  meet- 
ing took  place  June  28,  1719.  Canatowa,  the  queen 
of  the  Conestogas,  and  Captain  Civility,  their 
chief,  together  with  sachems  of  the  Conewagas, 
the  Shawanese  and  the  Delawares,  were  present; 
and  a  treaty  was  made  which  re-established  peace 
and  friendship  with  them. 


At  the  request  of  Governor  Gordon,  Secretary 
James  Logan  met  the  Indians  at  the  house  of  John 
Cartlidge,  June  27,  1719.  At  this  council  the 
chiefs  of  the  Conestogas,  the  Shawanese,  the  Gaw- 
anese  and  the  Delawares  were  present.  Peter 
Bizaillon,    the    French    Canadian    Indian    trader, 


acted  as  interpreter.  Assurances  of  continued 
peace  and  friendship  were  given  on  both  sides. 
Promises  of  belts  of  wampum  were  made,  and 
these  were  sent  to  Philadelphia  without  delay, 
and  from  there  to  the  Indians  of  Virginia,  as 
pledges  of  good  faith. 


Governor  Gordon  and  his  council  sent  Samuel 
Robins  to  Virginia  to  deliver  these  wampum  belts 
to  the  Indians  there.  On  his  return  he  brought 
with  him  two  belts  from  the  Virginia  Indians, 
which  were  sent  to  the  Conestoga  Indians.  He  was 
authorized  to  assure  the  latter  that  the  Virginia  In- 
dians would  not  in  the  future  pass  over  the  Poto- 
mac river  to  the  eastward  or  northward,  or  over  the 
Blue  Ridge.  This  was  on  condition  that  the  Con- 
estogas  and  the  other  Indians  north  of  the  Poto- 
mac would  not  cross  the  Potomac  into  Virginia  to 
the  southward  or  eastward  of  the  Blue  Ridge. 
John  Cartlidge  delivered  the  wampum  belts  and 
interpreted  the  message  from  the  Virgina  Indians. 


The  quarrels  between  the  Indians  of  Pennsyl- 
vania and  those  ot  Virginia  about  their  hunting- 
grounds  disturbed  the  peace  of  Pennsylvania. 
After  a  visit  to  Governor  Spottswood  of  Virginia, 
Governor  William  Keith  of  Pennsylvania  visited 
the  Indians  at  Conestoga  to  have  them  ratify  a 
treaty   providing  that   the    Indians  on  the   north 


side  of  the  Potomac  and  those  on  the  south  of 
that  river  should  be  confined  to  their  respective 
limits.  On  the  5th,  6th,  7th  and  8th  of  July,  1721, 
Governor  Keith  held  a  council  with  the  Indians  at 
Conestoga.  The  Governor's  party,  beside  himself, 
were  Richard  Hill,  Caleb  Pusey,  Jonathan  Dick- 
inson, Colonel  John  French,  James  Logan,  the 
Secretary,  and  others.  The  chiefs  or  deputies  of 
the  Five  Nations  of  Indians  were  also  present  to 
treat  with  the  Governor.  These  were  Ghesaont 
and  Awennool,  of  the  Senecas  ;  Tannawree  and 
Skeetowas,  of  the  Onondagoes  ;  Sahoode  and 
Tchehuque,  of  the  Cayugas.  Smith,  the  Gawanese 
Indian  interpreter  of  the  Coaestoga  language  to 
the  Dela wares,  was  also  present.  So  were  John 
Cartlidge  and  James  Le  Tort,  the  last  of  whom 
was  the  interpreter  of  the  Delaware  language  into 
English.  Ghesaont  made  a  long  speech  to  the 
Governor's  party,  expressing  great  friendship  for 
the  English,  but  complained  that  the  w^hites  fur- 
nished rum  to  the  Indians,  and  desired  that  no 
more  be  furnished  them  because  it  took  away  the 
senses  of  their  people  and  caused  them  to  commit 
lawless  acts,  robberies,  etc.  He  also  complained 
that  the  Indian  trade  in  skins  and  furs  was  injured. 
Governor  Keith  replied,  expressing  his  desire  to 
live  in  peace  and  friendship  with  the  Indians,  and 
advised  them  not  to  molest  the  Virginia  Indians. 
The  object  of  the  conference  on  the  Governor's 
part  was  to  prevent  the  Pennsylvania  Indians  from 
attacking  the  Indians  of  Virginia.     By  the  Gover- 


nor's  direction,  Secretary  James  Logan  held  a  con- 
ference with  Ghesaont  on  the  9th  of  July.  Ghesa- 
ont  expressed  himself  well  pleased  with  Governor 
Keith's  treatment  of  the  Five  Nations. 


Soon  after  the  council  with  the  Indians  at  Con 
estoga,  Governor  Keith  was  informed  that  persons 
from  Philadelphia  and  Maryland,  in  search  of  a 
copper  mine,  were  about  to  survey  and  take  up 
Indian  lands  on  the  west  side  of  the  Susquehanna. 
The  Governor  went  to  the  scene  of  the  threatened 
trouble,  and  prevented  the  intrusion.  On  April 
4th  and  5th,  1722,  he  caused  a  survey  of  500  acres 
on  the  west  side  of  the  river  to  be  made.  He  then 
returned  to  Conestoga,  where  he  again  met  the 
Indians,  but  the  particulars  of  that  meeting  were 
never  recorded. 


Soon  afterward  the  Indians  were  greatly  alarmed 
at  the  threatened  encroachments  of  the  Maryland- 
ers.  On  June  15th,  1722,  Governor  Keith  held  a 
council  with  the  Indians  at  Conestoga,  to  get  their 
consent  to  the  grant  of  a  tract  of  land  to  be  sur- 
veyed under  the  name  of  Spring ett  Manor ^  in  the 
present  York  county.  The  Indians  agreed  to  the 
survey,  so  that  the  Governor  would  have  a  better 
title  to  resist  the  Marylanders. 


The  murder  of  an  Indian  by  the  brothers  John 
and  Edmund  Cartlidge,  in  a  quarrel,  alarmed  the 


white  settlers  of  Pennsylvania,  who  feared  the  ven- 
geance of  the  Indians.  An  appeal  being  made  to 
Governor  Keith,  he  sent  Secretary  James  Logan, 
Colonel  French  and  the  High  Sheriff  of  Chester 
county  to  the  scene  of  the  trouble.  Proceeding  to 
the  house  of  John  Cartlidge,  they  arrested  the 
brothers.  A  council  was  held  with  the  Indians 
at  Conestoga,  March  14,  1722.  Civility  and  sev- 
eral of  the  older  men  of  the  tribe,  together  with 
Savannah,  chief  of  the  Shawanese,  Winjack,  chief 
of  the  Gawanese,  Tekaachroo,  a  Cayuga,  and 
Oweeyekanowa  and  Xoshtarghkamen,  Delawares, 
were  present  on  this  occasion.  The  Indians  were 
satisfied  with  the  action  of  the  council.  The  Cart- 
lidges  were  taken  to  Philadelphia  and  lodged  in 
jail.  Satcheecho,  an  Indian  messenger,  was  de- 
spatched to  the  Five  Nations.  Governor  Keith  and 
two  of  his  council  went  to  Albany,  New  York, 
and  there  met  representatives  of  the  Five  Nations 
and  gave  them  pledges  that  justice  would  be  done 
to  the  Indians.  These  representatives  expressed  a 
wish  that  the  Cartlidges  should  not  be  punished 
with  death.  The  Indian  sachem  said:  "One  life 
on  this  occasion  is  enough  to  be  lost  ;  there  should 
not  two  die."  Eventually,  at  the  earnest  request 
of  the  Indians,  the  Cartlidges  were  set  free. 


In  July,  1722,  Governor  Keith  held  a  council 
with  the  Indians  at  Conoy  Town,  in  Donegal  town- 
ship. There  were  present  at  this  time  James 
Mitchell  and  James  Le  Tort,  the  Indian  traders. 


with  the  chiefs  of  the  Conestogas,  the  Shawanese 
and  the  Conoys,  and  seven  chief  men  of  the  Nanti- 
cokes;  and  the  former  treaty  of  friendship  with  the 
English  was  renewed. 


In  1723  a  number  of  German  settlers  who  had 
been  living  in  Schoharie  county,  New  York,  emi- 
grated to  Pennsylvania  and  located  on  the  Swatara 
and  Tulpehocken  creeks.  Among  these  were 
the  Weisers,  from  whom  the  Muhlenbergs  are 


The  territory  between  the  Big  Chickies  creek 
and  the  Susquehanna  river  was  first  settled  by 
Scotch-Irish.  The  family  names  of  these  were 
Semple,  Mitchell,  Patterson,  Speer,  Hendricks, 
Galbraith,  Anderson,  Scott,  Ivowry,  Pedan,  Por- 
ter, Sterritt,  Kerr,  Work,  Lytic,  Whitehill,  Camp- 
bell, etc.  In  1722  this  territory  was  erected  into  a 
new  township  called  Donegal^  inasmuch  as  most 
of  these  settlers  came  from  Donegal  county,  in  Ire- 
land. James  Hendricks  and  James  Mitchell  held 
successively  the  office  of  Justice  of  the  Peace  in 
the  settlement.  Some  of  the  descendants  of  these 
Scotch-Irish  settlers  still  own  the  first  possessions 
of  their  ancestors. 


John  Harris,  the  Quaker  Indian  trader,  a  native 
of  Yorkshire,  England,  first  attempted  to  settle 
near  the  mouth  of  Conoy  creek,  not  far  from  the 


site  of  Bainbridge  ;  but  he  afterwards  located  at 
Pax  ton,  or  Paxtang,  the  site  of  Harrisburg.  His 
son  John  was  the  founder  of  Harrisburg,  as  before 


In  1727  three  Quaker  Englishmen — John  Wright, 
Robert  Barber  and  Samuel  Blunston — settled  on 
the  east  side  of  the  Susquehanna,  south  of  the 
Chickies  Hill.  This  was  the  beginning  of  the 
present  town  of  Columbia.  Barber  took  1,000 
acres  south  of  Chickies  Hill.  Blunston  took  500 
acres  adjoining  that  hill.  Wright  took  250 
acres  south  of  Blunston' s.  His  descendants  have 
since  resided  in  Columbia.  These  three  men  were 
active,  enterprising  and  useful  citizens  ;  and  their 
names  were  intimately  associated  with  the  earlier 
history  of  Lancaster  county.  When  they  first 
settled  there  their  flour  was  brought  on  pack- 
horses  from  the  Darby  mills,  near  Philadelphia, 
through  the  woods  along  an  Indian  path  to  the 
Susquehanna.  Their  only  neighbors,  the  Indians, 
often  supplied  them  with  meat,  and  received  bread 
and  milk  in  return.  The  descendants  of  these 
pioneers  have  since  resided  in  Lancaster  county. 
Swiss  and  Scotch-Irish  soon  settled  in  that 
locality.  The  land  back  from  the  river  was  settled 
chiefly  by  Swiss — the  Forrys,  the  Garbers,  the 
Stricklers  and  others. 


Hempfield  township  was  so  called  because  of  the 
great  quantities  of  hemp  raised  there.     The  Pat- 


tons,  who  were  Scotch-Irish,  settled  on  lands 
adjoining  those  of  Wright  and  Barber.  Patton's 
hill  and  Patton's  current  derive  their  names  from 
those  families.  Tradition  states  that  a  party  of 
cruel  white  men,  led  by  a  man  named  Bell,  once 
massacred  many  Indians  there.  Maay  Indian 
graves  were  said  to  be  in  the  neighborhood,  and  it 
was  believed  that  a  piece  of  cannon  lay  sunk  in  the 
current.  Below  this  were  German  and  Swiss  set- 
tlers— Stehmans,  KaufFmans,  Herrs,  Rupleys  and 


In  1723  or  1724  Everhard  Ream,  a  German,  com- 
menced a  settlement  by  taking  up  400  acres  of 
land.  His  descendants  have  since  resided  in  the 
village  named  after  the  first  settler  and  proprietor — 
Reamstoivn,  When  he  settled  there,  the  place 
was  occupied  by  Indians.  He  took  his  horse  and 
wagon  into  the  woods,  and  unloaded  his  furniture 
under  a  large  oak  tree,  under  which  he  took  shel- 
ter until  he  had  built  a  rude  log  cabin.  His 
nearest  mill  was  on  the  Brandy  wine,  and  the  Miil- 
bachers  on  Cocalico  creek  were  his  nearest  neigh- 
bors. Other  Germans  who  soon  settled  around 
him  were  Bucher,  Huber,  Keller,  Leader,  Schwarz- 
walder,  Schneider,  Killian,  Dock,  Forney,  Rupp, 
Balmer,  May,  Mayer,  Hahn,  Ressler,  Beyer,  Leed, 
Schlott,  Graaf,  Wolf,  Feierstein,  Weidman  and 


In  the  year  that  the  Pennsylvania  colony  was 
founded,   a  number  of  Welsh  Episcopalians  pur- 


chased  40,000  acres  of  land  of  William  Penti,  situ- 
ated west  of  the  Schuylkill.  Upon  this  they  made 
a  settlement.  Their  number  increased  so  rapidly 
that  in  less  than  ten  years — or  before  1692 — 
they  had  settled  six  townships.  Like  the  Swiss 
and  Palatines,  the  Welsh  sent  persons  to  take  up 
the  land  and  make  the  needed  preparations  for  the 
reception  of  their  families.  Among  these  pioneers 
was  Thomas  Owen,  who  was  sent  over  by  Row- 
land Ellis.  In  1686  Ellis  and  100  other  Welsh 
emigrants  came.  In  1698  others  arrived,  among 
whom  were  William  Jones,  Robert  Jones,  Robert 
Evans,  Thomas  Evans,  Owen  Evans,  Cadwallader 
Evans,  Hugh  Griffith,  John  Humphrey  and  Edward 
Foulke.  They  bought  10,000  acres  of  land  of  Robert 
Turner,  in  Guinedd  township,  in  Chester  county. 
In  1722  or  1723  another  Welsh  settlement  was  made 
in  the  Welsh  Mountain  region.  This  extended  in 
the  direi:tion  of  and  as  far  as  Churchtown.  Here  the 
principal  settlers  were  E.  Davis,  Z.  Davis,  Evans, 
Douglas,  Henderson,  Morgan,  Jenkins,  Edwards, 
Robinet,  Ford,  Torbet,  Lardner,  Billing  and 
Spenger.  The  Welsh  also  settled  along  Alle- 
gheny creek,  a  small  branch  of  the  Tulpehocken. 


In  1723  or  1724  some  Swiss  and  Germans  set- 
tled in  the  region  south  of  the  eastern  part  of  the 
Conestoga  creek,  in  the  present  East  Earl  town- 
ship. This  settlement  was  called  Weber  Thal^  or 
Weaver  Land^  from  the  Webers,  or  Weavers,  who 
took  up  several  thousand  acres  of  land  here.    Jacob 


Weber,  Heinrich  Weber,  George  Weber  and  Hans 
Good,  who  were  all  Swiss  Mennonites,  were  the 
first  settlers  adjacent  to  the  Welsh.  The  plain,  or 
thal^  had  no  timber  when  the  settlement  was  made. 
Hans  Good  settled  in  what  is  now  Brecknock  town- 
ship, Lancaster  county,  where  many  of  his  decend- 
ants  have  since  resided.  Before  they  settled  here, 
the  Webers  and  Goods  had  lived  for  twelve  or  fif- 
teen years  near  the  site  of  Lancaster  city.  Their 
descendants  have  since  became  wealthy  and  num- 
erous. Some  have  emigrated  to  the  West,  and 
others  to  Canada.  The  Martins,  the  Millers,  the 
Ruths,  the  Zimmermans,  the  Schnaders  and  other 
Swiss  Mennonites  soon  settled  among  the  Weavers. 


In  1727  about  1,000  Swiss  and  Palatine  Menno- 
nites came  to  what  is  now  Lancaster  county.  The 
Eckmans,  the  Dififenderfers,  the  Eckerts,  the  Bow- 
mans,  the  Eberlys,  the  Zugs,  the  Shultzes,  the 
Funks,  the  Frantzes  and  the  Mayers  were  among 
them.  These  people  soon  after  coming  subscribed 
to  a  writing  declaring  their  allegiance  to  the  King 
of  Great  Britain  and  fidelity  to  the  proprietary  of 
the  province  of  Pennsylvania.  Alexander  Dif- 
fenderfer  settled  in  Oley,  now  in  Berks  county. 
His  brother,  John  Diffenderfer,  settled  at  Saeue 
Schwamm,  now  New  Holland.  John's  grandsons, 
David  Diffenderfer  and  Jacob  DifTenderfer,  served 
in  the  Revolution.  Other  German  families  soon 
settled  there.  Among  these  we  find  the  names 
of  Ranck,  Bachert,  Beck,  Mayer,  Brimmer,  Koch, 


Hinkel,     Schneider,    Seger,     Stehly,     Brubacher, 
Meixel,  Diller  and  others. 


Governor  Keith  was  suspicious  of  the  Swiss  and 
German  settlers,  and  treated  their  application  for 
naturalization  with  indifference.  They  applied 
for  naturalization  as  early  as  1721,  but  the  Gover- 
nor delayed  granting  their  request  until  1724.  A 
bill  was  then  brought  before  the  Assembly  of  the 
province,  which  granted  them  naturalization  on 
condition  that  they  obtain  from  a  Justice  of  the 
Peace  a  certificate  of  the  value  of  their  property 
and  of  the  nature  of  their  religious  faith. 

In  1727  Governor  Patrick  Gordon,  Keith's  suc- 
cessor, was  informed  "that  a  large  number  of  Ger- 
mans, peculiar  in  their  dress,  religion,  and  notions 
of  political  governments,  had  settled  on  the  Pequea, 
and  were  determined  not  to  obey  the  lawful  au- 
thority of  government  ;  that  they  had  resolved  to 
speak  their  own  language,  and  to  acknowledge  no 
sovereign  but  the  Great  Creator  of  the  Universe." 


To  keep  alive  the  jealousies  and  to  excite  sus- 
picion against  the  Germans,  it  was  reported  that 
some  thousands  were  expected  to  arrive  in  Penn- 
sylvania in  1727.  In  all  348  Palatine  families, 
numbering  1,240  persons,  did  come,  at  the  invita- 
tion of  the  Penn  family,  to  settle  and  improve  the 
country.  The  report  of  this  emigration  was  laid 
before  the  Pennsylvania  Assembly  at  Philadelphia  ; 
and   William  Webb,    Samuel   Hollingsworth  and 


John  Carter  were  appointed  a  committee  to  investi- 
gate the  charges  against  these  people,  and  report  the 
facts  to  the  next  Assembly.  This  committee  did 
so,  and  in  1728  made  a  report  favorable  to  the  Ger- 
mans and  Swiss,  who  had  been  invited  by  William 
Penn  to  settle  in  his  province.  The  report  stated 
that  they  had  honestly  paid  for  their  lands,  and' 
w^ere  a  quiet  and  industrious  people,  faithfully  dis- 
charging their  civil  and  religious  duties. 


As  settlement  spread,  and  the  whites  came  in  con- 
tact with  the  Indians,  acts  of  violence  and  blood- 
shed sometimes  occurred  between  the  two  races. 
On  September  11,  1727,  Thomas  Wright,  a  drunken 
Englishman,  was  killed  by  several  drunken  In- 
dians near  the  house  of  John  Burt,  an  Indian  trader 
at  Snaketown,  now  Harrisburg.  The  quarrel  was 
caused  by  Burt's  selling  the  Indians  too  much  rum 
and  then  insulting  them.  The  colonists  of  Penn- 
sylvania suffered  from  outrages  and  robberies  on 
the  part  of  non-resident  Indians. 

In  the  spring  of  1728  the  whites  feared  that  war 
would  break  out  between  several  Indian  tribes, 
because  the  Shawanese  had  killed  two  Conestoga 
Indians.  In  the  back  settlements  whole  families 
fled  from  their  homes. 


John  Wright  informed  Governor  Patrick  Gor- 
don of  the  condition  of  affairs,  and  the  Gover- 
nor at  once  went  to  the  Conestoga  Indian  town, 


where  he  held  a  council  with  the  Indians,  May  26, 
1728.  Captain  Civility  and  the  other  chiefs  of  the 
Conestogas  were  present  at  this  council.  So  were 
the  chiefs  of  the  Shawanese,  the  Qawanese  and  the 
Delawares.  Two  Indian  interpreters  were  also 
there,  along  with  Peter  Bizaillon,  John  Scull  and 
Nicholas  Scull,  assistant  interpreters.  The  Gov- 
ernor's object  was  to  preserve  peace  between  the 
whites  and  the  Indians  and  between  the  various 
Indian  tribes  themselves.  Assurances  of  peace  and 
good  will  and  desires  for  continued  peace  were 
expressed  both  by  the  Governor  and  by  the  Indian 
chiefs  present.  After  the  council  the  Governor 
returned  to  Philadelphia. 


Hazard's  Register  states  the  following:  "  Kurtz, 
it  is  supposed,  established  the  first  Iron  Works  in 
1726,  within  the  present  bounds  of  Lancaster 
county.  The  Grubbs  were  distinguished  for  their 
industry  and  enterprise.  They  commenced  opera- 
tions in  1728.  " 


In  1725  or  1726  Ephrata  was  settled  by  the 
Sieben  Taeger  (Seventh  Day  People);  so  called 
because  they  kept  the  seventh  day  of  the  week 
(Saturday),  instead  of  the  first  (Sunday),  as  the 
Sabbath.  This  settlement  was  known  by  the  vari- 
ous names  oi Ephrata^  or  Kloster^  or  Dmikertowii. 
The  last  name  was  a  nickname  of  the  German  word 
Dunker^  or  Tunker^  a  corruption  of  the  the  Ger- 


man  word  Taeufer^  meaning  Baptists.  The  foun- 
der of  the  religious  society  at  Bphrata  was  Conrad 
Beissel,  who  seceded  from  the  Dunkers,  or  German 
Baptists,  the  religious  sect  founded  in  Germany  in 
1708  by  Alexander  Mack  of  Shreisheim,  in  the 
Palatinate.  Many  of  the  Dunkers  emigrated  from 
the  Palatinate  to  Pennsylvania  in  1720  and  1721; 
and,  as  we  have  seen,  some  settled  on  the  Pequea 
and  at  Muelbach,  or  Mill  Creek,  on  the  Cocalico 
creek.  Among  these  was  Conrad  Beissel,  who 
located  at  Muelbach  in  1721.  In  1729  Alexander 
Mack,  the  founder  of  the  sect,  himself  settled  at 
Muelbach.  Conrad  Beissel  separated  from  the 
Dunkers  because  he  believed  the  seventh  day  of 
the  weeK:  to  be  the  true  Sabbath.  In  1725  he 
retired  from  the  Muelbach  settlement,  and  lived 
for  some  time  like  a  hermit  in  a  cell  on  the  banks 
of  the  Cocalico.  When  his  abode  became  known, 
others  who  had  adopted  his  views  settled  around 
him.  Thus  arose  the  religious  society  of  the  Seventh 
Day  Baptists.  In  1732  their  solitary  life  was 
changed  to  a  monastic  one,  and  the  members  lived 
like  the  monks  and  nuns  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church.  The  brethren  adopted  the  dress  of  the 
Capuchins,  or  White  Friars,  consisting  of  a  shirt, 
trousers  and  vest,  with  a  long  white  gown  or  cowl, 
of  woolen  stuff  in  winter,  and  linen  in  summer. 
The  sisters  wore  petticoats  instead  of  trousers.  The 
brethren  and  sisters  adopted  monkish  names.  Is- 
rael Eckerlein  was  named  Onesimus^  and  was  made 
Prior.     His  successor  was  Peter  Miller,  who  was 


named /aede^.  Conrad  Beissel,  the  founder  of  the 
society,  was  called  Father^  and  was  given  the  mon- 
astic names  of  Friedsam  and  Gottrecht^  meaning 
Peaceable  and  Godright.  In  1740  there  were  thirty- 
six  single  brethren  and  thirty-five  sisters  in  the 
cloister;  and  at  one  time  the  society,  with  the 
members  living  in  the  neighborhood,  numbered 
three  hundred.  A  meeting-house  caled  Kedar^ 
and  a  convent  called  Zioii^  were  erected  on  a  hill 
called  Mount  Zion.  They  afterwards  built  a  sis- 
ters house  called  Saron^  which  had  a  large  chapel 
called  Saal  attached  to  it  for  holding  Agapas^  or 
Love  Feasts.  A  brothers'  house  called  Bethania 
was  also  built,  and  had  a  large  meeting- room  for 
public  worship.  Near  by  was  a  printing-house,  a 
bake-house,  a  school-house  and  other  buildings, 
on  one  of  which  was  the  town-clock.  The  build- 
ings were  of  singular  architecture.  The  rooms  of 
the  sisters  were  hung  with  large  sheets  of  elegant 
penmanship  or  ink  paintings,  many  being  texts 
from  Scripture,  in  ornamented  Gothic  letters,  called 
in  German  Fracticr-Schriften.  This  was  done  on 
large  sheets  of  paper  made  at  th^ir  own  mill. 
Many  specimens  of  original  poetry  were  in  the 
Fractur-Schriften.  Peter  Miller  was  Beissel' s  suc- 
cessor as  Father.  In  1739  Ludwig  Hacker  came 
to  Ephrata  from  Germany,  and  was  appointed 
teacher  of  the  common  school.  He  soon  afterward 
opened  a  Sabbath  school.  The  community  con- 
tinued to  flourish  for  about  fifty  years,  when  from 
causes  which   seem  to  be  unknown   it  began  to 


decline ;  and  to-day  there  is  litte  but  weather- 
stained  and  crumbling  walls,  and  curious  pieces  of 
antique  workmanship,  as  traces  of  this  interesting 
people.  Their  habits  of  industry,  their  frugality, 
their  simple  mode  of  living  and  their  devoted  piety 
doubtless  exerted  an  imperishable  influence  upon 
the  neighborhood  in  which  they  lived. 


Among  the  Swiss  and  German  settlers  who  came 
here  before  1735,  and  whose  descendants  are  now  so 
numerous  in  Lancaster  county,  are  such  common 
names  as  Herr,  Hess,  Harnish,  Hershey,  Hiestand, 
Landis,  Mylin,  Brubaker,  Brenneman,  Witmer, 
Kendig,  Stoner,  Hochsteter  or  Hostetter,  Zimmer- 
man or  Carpenter,  Kreider  or  Greider,  Eckman, 
Eckert,  Ellmaker,  Schleiermacher  or  Slaymaker, 
Becker  or  Baker,  Bachman,  Killhaver  orKillheffer, 
ShaefFer,  Wenger,  Diffenderfer,  Graaf,  Musser, 
Musselman,  Weaver,  Good,  Eshleman,  Kauffinan, 
Hoover,  Royer,  Boyer,  Bare,  Bowman,  Over- 
holtzer,  Garber  Nissley,  Burkholder,  Shank  or 
Shenk,  Weidler,  Weidman,  Suavely,  Hoffinan, 
Forney,  Ritter,  Eberly,  Gochenaur,  Stambach, 
Bomberger,  Bassler,  Burkhardt,  Shiffer,  Reist, 
Sensenig,  Seldenridge,  Shirk,  Keyser,  Swope, 
Diff'enbach,  Westhaver,  Sauderor  Souder,  Sherrick 
or  Shirk,  Shissler,  Rohrer,  Stauff'er,  Erb,  Eby,  Eris- 
man,  Brandt,  Ream,  Leaman,  Shultz,  Houser, 
Miller,  Buckwalter,  Mayer  or  Meyer,  Funk,  New- 
comer, Longenecker,  Neff",  Brenner,  Minnich  and 
many  others. 




^npHE  occupation  of  the  first  white  emigrants  to 
^   Lancaster  county  was  farming. 

The  Swiss  and  Germans,  in  looking  about  for 
land,  were  attracted  by  the  heavy-timbered  por- 
tion. They  said:  "Where  the  wood  grows 
heaviest,  the  soil  must  be  best.  "  Thus  they  selec- 
ted for  settlement  the  limestone  valleys,  in  which 
were  the  rich  meadows  and  the  heavy  forest  land. 

The  Scotch-Irish  class,  being  accustomed  to 
a  country  with  a  rugged  surface,  chose  the  hill 
country  for  their  homes.  There  the  forests  were 
lighter  and  more  easily  cleared. 

The  Swiss  Mennonites — often  called  Palatinates, 
because  they  lived  in  the  Palatinate  of  the  Rhine 
for  some  years  after  they  were  driven  from  Switzer- 
land by  persecution — were  very  intelligent  farmers. 
Their  contact  with  the  French  and  Germans  in  the 
land  of  their  exile  had  given  them  an  opportunity 
to  see  some  of  the  best  managed  and  cultivated 
farms  in  that  beautiful  agricultural  region.  Then 
in  their  journey  down  the  Rhine  into  Holland  they 
saw  and  learned  much  that  was  useful  in  both 
farming  and  housekeeping. 

To  their  native  industry  and  thrift  they  added 
the  knowledge  and  skill  acquired  by  their  contact 


with  the  Dutch,  Germans  and  French.  Therefore 
they  came  here  well  prepared  for  the  work  before 
them;  and  the  great  farms  of  lyancaster  county, 
unrivalled  in  fertility  and  high  cultivation,  are  the 
evidences  we  have  to-day  of  their  intelligence  and 

These  people  brought  with  them  little  but  the 
seeds  they  wished  to  plant.  Their  implements 
and  supplies  they  obtained  in  Philadelphia  and 
Germantown,  where  they  stopped  on  landing  in 
Pennsylvania.  While  in  Philadelphia  they  thought 
it  best  to  send  out  some  persons  of  prudence  and 
judgment  to  select  sites  for  homes.  On  their 
return  with  reports  of  favorable  places,  immediate 
application  was  made  to  the  proprietary  govern- 
ment of  the  province  of  Pennsylvania  to  have  the 
selected  tracts  surveyed  for  them.  But  as  the  sur- 
veys could  not  always  be  made  at  once,  and  as  they 
were  impatient  of  delay,  they  often  proceeded 
immediately  to  the  places  chosen,  taking  their 
families  with  them. 

Several  families  usually  made  the  journey  to- 
gether. The  most  important  household  goods  were 
brought  with  them  from  beyond  the  sea,  and  con- 
sisted of  stuffs  which  they  had  spun  and  woven 
themselves.  These  were  packed  in  large  iron-bound 
chests.  These  chests, together  with  household  uten- 
sils and  provisions,  were  loaded  in  covered  wagons, 
which  were  drawn  by  teams  of  horses.  The  latter 
were  sometimes  the  joint  property  of  the  parties,  and 
sometimes  they  were  hired  for  the  occasion.      The 


feeble  and  the  children  were  placed  in  the  wagons. 
The  adults  generally  went  on  foot,  the  strongest 
keeping  in  advance  and  with  axes  removing  trees 
and  hanging  vines  that  might  obstruct  the  passage 
of  the  wagons.  Notwithstanding,  the  journey  was 
slow  and  tedious,  and  taxed  severely  the  patience 
and  strength  of  both  men  and  horses.  The  site 
selected  for  the  home  w^as  always  near  a  spring,  as  a 
matter  of  convenience. 

The  first  work  of  the  men  and  boys  was  to  erect 
a  temporary  shelter  for  themselves,  the  women  and 
children  dwelling  in  the  wagons  until  the  log 
cabin  was  ready.  The  work  of  building  this  was 
begun  at  once.  The  lofty  forest  trees  yielded  to 
the  steady  and  repeated  blows  of  the  axe  and  fell 
crashing  to  the  earth.  The  trunks  of  the  fallen 
trees  were  then  cut  into  the  necessary  lengths,  split 
into  the  required  thickness,  and  dragged  to  the 
place  where  the  humble  cabin  was  to  be  erected. 
They  were  then  notched  and  built  into  a  solid  log- 
house,  this  afterward  to  be  chinked  and  daubed 
and  covered  with  oaken  shingles.  Meantime  the 
women,  in  their  homespun  dresses  and  plain  white 
caps,  prepared  the  family  meals  in  the  open  air. 
Their  hearth  consisted  of  a  wall  of  hastily-collected 
stones.  Pots  and  kettles  were  hung  by  chains 
and  hooks  to  cross  poles.  Sometimes  a  temporary 
roof  of  poles  and  branches  of  trees  was  put  up  to 
prevent  the  rain  from  putting  out  the  fire. 

The  table  on  which  the  meals  were  served 
usually  consisted  of  the  end  gate  of  a  wagon,  nailed 


Upon  the  stump  of  a  tree,  cut  the  proper  height. 
The  men  generally  ate  first,  and  the  women  and 
children  afterward.  There  was  little  of  mirth  or 
levity  at  the  gatherings  of  families  or  friends  in 
those  early  days,  and  neither  coarseness  nor  pro- 
fanity, the  historians  tell  us. 

The  children  scoured  the  woods  for  what  was 
new  and  attractive,  and  carried  the  water  from  the 

The  boys  occasionally  shot  squinels  and  wild 
foul  or  caught  fish  in  the  near  stream,  and  thus 
furnished  the  table  with  game. 

The  women  had  started  a  vegetable  garden  in 
the  meanwhile,  preparing  the  beds  with  spade  and 
hoe.  The  seeds  and  bulbs  brought  from  their  far- 
away homes  were  then  planted. 

The  laying  out  of  the  farm  into  fields  and  build- 
ing fences  next  occupied  the  men  after  the  log  cabin 
was  finished.  The  old-fashioned  wooden  plow,  and 
a  harrow  made  of  a  bundle  of  brush,  were  used  to 
prepare  the  fields  for  planting.  Strong  roots  and 
immovable  stumps  added  to  the  difficulty  of  culti- 
vating the  new-made  fields.  Patient,  constant  and 
hard  work  was  the  lot  of  this  pioneer  farmer.  The 
love  of  family  and  devotion  to  his  religious  faith 
amply  sustained  him,  however,  in  his  toil  and 

While  the  crops  were  growing,  temporary  stables 
were  built  for  the  horses.  The  barn  was  considered 
the  most  important  building  on  the  farm,  but  its 
erection  had  to  be  postponed  for  some  years.     lycsser 


improvements  were  made  from  time  to  time.  The 
houses  being  made  at  first  without  cellars,  a  turf- 
covered  vault  was  made  in  the  hillside. 

Pigs  were  imported  from  the  Eastern  settlements. 
Cows  and  oxen  were  brouo:ht  in.  Ditches  were  due 
for  irrigating  the  land,  and  thus  the  growth  of 
grasses  was  vastly  increased.  The  rich  meadows 
were  considered  a  valuable  part  of  the  farm.  When 
the  original  tracts  were  divided,  the  rights  to  the 
meadows  were  carefully  specified  in  the  title-deeds, 
the  use  and  control  of  the  stream  being  given  to 
the  owners  of  the  several  tracts  a  certain  number 
of  days  in  each  week. 

The  summer  was  given  to  raising  crops  of  wheat, 
corn,  oats,  spelt,  barley,  buckwheat,  etc.  There 
was  no  lack  of  work  in  the  autumn.  Then  a  second 
crop  of  hay  was  made,  more  ditches  were  dug, 
stones  were  quarried,  firewood  for  winter  was  cut, 
the  fall  seeding  was  done,  trees  were  felled,  rails 
were  split,  acorns  were  gathered,  and  logs  were 
hewed  for  the  barn  that  was  to  be  built.  Trips  were 
made  to  the  stores  farther  east  for  supplies,  and  to 
the  mills  for  flour  or  to  have  grists  ground.  These 
trips  usually  lasted  several  days,  as  the  nearest 
mills  were  on  the  Schuylkill  and  the  Brandy  wine. 
Several  men  went  together  on  horseback,  carrying 
bags  of  grain,  and  bringing  flour  and  meal  in 

The  occupation  of  farming  was  regarded  by  these 
people  as  offering  few  temptations  to  worldliness, 
and  thus  it  became  a  sort  of  hereditary  vocation. 


From  the  allurements  of  office  and  worldly  honors 
they  turned  aside.  The  pleasures  of  life,  and  the 
beauties  and  attractions  of  art  and  nature,  they 
thought  were  closely  connected  with  the  lusts  of 
the  eye  and  sinful  pride.  They  therefore  altogether 
rejected  them.  Many  of  the  older  people  were 
well  educated,  but  their  religion  taught  them  that 
education  engendered  vanity,  and  thus  there  grew 
up  among  the  people  a  sentiment  in  opposition  to 
liberal  education.  There  were,  however,  always 
schools,  or  arrangements  made  at  home,  for  giving 
instruction  in  reading,  writing  and  arithmetic. 
Music  and  dancing  were  among  the  recreations 
prohibited,  and  plainness  of  dress  and  simplicity  in 
their  houses  were  insisted  upon. 

The  winter  season  was  an  uneventful  one.  Its 
monotony  was  occasionally  disturbed  by  vague 
rumors  of  coming  danger  from  the  Indians,  or  by 
the  sudden  appearance  of  a  few  wild  deer  in  the 
newly  fenced  grain  fields.  Hunting  and  trapping 
were  very  attractive  to  the  young  people,  but  their 
elders  discouraged  indulgence  in  the  sports  of  the 
chase.  Coon  and  muskrat  skins  nailed  against  the 
stable  doors  indicated,  however,  that  the  wishes  of 
the  latter  in  this  matter  were  not  always  respected. 


Flax  and  hemp  were  largely  cultivated  by  the 
early  farmers  of  the  county.  From  these  were 
manufactured  linen  for  wearing  apparel  and  for 
household  use.  Strength  and  durability  were  the 
merits  of  the  material. 



Cows  and  sheep  were  added  to  the  live  stock  a 
few  years  after  settlement.  The  favorite  cows  were 
a  large-sized,  clean-limbed  breed,  with  smooth, 
thin,  but  rather  long,  horns  hooked  backward. 
They  were  generally  of  a  brindled  color,  and 
were  noted  for  being  good  milkers  and  excel- 
lent foragers. 

Short-horned  cows  were  introduced  about  1825 
or  1830.  Devons  were  brought  later,  the  Jerseys 
about  i860,  and  the  Holsteins  in  very  recent  years. 
Sheep  were  kept  largely  for  their  wool.  Those 
first  introduced  were  the  long-wooled  variety. 
Merino  rams  were  imported  from  Spain  in  1810. 
The  fine-wooled  sheep  never  came  into  favor,  for 
the  reason  that  their  short  fleece  was  harder  to 
work  and  not  so  serviceable. 


After  having  erected  a  good  barn,  the  farmer 
usually  began  to  think  that  a  fine  house  should 
take  the  place  of  the  log  cabin.  Sometimes  several 
years  were  occupied  in  preparing  for  this.  Stones 
had  to  be  quarried  and  lumber  sawed.  The  earliest 
houses  were  almost  all  built  of  stone,  and  usually 
two  stories  in  height.  According  to  the  German 
style  there  was  a  large  chimney  in  the  middle  of 
the  house,  and  according  to  the  English  or  Scotch 
style  there  was  a  chimney  at  the  gable  ends.  Many 
of  the  early  houses  were  very  imposing  structures, 
with  arched  cellars,  spacious  hallways,  easy  stairs, 
and  oak  panelled  partitions  and  windows  hung  in 


weights.      Some  of  these  old  houses  are  still  stand 
ing,  their  walls  as  solid  as    they  were  when    first 
erected.    Modern  alterations  in  some   cases,  how- 
ever, have  greatly  disfigured  them. 


The  busy  times  of  the  year  were  the  hay-making, 
harvesting  and  fruit-gathering  seasons. 

The  meadows  were  mowed  earlier  than  the 
uplands.  The  hay  was  dried  by  spreading  and 
turning  it  in  the  field  during  fair  weather,  or 
putting  it  in  weather  cocks  if  rain  was  likely  to 
occur.  Boys  and  girls  did  a  large  part  of  the 
lighter  work  in  the  hay- gathering.  Many  times, 
the  young  women,  if  they  could  be  spared  from  the 
work  in  the  house,  helped  in  the  harvesting.  Often 
they  worked  with  a  strong,  skillful  young  har- 
vester, who  would  gallantly  take  a  little  more  than 
his  own  half  of  the  work. 

The  apple-gathering  was  usually  a  merry-making 
time.  Gay  youths  and  happy  maidens  mingled 
with  their  grave  and  stately  elders  in  the  work  of 
putting  away  the  apples  for  winter  use  and  in  par- 
ing them  for  butter.  Then  came  the  apple-butter 
boiling,  which  was  usually  a  rollicking  occasion. 

About  the  year  1800  red  clover  and  timothy 
were  introduced.  These  were  grown  on  the  up- 
lands. The  farmer  no  longer  depended  on  his 
irrigated  meadows  for  hay.  The  English  scythe 
now  supplanted  the  clumsy  German  scythe,  and 
farming  implements  of  all  kinds  were  improving. 
The  raising  of  wheat  gradually  took  the  place  of 


barley  and  spelt,  and  after  1820  the  wheaten  loaf 
became  the  daily  bread  of  the  people.  The  distil- 
ling of  the  coarser  grains — rye,  barley  and  corn — 
into  liquors  became  an  industry  in  early  times. 
The  wheat  was  generally  ground  into  hour  in  the 
mills,  and  the  flour  was  hauled  by  the  farm  teams  to 
Philadelphia  and  to  Newport,  Delaware.  ' '  Store ' ' 
goods,  salt  and  land  plaster  were  brought  in 


While  most  of  the  hauling  was  done  in  the  win- 
ter, some  of  the  farmers  had  teams  on  the  road  all 

the  year  hauling  goods  between  Philadelphia  and 
Pittsburg.  These  were  the  well-known  "Cones- 
toga  Teams,"  sometimes  figuratively  called  the 
"Ships  of  Inland  Commerce."  They  were  stately 
objects  in  those  days,  and  the  owners  and  drivers 
alike  took  great  pride  in  keeping  their  teams  neat 
and  trim.  The  team  often  consisted  of  six  or  eight 
heavy  horses,  well  fed  and  well  cared  for,  good  har- 
ness, and  sometimes  ornamented  with  bows  of  bells 
fitted  so  as  to  form  an  arch  above  the  collars.  These 
bells  were  selected  with  a  view  to  harmony,  and 
formed  a  sort  of  chime,  from  the  small  trebles  on  the 
leaders  to  the  large  bass  upon  the  wheel  horses. 


The  wagon  was  made  of  strong,  durable  material, 
and  was  painted  red  and  blue.  The  cover  was  of 
strong  white  linen  or  hempen  material,  and  was 
drawn  tightly  over  shapely  bows  fixed  to  the  body, 
.ower  nearer  the  middle  and  projecting  front  and 
back  something  like  a  bonnet.  Taverns  or  inns 
sprang  up  along  the  principal  roads  for  the  accom- 
modation of  the  teamsters  and  their  horses,  and 
did  a  flourishing  business.  Most  of  these  to-day 
are  quiet  farm  houses,  or  have  been  converted  to 
other  uses.  With  the  coming  of  the  railroad  the 
day  of  the  tavern  came  to  an  end. 

Drinking  was  very  common  in  those  days.  Dis- 
tilleries were  numerous  and  alcoholic  liquors  cheap. 
Bottles  of  whiskey  or  wine  were  in  the  field  during 
the  day,  on  the  table  at  meal  time,  and  were  set 
out  during  the  evening. 


Before  1830  very  few  farmers  had  pleasure  car- 
riages. Those  who  rode  in  old-fashioned  gigs 
were  considered  very  stylish  and  proud.  Business 
and  visiting  were  done  on  horseback  among  the 
well-to-do  people.  Children  were  taken  along  by 
being  put  in  the  front  on  a  pillow,  and  infants  were 
carried  on  the  arm  tightly  wrapped  in  a  shawl  or  a 

Women  became  noted  as  fearless  and  skillful 
riders,  and  mothers  would  often  make  journeys  of 
ten  or  fifteen  miles  alone  on  horseback  with  infants 
in  their  arms. 

Young  ladies  of  sixteen  or  seventeen  years  were 


accustomed  to  going  on  horseback  to  the  country 
store  where  the  trading  was  done,  riding  often- 
times as  many  as  five  or  six  miles  each  way. 


When  a  farmer's  daughter  was  old  enough  to  go 
into  society,  she  was  given  a  handsome  saddle  and 
bridle,  and  was  permitted  to  use  a  farm  horse  when 
she  went  to  church-meeting,  to  singing-school  or 
to  visit  friends. 

The  riding-habit  of  the  young  ladies  w^as  usually 
a  very  trim,  close-fitting  garment,  and  this  together 
with  a  beaver  hat  or  scoop-bonnet  constituted  a  full 
outfit.  The  farmer's  boy  was  a  fresh,  rosy-faced 
lad.  His  work  consisted  of  carrying  water  to  the 
men  in  the  field,  taking  the  horse  to  the  black- 
smith shop,  hunting  the  eggs,  driving  the  cows, 
and  doing  small  errands  about  the  farm.  When 
he  grew  older  his  work  was  somewhat  different. 
Now  he  split  the  firewood,  began  to  plow,  fed  the 
stock.  In  the  winter  he  had  a  short  term  in  school. 
There  he  studied  to  learn,  and  in  play  time  played 
to  win. 

He  was  noted  for  throwing  a  ball  in  the  game 
with  unerring  aim  and  with  tremendous  force.  At 
the  age  of  seventeen  or  eighteen  he  was  presented 
with  a  saddle  and  bridle.  At  nineteen  he  took 
charge  of  the  farm  team,  led  the  men  to  harvest, 
and  was  permitted  to  have  the  finest  and  best 
groomed  young  horse  when  he  rode  out.  He 
usually  married  at  an  early  age.  On  the  marriage 
day    the   young   farmer   brought   his    wife  to  his 


father's  house,  riding  by  her  side  in  the  midst  of  a 
company  of  merry  friends.  The  teams,  laden  with 
her  household  goods  and  furniture,  followed;  and  a 
noisy  party  of  drivers  brought  up  the  rear  driving 
the  cows,  which  were  her  father's  bridal  gift. 

His  new  duties  as  the  head  of  a  household  he 
assumed  quite  seriously.  He  and  his  young  wife 
lived  plainly,  worked  early  and  late,  were  frugal 
as  well  as  industrious,  saving  all  they  could  with 
the  view  of  buying  a  farm  for  themselves.  They 
generally  joined  the  church  of  the  parents  of  one  or 
the  other,  avoided  display,  shunned  worldly  attrac- 
tions, saved  money  to  start  their  children  in  life, 
lived  to  a  good  age,  and  died  worthy  and  respected. 

V^!m  sM 




LANCASTER  county  is  situated  upon  the  east 
^  bank  of  the  Susquehanna  river,  in  the  south- 
eastern part  of  Pennsylvania.  It  is  bounded  on 
the  north  by  the  counties  of  Dauphin,  Lebanon 
and  Berks;  on  the  east  by  Chester  county;  on  tne 
south  by  Cecil  county,  Maryland;  and  on  the  west 
by  York  county.  Its  boundary  lines  are  chiefly 
natural  ones.  From  Danphin  county  on  the 
north-west  it  is  separated  by  the  Conewago  creek, 
from  Lebanon  county  on  the  north  by  the  South 
Mountain,  from  Chester  on  the  east  partly  by  the 
Octoraro  creek,  from  Maryland  on  the  south  by 
Mason  and  Dixon's  Line,  and  from  York  county  on 
the  west  by  the  Susquehanna  river.  Its  greatest 
length  from  east  to  west  is  forty-five  miles,  from 
north  to  south  fort^'-one  miles.  Central  latitude  is 
40°  3^  N.,  longitude  0°  40'  east  from  Washing- 
ton city.  The  area  of  the  county  is  973  square 
miles,  and  the  population  by  the  census  of  1890  is 


The  general  slope  of  the  county  is  toward  the 
Susquehanna  river  on  the  south-west.  Its  surface 
is  broken  and  diversified  by  mountain  ridges,  hills. 


fertile  valleys  and  beautiful  streams.  The  princi- 
pal elevations  are  the  South  Mountain,  along  the 
northern  boundary;  the  Welsh  Mountain  on  the 
east,  extending  some  distance  into  the  interior; 
Mine  Ridge  and  the  hills  of  the  Octoraro  on  the 
south-east;  and  the  River  Hills  along  the  south- 
west. These  ridges  have  the  general  direction 
from  east  to  west,  and  with  their  outlying  ranges  of 
hills  divide  the  interior  of  the  county  into  a  num- 
ber of  valleys.  The  longest  of  these,  like  the 
Pequea,  Conestoga  and  Chickies,  named  respec- 
tively after  the  streams  that  flow  through  them, 
extend  through  the  entire  length  of  the  county 
from  north-east  to  south-west.  Through  the  cen- 
tral portion,  however,  the  line  of  division  between 
the  valleys  is  so  gradual  that  the  whole  interior 
may  properly  be  regarded  as  one  large  fer- 
tile valley.  Numerous  streams  flow  through  the 
county ._ '  They  all  drain  into  the  Susquehanna 
river.  ;The  north  central  section  is  drained  by  the 
the  Conestoga  creek,  the  largest  stream  in  the 
county./  The  main  branches  of  this  stream  are  the 
Little  Conestoga,  Mill  Creek,  the  Cocalico,  Hammer, 
Middle  and  Muddy  Creeks.  The  south  central  sec- 
tion forms  the  large  and  beautiful  Pequea  valley, 
which  is  drained  by  the  Pequea  and  its  tributaries. 
The  section  north  of  the  Conestoga  is  watered  by 
the  Big  Chickies  and  Little  Chickies  creeks.  In  the 
extreme  north-west  are  the  Conoy  and  Conewago 
creeks;  in  the  south  the  Conowingo,  the  Oc- 
toraro and  Fishing  Creek,  with  their  rugged  and 


romantic  scenery.  The  network  of  streams  fur- 
nishes abundant  water-power  to  the  county,  and 
gives  to  every  neighborhood  an  adequate  supply 
of  excellent  running  water. 


The  fine  tracts  of  heavy  timber  that  are  found  in 
nearly  all  the  portions  of  the  county  show  that  the 
soil  is  naturally  fertile.  In  the  limestone  region, 
which  extends  across  the  county  from  east  to  west, 
and  from  the  hills  in  the  northern  part  to  those  in 
the  southern  part,  the  soil  is  the  richest.  This 
section  occupies  nearly  one-half  of  the  area  of  the 
county,  and  by  skillful  cultivation  has  made  Lan- 
caster county  famous  as  the  "Garden  Spot  of  Penn- 
sylvania," and  the  greatest  agricultural  county  in 
the  United  States.  The  red  shale  north  of  the  lime- 
stone and  the  variety  of  rich  clay  south  of  the 
limestone  contain  some  of  the  finest  farms  in  the 
county.  Like  the  limestone  soil,  their  productions 
include  all  the  cereals  and  very  many  of  the  best 
varieties  of  small  fruit.  The  climate  is  compara- 
tively mild  and  conducive  to  occupation  in  active 
pursuits.  Before  the  cold  north  winds  from  the 
Upper  Mississippi  and  the  Lakes  reach  the  county 
they  must  cross  the  Alleghany  mountains  and  the 
Blue  Ridge,  which  largely  neutralize  the  effects  oi 
these  wintry  storms.  From  the  ocean  the  winds 
have  free  access,  and  at  brief  intervals  supply  the 
county  with  an  abundant  rainfall.  Its  protection 
from  the  rigors  of  winter,  its  exposure  to  the  ocean, 
its  variety  of  surface,  give  it  a  uniform  temper- 


ature,  and,  with  its  soil  and  other  physical  resources, 
the  best  conditions  to  promote  and  enjoy  life.  Lan- 
caster county  has  never  had  an  entire  failure  of 


The  great  fertility  of  soil  has  made  agriculture 
the  leading  industry.  Large  harvests  of  grain  and 
abundant  water-power  early  led  our  people  to  erect 
grist-mills  and  engage  in  the  business  of  manu- 
facturing flour.  Some  attention  is  given  to  min- 
ing and  grazing  in  the  extreme  north  and  south. 
The  transportation  of  products  of  various  kinds  is 
quite  an  important  source  of  revenue.  The  cotton 
mills  of  Lancaster  city  and  the  furnaces  and  roll- 
ing-mills at  several  points  of  interest  employ  many 
men  and  contribute  materially  to  the  wealth  of  the 
county.  Besides  the  usual  farm  products,  special 
attention  is  given  to  the  raising  of  tobacco.; ^  Mill- 
ions of  cigars  are  made  annually  in  the  small  towns 
and  villages.  Lime  is  extensively  burned  in  a  few 
sections.  Creameries  are  found  in  nearly  every 
neighborhood  in  the  northern  and  southern  por- 
tions of  the  county,  and  thousands  of  tons  of  butter 
are  made  and  shipped  yearly  to  Baltimore,  Phila- 
delphia and  New  York.  Fine  building  stone  are 
quarried  and  excellent  brick  burned  from  native 
clay.  Nickel  is  mined  in  paying  quantities  at  the 
Gap.  The  material  wealth  of  the  county  in  round 
numbers,  according  to  the  official  records,  is  about 



Lancaster  county  consists  of  one  city,  ten  bor- 
oughs and  forty-one  townships.  The  city  of  Lan- 
caster is  the'^unty-seat  and  the  only  city  within 
the  limits  of  the  county.  The  ten  boroughs,  begin- 
ning with  the  largest  and  naming  them  in  the 
order  of  their  population,  are  Columbia,  Marietta, 
Manheim,  Ephrata,  Mount  Joy,  Lititz,  Elizabeth- 
town,  Strasburg,  Washington  and  Adamstown. 
With  the  exception  of  Adamstown,  all  the  bor- 
oughs are  directly  connected  by  railroad  with  the 


Lancaster  city,  the  county-seat,  is  situated  on  the 
north-western  bank  of  the  Conestoga  and  about 
eight  miles  west  of  the  center  of  the  county.  Ac- 
cording to  the  census  of  1890  it  had  a  population 
of  32,090.  The  facilities  of  the  city  are  not  sur- 
passed by  any  other  town  in  the  State.  The 
water  for  the  city  is  obtained  from  the  Conestoga 
by  means  of  high  pressure  Worthington  pumps 
aerated  in  reservoirs  in  the  eastern  limits  of  the 
city.  All  portions  of  the  town  are  lighted  by  means 
of  gas  and  electric  lights  and  gasoline.  A  system  of 
electric  railways  on  the  principal  streets  extends 
to  the  four  quarters  of  the  town  and  secures  rapid 
transit  to  all  points  in  the  city  limits.  An  electric 
railway  also  connects  the  city  with  the  village  of 
Millersville,  in  Manor  township,  four  miles  south- 
west from  the  city.  Lancaster  is  located  on  the 
main  line  of  the    Pennsylvania  Railroad,   and  is 


therefore  in  direct  communication  with  all  points 
east  and  west.  It  is  also  connected  by  the  Reading 
Railroad  with  Reading,  Lebanon  and  Quarryville, 
and  by  a  branch  line  of  the  Pennsylvania,  recently 
completed,  with  New  Holland.  Its  central  posi- 
tion in  a  rich  agricultural  section  and  its  excellent 
shipping  facilities  have  made  it  noted  for  its  mar- 
kets. The  general  household  market  is  held  daily 
in  one  or  several  of  the  five  public  market-houses 
located  in  different  sections  of  the  city.  No  town  in 
the  country  has  a  cheaper  and  more  abundant  sup- 
ply of  every  article  of  household  consumption.  The 
thriving  character  of  the  shipping  and  exchange 
market  is  shown  by  the  ninety  or  more  tobacco 
warehouses  in  the  city,  the  large  number  of  grain 
warehouses,  sale  and  exchange  stables,  and  houses 
in  the  wholesale  mercantile  trade. 

The  industrial  enterprise  of  the  city  embraces 
nearly  all  kinds  of  business.  x\mong  the  principal 
may  be  mentioned  a  furnace,  a  rolling-mill,  loco- 
motive works,  half  a  dozen  large  cotton  and  woolen 
mills  employing  several  thousand  workmen,  a 
watch  factory,  coach  factories,  a  large  number  of 
smaller  manufacturing  establishments  of  various 
kinds,  large  and  well-equipped  stores,  first  class 
hotels,  and  a  number  of  National  Banks,  some  of 
which  occupy  large  and  spacious  edifices. 

The  educational  and  charitable  institutions  of 
Lancaster  are  among  the  finest  in  the  State.  Frank- 
lin and  Marshall  College,  the  leading  institution  of 
the   Reformed    Church   in    the  United    States,    is 


located  here.  Two  High  Schools  and  about 
seventy-five  schools  of  all  other  grades  belong  to 
its  public  school  system.  A  "Children's  Home" 
for  the  orphan  and  friendless  child,  and  other 
charitable  institutions,  on  the  eastern  limits  of 
the  town,  reflect  the  benevolent  spirit  of  the  com- 
munity. The  town  has  several  parochial  schools, 
several  commercial  colleges,  a  Linnsean  Society 
of  Natural  Science,  four  public  libraries  and  four 
daily  and  six  weekly  newspapers. 

Its  principal  public  buildings  are  the  Lancaster 
County  Court  House,  near  the  center  of  the  city; 
the  County  Almshouse  and  Hospital,  just  beyond 
the  eastern  limits  of  the  city;  the  Post  Office  Build- 
ing, erected  by  the  government  and  completed  in 
1891;  the  City  Hall,  on  Centre  Square;  the  Trust 
Company's  Building,  on  North  Queen  street;  Ful- 
ton Opera  House;  and  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad 
Station,  two  blocks  from  the  centre  of  the  city. 
The  majority  of  these  buildings  are  fine  structures 
and  combine  some  of  the  best  features  in  modern 

The  social  and  moral  tone  of  the  town  is  elo- 
quently told  in  its  excellent  homes  and  numerous 
churches.  Its  places  of  public  worship  are  fine 
edifices,  supplied  by  able  divines,  and  supported 
by  the  various  Christian  denominations.  The 
many  beautiful  homes,  tasteful  surroundings  of 
trees  and  shrubbery,  and  pure  inland  air,  have  long 
made  Lancaster  a  desirable  place  of  residence. 


Columbia  is  the  largest  and  most  important 
borough  in  I^ancaster  county.  It  is  located  on  the 
Susquehanna  river,  ten  miles  directly  west  from 
Ivancaster  city.  It  had  a  population  of  over  10,500 
by  the  census  of  1890,  and  is  a  thriving  town.  A 
railroad  bridge,  one  and  one-eighth  miles  in  length, 
crosses  the  river  from  Columbia  to  Wrightsville,  on 
the  opposite  side  of  the  river.  The  town  is  on  the 
main  line  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad,  and  is  the 
principal  freight  station  between  Harrisburg  and 
Philadelphia.  Lines  of  railway  also  connect  it 
with  Reading,  with  points  south  along  the  Sus- 
quehanna, and  with  Baltimore  and  Washington  by 
way  of  York.  Its  large  round-house,  its  freight 
yard,  its  furnaces  and  rolling-mills,  its  large  traffic 
in  lumber,  coal  and  sand,  make  it  quite  an  indus- 
trial center.  The  town  has  a  number  of  fine  resi- 
dences, several  of  the  finest  churches  in  the  in- 
terior of  the  State,  an  Opera  House  that  cost  $100,- 
000,  and  a  fine  system  of  general  education. 


Marietta^  on  the  Susquehanna,  three  miles 
north-west  from  Columbia,  is  the  second  borough  in 
size  and  population  in  the  county.  The  census 
of  1890  gives  it  a  population  of  over  2,400.  The 
Pennsylvania  Railroad  passes  through  the  town. 
The  chief  industry  of  the  place  is  in  its  lumber 
trade  and  manufacture  of  enamelled  work  upon  an 
extensive   scale.     The    long   river-front    and    the 


beautiful  scenety  of  the  hills  across  the  river  make 
Marietta  a  delightful  town  in  summer. 

Mount  Joy  and  Eli^abethtoztni  boroughs  are 
located  on  the  Mount  Joy  branch  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad,  connecting  I^ancaster  with  Harris- 
burg,  and  also  on  the  Lancaster  and  Harrisburg 
turnpike.  Mount  Joy  borough  is  within  a  few 
hundred  yards  of  the  Uttle  Chickies  creek,  and 
between  Mount  Joy  and  East  Donegal  townships. 
The  town  lies  twelve  miles  north-west  from  Lancas- 
ter, and  contains  the  finest  public-school  building  in 
the  county,  outside  of  Lancaster.  Elizabethtown  is 
situated  between  the  townships  of  Mount  Joy  and 
West  Donegal,  and  eighteen  miles  north-west 
from  Lancaster.  Within  the  past  few  years  its 
streets  were  regraded  and  macadamized,  and  im- 
provements were  made  in  buildings.  The  town 
is  one  of  the  best  built  in  the  county. 

The  borough  of  Manheim  is  situated  along 
the  Reading  and  Columbia  Railroad,  and  is  about 
eleven  miles  north-west  from  Lancaster.  It  is 
bounded  on  the  north-west  and  south-west  by 
Rapho  township,  and  on  the  east  by  the  Big  Chickies 
creek,  which  separates  it  from  Penn  township. 
Manheim,  with  its  railroad  connection  with  Lan- 
caster, Columbia,  Reading  and  Lebanon,  has 
grown  rapidly  in  recent  years,  and  is  the  third  bor- 
ough in  population,  which  was  almost  2,000  by  the 
census  of  1890.  It  has  a  few  of  the  finest'  and 
largest  stores  of  general  merchandise  in  the  county. 

The  new  borough  of  Lititz  is  also  situated  along 


the  Reading  and  Columbia  Railroad.  It  is  wholly 
within  the  limits  of  Warwick  township,  and  eight 
miles  directly  north  from  Lancaster.  Lititz  is  an 
old  Moravian  settlement,  long  noted  for  its  young 
men's  academy  and  young  ladies'  seminary,  for 
its  beautiful  spring  grounds,  and  as  a  healthful 
summer  resort. 

The  new  borough  of  Ephrata  is  likewise  situated 
along  the  Reading  and  Columbia  Railroad.  It  is 
entirely  within  the  limits  of  Ephrata  township,  and 
is  located  on  Cocalico  creek,  thirteen  miles  north- 
east from  Lancaster.  Ephrata  has  grown  wonder- 
fully in  population  during  recent  years,  having 
almost  2,000  by  the  census  of  1890.  Just  east  of 
the  town  are  the  Ephrata  Ridge,  with  its  lofty 
observatory,  and  the  Ephrata  Springs,  noted  as  a 
summer  resort. 

Strasbiirg  borough — wholly  within  the  limits  of 
Strasburg  township,  and  eight  miles  south-east 
from  Lancaster — is  one  of  the  oldest  towns  in  the 
county.  The  smallest  boroughs  in  the  county  are 
Washington  and  Adamstown.  Washington  is  on 
the  Susquehanna,  three  miles  south-east  from 
Columbia;  being  washed  by  the  river  on  its  western 
side,  and  bounded  by  Manor  township  on  the 
north,  east  and  south.  Adamstown  is  in  the  north- 
eastern part  of  the  county,  bordering  on  the  Berks 
county  line,  and  between  East  Cocalico  and  Breck- 
nock townships. 


There  are  a  number  of  large  and  important 
villages  or  unincorporated  towns  in  Lancaster 
county.  The  largest  unincorporated  town  in  the 
county  is  the  village  of  Millersville^  in  Manor 
township,  a  few  miles  south-west  from  Lancaster, 
with  which  it  is  connected  by  turnpike  and  an  elec- 
tric railway.  Millersville  is  the  seat  of  the  State 
Normal  School  of  the  Second  District  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, the  oldest  institution  of  the  kind  in  the 
State,  and  which  will  be  described  in  another  part 
of  this  book.  This  village  has  a  population  of 
over  1,200,  and  contains  five  churches. 

The  second  village  of  Lancaster  county  in  size, 
population  and  importance  is  New  Holland^  in 
Earl  township,  about  twelve  miles  north-east  by 
east  from  Lancaster,  with  which  it  is  connected 
by  turnpike  and  by  the  Downingtown  and  Lan- 
caster Railroad. 

Terre  Hill  is  one  of  the  most  thriving  villages  in 
the  county.  It  is  located  in  the  northern  part  of 
East  Earl  township,  and  is  connected  by  mail-stage 
with  Lancaster  and  Reading.  Although  six  miles 
from  the  railroad,  it  has  a  very  large  shipping  trade. 
Its  principal  industry  is  the  manufacture  of  cigars, 
for  which  it  is  the  best  equipped  town  in  this  sec- 
tion of  the  State.  The  village,  as  its  name  sug- 
gests, is  situated  on  the  brow  of  an  elevated  ridge, 
at  the  foot  of  which  lies  the  beautiful  Conestoga 
Valley,  spread  out  like  a  vast  garden. 

Among  villages  of  lesser  size  and  importance  is 


Safe  Harbor^  on  the  Susquehanna,  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Conestoga.  This  place  is  situated  on  the 
Columbia  and  Port  Deposit  Railroad,  and  was 
noted  for  its  iron  works,  consisting  of  a  furnace 
and  a  rolling-mill. 

In  the  south-eastern  part  of  the  county,  in  Sads- 
bury  township,  is  Christiana^  located  on  the  Octo- 
raro  creek,  just  on  the  line  of  Chester  county.  It 
is  on  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad,  twenty  miles 
south-east  by  east  from  Lancaster,  and  has  a 
foundry,  a  machine-shop  and  several  other  manu- 
facturing establishments. 

In  the  southern  part  of  the  county,  on  the  line 
of  Eden  and  Bast  Drumore  townships,  is  Quarry- 
z>ille,  so  called  from  its  extensive  quarries.  This 
place  is  sixteen  miles  south-east  by  south  from 
Lancaster,  and  is  connected  with  Lancaster,  Read- 
ing and  Columbia  by  the  Quarryville  branch  of 
the  Reading  and  Columbia  Railroad. 


The  location,  boundaries,  streams  and  villages 
of  the  several  townships  of  the  county  can  be  seen 
by  reference  to  the  map  of  the  county  as  at  present. 
Pequea  has  the  highest  ratio  of  wealth.  Manor  is 
the  most  populous  township  in  the  county  and  has 
the  greatest  aggregate  wealth.  It  is  generally  undu- 
dulating,  except  along  the  river,  in  the  south-western 
part,  where  a  ridge  extends,  known  as  Turkey  Hill. 
Among  the  most  fertile,  wealthy  and  populous 
townships  are  East  Donegal,  the  Hempfields,  the 
Lampeters,    the   Leacocks,    the    Earls,    Manheim, 


Penn,  part  of  Rapho,  Salisbury,  Ephrata,  Stras- 
burg  and  Warwick.  These  townships  all  lie,  with 
one^exception,  in  the  great  limestone  valley,  anH~ 
are  generally  level  or  onlylTioderately  undulating. 
The  only  hills  of  considerable  size  in  this  section 
are  the  Welsh  Mountains,  in  the  northern  part  of 
Salisbury;  the  Ephrata  Ridge, in  Ephrata  township; 
and  Chestnut  Hill,  in  the  Hempfields.  The  town- 
ships along  the  border  of  the  county  are  more  roll- 
ing, but  nearly  all  contain  portions  of  choice  farm- 
ing land.  West  Cocalico  is  rugged  in  the  northern 
part,  but  south  of  Schoeneck  it  is  as  level  as  a  floor 
and  as  fertile  as  it  is  beautiful.  Brecknock  has 
fine  meadow  lands.  Caernarvon  is  reputed  to  raise 
a  superior  quality  of  tobacco.  Sadsbury,  Drumore 
and  Martic  have  the  finest  and  most  picturesque 
scenery.  A  trip  over  the  Martic  Hills,  or  along 
Fishing  Creek  in  Drumore,  or  along  the  Octoraro  in 
Sadsbury,  is  worth  taking  at  any  season  of  the 
year.  Providence  has  the  richest  deposit  of  iron 
ore.  The  townships  in  the  southern  part  of  the 
county  are  best  adapted  to  the  production  of  corn, 
those  in  the  northern  part  to  hay,  and  those  in  the 
central  part  to  the  cultivation  of  wheat.  The 
traveling  facilities  of  the  county  are  excellent, 
the  industries  varied,  and  the  population  honest 
and  progressive. 




npHB  city  of.  Chester,  on  the  Delaware  river, 
-^  some  twelve  miles  below  Philadelphia,  was  the 
first  county-seat  of  Chester  county.  Here  were 
kept  the  county  records,  the  wills,  the  deeds,  the 
mortgages  and  land  surveys.  The  inhabitants  of 
what  is  now  Lancaster  and  adjoining  counties  were 
on  this  account  obliged  to  make  a  journey  of  over 
one  hundred  miles  whenever  they  desired  to  attend 
to  any  legal  business  or  to  discharge  their  duties 
as  jurors,  witnesses  or  public  officers.  Accord- 
ingly, early  in  1729,  the  settlers  living  west  of  the 
Octoraro  creek  and  on  both  sides  of  the  Susque- 
hanna river  petitioned  the  Governor  and  his  Council 
to  make  a  new  county.  Governor  Patrick  Gordon 
and  his  Council,  who  were  at  this  time  in  session 
at  Philadelphia,  granted  the  petition  in  February, 
1729.  At  the  same  time  a  commission  of  twelve 
prominent  and  influential  men  was  appointed,  who 
were  to  meet  John  Taylor,  the  public  Surveyor  of 
Chester  county,  to  survey  and  mark  the  boundary 
line  between  Chester  and  the  new  county.  These 
twelve  men — the  first  six  from  what  is  now  Chester 
county,  and  the  last  six  from  what  is  now  lyancaster 

-.-.^■-:-:;ni0ff0^-    "^ 









5                   10                 15                 20 





county — were  all  honest  and  reputable  citizens, 
most  of  them  being  Justices  of  the  Peace,  and  several 
of  them  members  of  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature. 
In  May  of  the  same  year  this  commission  made  its 
report  to  the  Governor  and  his  Council.  The 
Governor  submitted  the  report  to  the  Assembly  of 
the  province;  and  the  Assembly,  May  loth,  1729, 
passed  the  act  erecting  all  that  part  of  Chester 
county  west  of  the  Octoraro  creek  and  north  and 
west  of  a  line  of  marked  trees,  from  the  north 
branch  of  the  said  Octoraro  creek,  north-easterly  to 
the  river  Schuylkill,  into  a  new  county  to  be  named 
La7icaster  county.  * 

The  twelve  men  constituting  the  commission 
were  Henry  Hayes,  Samuel  Nutt,  Samuel  Hol- 
lingsworth,  Philip  Taylor,  Elisha  Gatchel,  James 
James,  John  Wright,  Tobias  Hendricks,  Samuel 
Blunston,  iindrew  Cornish,  Thomas  Edwards  and 
John  Musgrpve. 


Lancaster  county  was  the  first  county  of  Penn- 
sylvania formed  after  Philadelphia,  Bucks  and 
Chester,  the  first  three  original  counties  within  the 
present  limits  of  the  State.  For  its  first  twenty 
years  (i  729-1 749)  Lancaster  county  embraced  a 
vast  region,  including  beside  its  present  territory 

*The  new  county  was  so  named  by  the  Quaker  John  Wright, 
after  his  native  county,  Lancaster,  or  Lancashire,  in  England. 
He  came  from  England  in  17 14  and  settled  at  Chester.  In  1726 
he  removed  to  the  Susquehanna  and  settled  on  the  site  of 


all  that  part  of  Pennsylvania  to  the  north-east, 
north,  north-west  and  west  of  the  present  limits  of 
the  county.  Its  first  reduction  in  size  was  made 
by  the  erection  of  York  county  in  1749.  It  was 
still  further  reduced  in  size  by  the  formation  of 
Cumberland  county  in  1750,  Berks  county  in  1752, 
Northumberland  county  in  1772,  and  Dauphin 
county  in  1785.  lyancaster  county  was  finally 
reduced  to  its  present  limits  by  the  erection  of 
Lebanon  county  in  1813. 


On  May  8,  1729,  the  Governor  and  Council  of 
the  province  of  Pennsylvania  appointed  the  follow- 
ing persons  Justices  of  the  Peace  in  the  county  of 
Lancaster;  John  Wright,  Tobias  Hendricks,  Samuel 
Blunston,  Andrew  Cornish,  Thomas  Edwards, 
Caleb  Pierce,  Thomas  Read  and  Samuel  Jones, 
Esqs.  The  Governor  and  Council  also  appointed 
Robert  Barber  to  the  ofiice  of  Sheriff  of  the  new 
county,  and  Andrew  Galbraith  to  the  ofiice  of 


The  magistrates  of  the  new  county  called  a 
meeting  of  the  leading  citizens  of  the  county  at 
John  Postlethwait's  tavern,  in  Conestoga  township, 
near  Conestoga  creek.  This  place  is  the  site  of 
the  old  homestead  of  the  Fehl's,  in  Conestoga 
township.  The  public  meeting  was  held  there 
June  9,  1729,  and  the  names  and  boinidaries  of 
townships  of  the  new  county  were  there  agreed 
upon.     The  magistrates'    court   met  at  the  same 


place,   August  5,  1729,   and  confirmed  the  report 
of  the  citizens'  public  meeting. 


Of  the  seventeen  townships,  three  were  outside 
of  the  present  limits  of  Lancaster  county.  Of 
these  Derry  and  Peshtank  (now  Paxton)  town- 
ships are  in  the  present  Dauphin  county,  and 
Lebanon  township  forms  a  part  of  what  is  now 
Lebanon  county.  The  other  fourteen  townships — 
all  of  which  were  within  the  present  limits 
of  Lancaster  county — were  Drumore,  Sadsbury, 
Martock,  Conestoga,  Hempfield,  Donegal,  Earl, 
Warwick,  Manheim,  Lancaster,  Leacock,  Lam- 
peter, Salisbury  and  Caernarvon.  The  boundary 
and  original  extent  of  these  townships  can  also  be 
seen  by  reference  to  the  map  of  Lancaster  county 
as  it  was  upon  its  organization. 


Of  the  original  townships  of  Lancaster  county, 
Conestoga,  Donegal  and  Tulpehocken  had  been 
townships  of  Chester  county  before  the  formation 
of  Lancaster;  and  Tulpehocken  is  now  a  township 
of  Berks  county.  Conestoga  and  Tulpehocken  are 
Indian  names.  Donegal  was  so  named  because  its 
early  settlers  came  from  Donegal  county,  Ireland. 
Hempfield  was  so  named  on  account  of  the  great 
quantities  of  hemp  raised  there.  Manheim  was 
named  after  the  city  of  that  name  in  Germany, 
from  which  many  of  the  early  settlers  came.  War- 
wick was  so  named  by  Richard  Carter,  who  came 


from  Warwickshire,  England.  Earl  was  named 
after  Hans  Graaf,  Earl  being  the  English  word  for 
Graaf.  Caernarvon  was  so  named  by  its  early  set- 
tlers, who  came  from  Caernarvon  county,  in  Wales. 
Leacock  was  so  named  by  an  early  Scotch-Irish 
settler.  Lampeter  was  named  after  Lampeter,  in 
Wales,  the  native  place  of  a  few  of  the  settlers. 
Lancaster  was  named  after  Lancaster,  England. 
Salisbury  and  Sadsbury  are  named  after  places  in 
England,  of  which  the  early  Quaker  settlers  were 
natives.  Drumore  and  Martock  were  named  after 
places  in  Ireland,  where  the  Scotch-Irish  settlers 
came  from.  Lebanon  township,  now  in  Lebanon 
county,  is  a  Scriptural  name  given  to  the  township 
by  its  early  inhabitants.  Peshtank,  now  in  Dauphin 
county,  was  an  Indian  name,  later  Paxtang^  now 
Paxtoii.  Derry,  also  now  in  Dauphin  county,  was 
so  named  by  its  early  Scotch-Irish  settlers,  who 
came  from  county  Derry,  Ireland.  Cocalico  town- 
ship, which  was  also  formed  in  1729,  but  several 
months  after  the  first  seventeen  were  erected,  was 
the  Indian  name  of  the  creek  flowing  through  it. 

The  following  table  shows  the  names  of  the 
original  townships,  with  the  derivation  of  their 
names,  and  the  townships  into  which  they  have 
since  been  divided: 



Original  Town-       ,_,     .     ^.         ,.  ^         ,  -^    ,r                   -^«^<'  what  Townshibs 

f.      .                :     Derivation  of  Tozvnshtp  Names.                 ^.         ^.    .^^ 

ships  in  1729,     ,                                                                                    5^z«c^  Divided. 

T^„^,,,^^^                Named    bv  Scotch-Irish    settlers, 
DRLMORE,  .  .  .         ^^^^^  ^  place  in  Ireland. 


East  Drumore  (1886). 
Little  Britain  (1738), 
Fulton  (1844). 

eAr.cnTTDv            ,  So  named  by  Quaker  settlers,  from 
1   Sa»S«^RY,  .  .  .         Sadsbury,  England. 


Coleraine  (1738). 

Bart  (1743). 

Eden  (1855).                           , 

TVTATJTnrir            1  Named   by   Scotch-Irish   settlers, 
Martock,  .  .  .  ,      ^f^^^  ^  pj^^^  .^  Ireland. 

Providence  ( 1853) . 

1   CONESTOGA,  .  .      Indian  name. 

Pequea  (1853). 

Wi7n>rT.T7TirT  r.           So  named    because   much    hemp 

E.  Hempfield.    )    q  q 
W.  Hempfield,  /  ^^^^• 
Manor  (1759). 

Named  by  its  Scotch-Irish  settlers, 
Donegal,  .  .  .         who  came  from  Donegal  county, 

E.  Donegal.    \  ^„,g 
W.  Donegal,  f  ^^3»- 
Rapho  (1741)- 
Mount  Joy  (1759). 
Conoy  (1842). 

■ni7Bi»v                    Named  by  its  Scoth-Irish  settlers, 
uisKKY,    ....         ^^^^  Derry  county,  Ireland. 

Now  in  Dauphin  Co. 

Peshtank,   .  ,  i  Indian  name. 

Now  in  Dauphin  Co.           [ 

I^EBANON,  ...      Scriptural  name. 

Now  in  Lebanon  Co. 

j  Named  in  honor  of  Hans  Graaf, 

Karl, |      Earl  being  the    English  word 

!                                       for  Graaf. 


E.  Earl  (1851). 

W.  Earl  (1828). 

So   named  by  Richard  Carter,  an 
Warwick,    .    .          early  settler  from  Warwickshire, 

Elizabeth  (1757). 
Clay  (1853). 
Penn  1846). 

TvrAT«wT?Tiv/r              So  named  by  early  settlers,  from 
MANHEIM,  ...          Mannheim.  Germany. 


I^ancaster,  .  . 

IvEACOCK,    .     .    . 

Named    after    Lancaster,    Eng- 

So  named  by  a  Scotch-Irish  set- 
tler, who    came  from   Leacock, 

So  named  by  a  few  Welsh  settlers, 
after  Lampeter  in  Wales. 

Lancaster  township. 
Lancaster  city  (1818). 
Le acock. 

U.  Leacock  (1843). 
Strasburg  (1759).  (1843). 

I^ampeter,   .  . 

E.Lampeter,    |    „ 
W.  Lampeter,  )  ^^^i- 

Salisbury,    .  . 

So  named  by  Quaker  settlers  from 

Salisbuay,"  England. 
So  named  by  early  settlers  from 

Caernarvon  county,  Wales. 




COCALICO,    .     .    . 

Indian  name. 

E.  Cocalico,     ) 

W.  Cocalico,     ^1838. 

Ephrata,           ) 

Brecknock,     . 

So  named  by  early  settlers  from 
Brecknock  county,  Wales. 

Indian  name. 

Brecknock,  Lane.  Co.  \  C^, 
Brecknock.  Berks  Co.  \  CT 


Now  in  Berks  Co. 


On  the  4th  of  October,  1729,  an  election  for 
county  officers  was  held.  Robert  Barber,  of 
Hempfield  township,  and  John  Galbraith,  of  Done- 
gal, were  chosen  as  Sheriffs;  and  Barber  was  com- 
missioned on  the  same  day.  Joshua  Lowe  was 
elected  and  commissioned  Coroner.  At  the  same 
election  four  County  Commissioners  and  six 
Assessors  were  also  chosen.  "^ 

The  first  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions  was  held  at 
the  house  of  John  Postlethwait,  in  Conestoga  town- 
ship, in  August,  1729.  John  Wright  and  five  asso- 
ciate justices  held  the  court.  The  first  grand  juryf 
consisted  of  sixteen  men,  four  of  whom  were 
Quakers  and  the  remaining  twelve  Scotch-Irish.  * 
The  non-appearance  of  German  names  on  this  list 
seems  to  indicate  that  the  Mennonites  declined  to 
serve  as  jurors. 

The  first  case  tried  was  that  of  Morris  Cannady, 

^he  Commissioners  were  John  Postlethwait  and  Andrew  Cor- 
nish, of  Conestoga  township  ;  George  Stuart,  of  Donegal  ;  and 
John  Davis,  of  Caernarvon.  The  Assessors  were  Patrick  Camp- 
bell, of  Donegal ;  Joshua  Lowe,  of  Hempfield  ;  and  Richard  HufF, 
John  Dearer,  John  Callwell  and  Isaac  Robinson,  of  Salisburv 
township.  Richard  Marsden  was  the  first  clerk  to  the  Board  of 
Commissioners  and  Assessors. 

t  The  first  grand  jury  were  :  James  Mitchell,  George  Stuart, 
Andrew  Calbraith,  James  Roddy,  Patrick  Campbell,  John  Gal- 
braith and  Ephraim  Moore,  all  of  Donegal ;  Edward  Smout, 
John  and  James  Hendricks,  all  of  Hempfield;  Francis  Jones,  of 
Sadsbury;  Samuel  Taylor,  of  Salisbury  ;  Edmund  Cartlidge, 
Thomas  Baldwin  and  Matthew  Atkinson,  all  of  Conestoga  ;  and 
William  Hay,  of  Paxton. 


who  was  indicted  for  larceny.  He  was  accused  of 
having  stolen  fourteen  pounds  and  seven  shillings 
from  Daniel  Cookson,  who  owned  a  mill  at  the 
head  of  Pequea  creek,  in  Salisbury  township.  The 
jury*  found  the  defendant  guilty;  and  he  was 
sentenced  to  restore  the  money  stolen,  pay  an  equal 
amount  as  fine,  pay  costs  of  prosecution,  pay  two 
pounds  and  eighteen  shillings  to  plaintiff  for  the 
loss  of  time  in  prosecuting  the  case,  and  stand  com- 
mitted to  the  Sheriff's  custody  until  all  the  fines 
and  costs  were  paid.  He  was  further  sentenced  to  be 
publicly  whipped  "on  his  bare  back  with  twenty- 
one  stripes  well  laid  on. ' '  He  received  the  whipping 
and  restored  the  amount  stolen,  but  was  unable  to 
pay  the  fines  and  costs.  He  was  accordingly  kept 
in  jail  one  year,  at  the  end  of  which  the  Sheriff  was 
ordered  by  the  court  to  sell  him  "  to  the  highest 
bidder  for  any  term  not  exceeding  six  years,  and 

*Tliegrandjurors  were  John  Hendricks  and  James  Hendricks, 
of  Hempfield  township  ;  Francis  Jones,  of  Sadsbury  ;  Samuel 
Taylor,  of  Salisbury  ;  James  Mitchell,  George  Stuart,  Andrew 
Galbraith,  John  Galbraith,  Ephraim  Lloore,  Patrick  Campbell 
and  James  Roddy,  of  Donegal;  Edward  Smout,  of  Hempfield; 
Edmund  Cartlidge,  Thomas  Baldwin  and  Matthew  Atkinson,  of 
Conestoga  ;  and  William  Hay,  of  Paxton.  The  first  four 
mentioned  were  Quakers  ;  the  rest  were  Scotch-Irish,  seven  of 
them  from  Donegal  township. 

The  jury  that  tried  Morris  Cannady  were  John  L,awrence,  of 
Paxton;  Robert  Blackshaw  and  Thomas  Gale,  of  Lampeter  ; 
John  Mitchell  and  Joseph  Worke,  of  Donegal  ;  Joseph  Burton, 
Edmund  Dougherty,  Richard  Hough  and  Joshua  Minshall,  of 
Hempfield  ;  Richard  Carter,  of  Warwick  ;  David  Jones,  of  Con- 
estoga ;  and  Lawrence  Bankson. 


that  the  money  thence  arising  be  applied  for  or 
towards  payment  of  the  fine  and  costs  afore- 
said." He  was  sold  by  the  Sheriff  for  six  years  to 
John  Lawrence,  of  Paxton  township,  for  sixteen 
pounds;  but  only  fourteen  pounds  and  five  shil- 
lings were  collected. 


By  the  act  establishing  Lancaster  county,  John 
Wright,  Caleb  Pierce,  James  Mitchell  and  Thomas 
Edwards  were  empowered  to  purchase  a  site  for  the 
county  court-house  and  prison.  Three  sites  were 
proposed — Wright's  Ferry,  now  Columbia;  John 
Postlethwait's  place,  now  Fehl's,  in  Conestoga 
township;  and  Gibson's  place,  the  site  of  Lancas- 
ter. The  Sheriff,  Robert  Barber,  was  so  certain 
that  Wright's  Ferry,  where  he  resided,  would  be 
selected  that  he  built  a  strong  wooden  building  for 
a  county  jail,  near  his  residence.  The  first  county 
courts  were  held  at  Postlethwait's,  from  June,  1729, 
to  August,  1730;  and  a  temporary  wooden  court- 
house and  jail  were  erected  there.  Three  of  the 
magistrates  appointed  to  select  the  county-seat — 
Wright,  Pierce  and  Mitchell — agreed  upon  a  piece 
of  land  for  a  permanent  county-seat;  and  their 
report  was  confirmed  by  the  Governor  and  his 
Council,  May  i,  1729.  This  was  a  lot  of  land  "lying 
on  or  near  a  small  run  of  water,  between  the  plan- 
tations of  Rudy  Mire,  Michael  Shank  and  Jacob 
Imble,  about  ten  miles  from  Susquehanna  river." 
Governor  James  Hamilton,  who  laid  out  the  town 
of  Lancaster,  offered  two  places — "the  old  Indian 



Field,  High  Plain,  Gibson's  Pasture,  Sanderson's 
Pasture,"  being  one  place;  the  other,  ''the  Waving 
Hills,  embosomed  in  wood,  bounded  by  Roaring 
Brook  on  the  west."  The  road  from  Philadelphia 
to  Harris'  Ferry  (now  Harrisburg)  passed  through 
the  center,  Gibson  resided  near  a  fine  spring,  with 
a  large  hickory  tree  before  his  door.  This  was  a 
favorite  tree  of  the  Indians  there,  who  were  called 
"Hickory  Indians."  The  Dark  Hazel  Swamp 
and  the  I^ong  Swamp  were  near  the  center  of  the 
proposed  town,  which  was  laid  out  in  1730  and 
named  Lancaster. 


In  November,  1730,  the  county  court  at  Lan- 
caster allowed  the  petition  of  thirteen  persons  who 
asked  to  be  licensened  as  Indian  traders.  *  At  the 
same  time  permission  was  given  to  nine  persons  to 
keep  public  houses  of  entertainment.  These  per- 
sons were  allowed  to  sell  all  kinds  of  spiritous  and 
malt  liquors,  t 


After  the  erection  of  Lancaster  county  and  the 
organization  of  townships,  the  principal  object  of 
the  inhabitants  was   the  laying  out  of  roads  and 

*The  Indian  traders  were  James  Patterson,  Edmund  Cartlidge, 
Peter  Chartiere,  John  Lawrence,  Jonas  Davenport,  Oliver  Wallis, 
Patrick  Boyd,  Lazarus  Lowry,  William  Dunlap,  William  Bes- 
wick,  John  Wilkins,  Thomas  Perrin  and  John  Harris. 

t  The  tavern  keepers  were  John  Postlethwait,  John  Miller, 
Jacob  Funk,  Christian  Stoneman,  Jacob  Biere,  Edmund  Dough- 
erty, Samuel  Taylor,  Francis  Jones  and  Mary  Denny. 


the  building  of  bridges.  On  January  29,  1730,  the 
magistrates,  grand  jury  and  other  inhabitants  of 
Lancaster  county  presented  a  petition  to  the  pro- 
vincial Council  at  Philadelphia  to  lay  out  a  road, 
by  way  of  Postleth wait's,  in  Conestoga,  from  the 
Conestoga  Indian  town  to  Philadelphia. 

The  Council  granted  a  petition  and  appointed  a 
commission  of  fourteen  prominent  men,  *  seven  from 
Lancaster  and  seven  from  Chester  county,  to  view 
and  lay  out  a  road,  by  way  of  Postleth  wait's,  in 
Conestoga,  from  the  Conestoga  Indian  town  to  the 
King's  high-road  in  Chester  county  leading  to 
Philadelphia.  The  viewers  made  their  report  Octo- 
ber 4,  1733,  and  the  Council  thereupon  approved 
and  confirmed  it,  and  the  road  thus  laid  out  was 
declared  the  King^  s  Highway.  This  is  the  road 
now  passing  east  from'Fehl's,  through  Strasburg 
and  the  Gap,  on  to  Philadelphia. 


At  the  time  of  the  erection  of  Lancaster  county 
1,000  Quaker  families  were  settled  within  its  limits, 
their  settlements  extending  from  the  Octoraro  to 
the  Susquehanna. 


In  1732  there  was  a  remarkable  political  contest 
in  Lancaster  county  for  members  of  the  provincial 

*Thomas  Edwards,  Edward  Smout,  Robert  Barber,  Hans 
Graaf,  Caleb  Pierce,  Samuel  Jones  and  Andrew  Cornish,  of  Lan- 
caster county;  and  Thomas  Green,  George  Aston,  William 
Paschal,  Richard  Buffington,  William  March,  vSamuel  Miller  and 
Robert  Parke,  of  Chester  county. 


Assembly.  Andrew  Galbraith,  of  Donegal  town- 
ship, was  the  candidate  of  the  Scotch-Irish ;  and 
John  Wright,  of  Hempfield  township,  was  the 
candidate  of  the  Quaker  English.  Mrs.  Galbraith 
mounted  her  favorite  mare  Nelly,  fastening  a  spur 
to  her  ankle,  and  with  "her  red  cloak  flowing  to 
the  wind,"  she  rode  off  to  canvass  the  county  in 
the  interest  of  her  husband.  Her  efforts  w^ere 
crowned  with  success,  as  Andrew  Galbraith  was 
elected  and  returned  a  member,  and  took  his  seat 
in  the  Assembly.  The  other  members  of  the  As- 
sembly from  Lancaster  county  were  George  Stuart, 
Thomas  Edwards  and  Samuel  Blunston.  John 
Wright  contested  the  election  of  Andrew  Galbraith; 
but,  after  hearing  the  claims  of  both  at  the  bar  of 
the  Assembly,  the  Assembly  resolved  "that  An- 
drew Galbraith  is  duly  returned  a  member  for  the 
county  of  Lancaster."  John  Wright  was  soon 
after  elected  to  the  Assembly  to  succeed  George 
Stuart,  who  had  died  soon  after  his  election. 


In  1732  Colonel  Thomas  Cresap,  of  Maryland, 
established  a  ferry  and  built  a  cabin  close  to  the 
lands  of  the  Indian  trader  James  Patterson  on  the 
west  side  of  the  Susquehanna.  Cresap  and  his 
Marylanders  came  for  the  purpose  of  driving  Pat- 
terson and  all  of  Penn's  settlers  from  their  lands 
west  of  the  Susquehanna  river  and  seizing  these 
lands  for  themselves.  They  shot  several  of  Patter- 
son's horses.  Patterson  obtained  a  warrant  from 
Justices  John  Wright   and    Samuel    Blunston,  at 


Wright's  Ferry  (now  Columbia),  for  the  arrest  of  a 
man  named  John  lyowe,  of  Cresap's  party.  Con- 
stable Charles  Jones,  of  Hempfield  township,  Mr. 
Patterson  and  his  son  James,  and  several  others, 
crossed  the  river  and  arrested  John  Lowe  and  his 
sons  Daniel  and  William  in  their  house  at  night, 
took  them  by  force  over  the  river  on  the  ice  and 
brought  them  to  Lancaster,  where  he  placed  them 
in  prison.  They  were  afterwards  rescued  from  jail 
b}'  a  party  of  Marylanders.  This  was  the  begin- 
ning of  the  border  troubles  between  the  Maryland- 
ers and  the  Pennsylvanians,  known  as  "Cresap's 
War,"  which  entirely  broke  up  Patterson's  trade 
with  the  Indians  on  the  west  side  of  the  Susque- 
hanna and  caused  him  great  loss.  His  son  James 
was  taken  prisoner,  and  kept  for  a  short  time  in 
"Cresap's  Fort."  Other  unhappy  frays  followed, 
and  the  Marylanders  committed  atrocious  outrages 
upon  the  Pennsylvanians.  The  Lancaster  people 
were  aroused  to  action  and  called  "to  arms,"  and 
the  most  resolute  drove  Cresap  and  his  party  into 


Settlements  had  already  been  made  west  of  the 
Susquehanna,  within  the  limits  of  what  are  now 
York,  Adams,  Franklin,  Cumberland  and  Perry 
counties,  then  a  part  of  Lancaster  county.  The 
first  authorized  settlement  in  the  present  York 
county  was  made  in  the  spring  of  1729  by  the 
Quakers  John  and  James  Hendricks,  of  Hempfield 
township.  The  people  west  of  the  river  petitioned 


the  Lancaster  county  court  for  the  erection  of 
townships  in  that  region;  and  in  November,  1735, 
the  townships  of  Pennsborough  and  Hopewell  were 
organized.     These  are  now  in  Cumberland  county. 


The  undefined  boundary  between  Pennsylvania 
and  Maryland  led  to  a  struggle  between  the  Lan- 
caster people  and  the  Marylanders  in  1736.  Many 
Germans  and  others  had  settled  west  of  the  Sus- 
quehanna, in  what  is  now  York  county,  under  land 
titles  from  the  Penns,  but  accepted  titles  from  Lord 
Baltimore  in  order  to  escape  payment  of  taxes  to 
Pennsylvania.  Feeling  insecure  in  their  lands, 
they  renounced  their  allegiance  to  Maryland,  and 
sought  protection  from  Pennsylvania.  Thereupon 
the  Sheriff  of  Baltimore  county,  Maryland,  with 
300  men  attempted  to  drive  the  German  settlers 
from  their  lands  west  of  the  river  ;  but  Samuel 
Smith,  the  Sheriff  of  Lancaster  county,  led  2.  posse 
comitatus^  composed  of  citizens  of  this  county, 
across  the  river  to  protect  the  German  settlers 
there.  Sheriff  Smith  induced  the  Marylanders  to 
withdraw  without  violence.  Before  long.  Colonel 
Thomas  Cresap  led  a  party  of  about  fifty  Maryland- 
ers against  the  Germans  west  of  the  river  to  seize 
their  lands,  and  killed  an  Englishman  named 
Knowles,  who  resisted  them  ;  but  Cresap  was  at- 
tacked, wounded  and  taken  prisoner  by  the  Lan- 
caster county  Sheriff's  posse,  and  was  taken  to 
the  Philadelphia  jail.  Governor  Ogle,  of  Maryland, 
sent  two  men  to  Philadelphia  to  demand  the  release 


of  Cresap;  but  Governor  Gordon,  of  Pennsylvania, 
and  his  Council  refused  to  surrender  him.  In 
retaliation,  by  Governor  Ogle's  order,  four  German 
settlers  west  of  the  Susquehanna  were  then  seized 
and  carried  prisoners  to  Baltimore;  and  a  band  of 
Marylanders,  under  Higgenbotham,  attempted  to 
drive  the  Germans  from  their  country.  By  order 
of  Governor  Gordon's  Council,  the  Sheriff  of  Lan- 
caster county  headed  a  posse  to  protect  these  Ger- 
mans. The  Marylanders  then  retired,  but  returned 
after  he  was  gone.  Captures  were  made  on  both 
sides.  The  German  settlers  west  of  the  river  were 
annoyed  constantly,  many  being  driven  from  their 
farms,  and  others  prevented  from  tilling  their 
lands.  In  May,  1737,  the  Council  of  Pennsylvania 
sent  Samuel  Preston  and  John  Kinsey  to  Governor 
Ogle  to  treat  for  peace  on  the  border,  but  their 
mission  failed.  In  October,  1737,  Richard  Lowder, 
at  the  head  of  sixteen  daring  ]\Iarylanders,  broke 
open  the  jail  at  Lancaster  and  released  the  Mary- 
landers imprisoned  there,  his  brother  being  one  of 
them.  An  order  from  the  King  of  England  put  an 
end  to  the  dispute,  and  all  prisoners  on  both  sides 
were  released  on  bail. 


In  1738  the  Pennsylvania  Assembly  passed  an 
act  naturalizing  as  British  subjects  the  German  set- 
tlers of  Lancaster  county  who  applied  for  naturali- 
zation. Some  of  these  had  come  to  America  in 
1727,  but  most  of  them  came  between  1731  and  1735. 
Among  the  number  was  John  Bushong,  a  French 


Huguenot,  some  of  whose  descendants  live  in  Bast 
Lampeter  township.  * 


Between  1735  and  1740  the  neighborhood  of 
Reinholdsville  was  settled  by  Germans — Hans 
Beelman,  Hans  Zimmerman  and  Peter  Shumacher, 
large  landholders,  and  others.  In  October,  1741, 
the  town  of  York  was  laid  out  by  Thomas  Cook- 
son,  Deputy  Surveyor  of  Lancaster  county,  by 
order  of  the  Penns.  On  May  i,  1742,  Lancaster 
was  incorporated  by  charter  as  a  borough. 


The  Lancaster  county  court  erected  the  follow- 
ing townships  east  of  the  Susquehanna,  on  petition 
of  the  inhabitants  :  Hanover  township,  out  of 
Paxton  township,  in  what  is  now  Dauphin  county, 
February,  1737  ;  Little  Britain,  out  of  the  southern 
part  ofDrumore,  and  Coleraine,  out  of  the  southern 
part  of  Sadsbury,  in  February,  1738  ;  Berne  town- 
ship, from  part  of  Tulpehocken  township,  in  what 
is  now  Berks  county,  in  1738  ;  Bethel  township, 
from  part  of  Lebanon  township,  in  what  is  now 
Lebanon  county,  in  1739  ;  Rapho,  out  of  that  part 

*Among  those  who  came  with  him  are  such  well-known  Ger- 
man names  as  Hiestand,  Beyer,  Frey,  Carl,  Keyser,  Coble, 
Lehman,  Lutz,  Roth,  Schwartz,  Weis,  Wirtz,  Schroder,  Bil- 
meier,  Horsch  and  others.  Among  those  naturalized  are  such 
names  as  Bender,  Miller,  Keller,  Bare,  Becker,  Schaeffer,  Stump, 
Pickel,  Rutt,  Klein,  Horst,  Graff,  Bassler,  Young,  Immel, 
Eichelberger,  Schreiner,  Ellmaker,  Hartman,  Witmer,  Binkley, 
Buckwalter,  Stetler,  Harnish,  Leman  and  others. 


of  Donegal  between  the  Big  Chickies  and  Little 
Chickies  creeks,  in  May,  1741  ;  and  Bart,  out  of 
the  western  part  of  Sadsbury,  in  November,  1743. 
Little  Britain  was  so  named  because  its  early  set- 
tlers were  all  from  Great  Britain.  Coleraine  and 
Rapho  were  named  after  the  places  where  their 
early  settlers  came  from  in  Ireland.  Bart  is  a 
contraction  of  baronet,  and  was  so  named  from 
Governor  Sir  William  Keith,  who  was  a  baronet. 
Brecknock  township,  named  by  its  early  Welsh 
settlers  after  Brecknock  county,  Wales,  was  in 
existence  in  1740. 


Under  the  administration  of  Governor  George 
Thomas,  Governor  Gordon's  successor,  the  enlist- 
ing of  indented  or  bound  servants  for  soldiers  was 
permitted.  This  was  before  the  British  Parlia- 
ment had  passed  an  act  for  that  purpose,  k^  this 
was  injurious  to  many  citizens  and  contrary  to 
ancient  usage,  John  Wright,  the  mild  but  firm 
Quaker  of  Wright' s  Ferr}^  (now  Columbia),  who 
had  for  many  years  been  a  member  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania iVssembly  from  Lancaster  county,  spoke  out 
freely  and  firmly  against  the  measure.  Governor 
Thomas  therefore  determined  to  remove  him  from 
offices  of  Justice  of  the  Peace  and  President  Judge 
of  the  Common  Pleas.  At  the  May  session  of  the 
Lancaster  county  court  in  1741  he  delivered  a 
charge  to  the  grand  jury  denouncing  executive 
dictation.  He  was  born  of  Quaker  parents  in  Lan- 
cashire, England,  in  1667,   and  came  to  Pennsyl- 


vania  in  17 14.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Assembly 
for  Chester  county,  and  for  many  years  afterward 
for  Lancaster  county.  As  a  Judge  for  Ivancaster 
county  he  was  noted  for  his  promptness,  honesty, 
candor  and  inflexible  integrity.  The  people  of 
Lancaster  county  esteemed  him  so  highly  that  they 
continued  to  elect  him  to  the  Assembly  until  his 
death.  His  constant  desire  was  to  show  his 
good  will  to  mankind,  his  love  of  peace  and  good 
order.  He  died  in  1751,  in  this  same  Lancaster 
county,  for  whose  welfare  he  had  labored  so  dili- 
gently for  many  years,  and  whose  interests  he  had 
so  long  and  faithfully  served. 


In  1 741  the  German  and  Swiss  Mennonite  settlers 
of  Lancaster  county  were  again  misrepresented  to 
the  provincial  government  of  Pennsylvania,  being 
virtually  charged  with  disloyalty,  with  being  ' '  de- 
termined not  to  obey  the  lawful  authority  of  gov- 
ernment— disposed  to  organize  a  government  of 
their  own."  The  Assembly,  in  a  message  to 
Governor  George  Thomas,  vindicated  the  Menno- 
nites,  calling  them  a  "laborious,  industrious 
people,"  and  saying  that  the  Assembly  had  "ad- 
mitted the  Germans  to  partake  of  the  privileges 
enjoyed  by  the  king's  natural-born  subjects."  To 
overcome  these  imfounded  prejudices,  the  Menno- 
nite bishop,  Hans  Tschantz,  and  the  elders  in  a 
church  council  at  Martin  Mylin's  house,  in  Lam- 
peter township,  kindly  reprimanded  Mylin  for 
building    his    sand-stone    mansion,    because    the 



'* palace"  was  too  showy  for  a  Mennonite,  and 
because  it  may  have  excited  the  jealousies  of  the 
provincial  authorities. 


In  1 741  Mr.  Sergeant,  a  New  England  gentle- 
man, undertook  to  teach  the  Shawanese  Indians 
the  Christian  religion  ;  but  they  rejected  his  offer. 
They  reproached  Christianity,  judging  it  by  the 
lives  of  those  who  professed  it.  They  told  him 
that  the  white  traders  would  lie,  cheat  and  do 
other  wicked  things.  They  also  said  that  the 
Senecas  had  given  them  their  country,  and  had 
told  them  never  to  receive  Christianity  from  the 


In  1742  the  Ornish  of  lyancastei  county  petitioned 
the  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania  for  a  special  act  of 
naturalization,  as  their  religion  forbade  them  taking 
oaths,  thus  preventing  their  naturalization  under 
existing  laws.  A  special  act  was  passed  in  con- 
formity with  their  request. 


In  1 741  Count  Louis  Nicholas  Zinzendorf,  the 
great  Moravian  missionary,  arrived  in  America  ; 
and  in  1742  he  visited  Lancaster  and  preached  in 
the  court-house.  He  made  converts  wherever  he 
went.  George  Kline  adopted  his  views,  and  aided 
in  advancing  the  Moravian  Church  in  Lancaster 
county.  Zinzendorf 's  main  object  was  the  Chris- 
tianizing of  the  Indians  ;  and  for  this  purpose  he 
visited  a  distant  part  of  what  was  then  Lancaster 


county — the  Wyoming  Valley — occupied  by  the 
Shawanese  Indians.  The  Indians  were  greatly 
alarmed  wnen  Zinzendorf  and  his  little  company 
set  up  their  tents  on  the  banks  of  the  Susquehanna, 
a  little  below  their  town.  They  could  not  under- 
stand whv  a  strano^er  would  risk  the  dano;ers  of  a 
stormy  ocean  and  go  3,000  miles  from  home  for  the 
unselfish  purpose  of  showing  them  the  way  to 
happiness  after  death,  and  that  too  without  asking 
any  pay  for  his  trouble.  They  suspected  that  he 
wanted  to  get  possession  of  their  lands  for  his  own 
use,  to  search  for  hidden  treasures,  or  to  examine 
the  country  with  the  intention  of  seizing  it  in  the 
future.  They  therefore  called  a  council  of  their 
chiefs,  and  determined  to  secretly  murder  the 
missionary  who  had  come  into  their  midst.  Zin- 
zendorf was  alone  in  his  tent,  sitting  on  his  bed  of 
dry  weeds  and  busy  writing,  when  the  Indians 
came  to  assasinate  him.  It  w^as  a  cool  September 
night,  and  the  small  fire  which  he  had  made  for 
his  comfort  had  roused  a  large  rattlesnake  which 
lay  in  the  weeds  near  by.  In  crawling  into  the 
tent  to  warm  itself  at  the  fire,  the  reptile  passed 
over  one  of  his  legs  unseen  by  himself,  but  observed 
by  the  Indians  who  just  then  approached  the  door 
of  his  tent  to  do  their  bloody  work.  As  the  Indians 
removed  the  curtain  they  saw  that  the  aged  mis- 
sionary was  too  deeply  engaged  in  the  subject  of 
his  thoughts  to  notice  them  or  the  snake  which 
lay  before  him.  They  shrank  from  the  thought 
of  murdering  him,  and  hastily  returned  to  the  town 


and  told  their  companions  that  the  Great  Spirit 
protected  the  old  man,  as  they  had  found  that  his 
only  door  was  a  blanket,  and  as  they  had  seen  a 
large  rattlesnake  crawl  over  him  without  attempt- 
ing to  hurt  him.  This  circumstance,  and  the 
arrival  of  Conrad  Weiser  soon  afterward,  won  the 
friendship  and  confidence  of  the  Indians  for  Zin- 
zendorf  He  passed  twenty  days  at  Wyoming,  and 
then  returned  to  Bethlehem.  He  returned  to 
Europe  in  1743,  and  died  at  Herrnhut,  in  Bohemia, 
in  1760.  His  coffin  was  carried  to  the  grave  by 
thirty-two  preachers  and  missionaries  whom  he 
had  reared,  some  of  whom  had  labored  in  Holland, 
England,  Ireland,  Greenland  and  North  America. 


In  1743  there  was  another  bitter  political  contest 
between  the  English  Quakers  and  the  Scotch-Irish 
in  Lancaster  county.  The  Scotch-Irish  forced  the 
Sheriff  to  receive  such  tickets  as  they  approved, 
and  to  declare  elected  whom  they  wished  to  have 
returned.  The  Assembly  passed  resolutions  cen- 
suring the  Sheriff's  act  in  "assuming  to  be  sole 
judge  at  the  election"  as  being  "  illegal,  unwar- 
rantable and  an  infringement  of  the  liberties  of  the 
people  of  the  province."  The  Assembly  also  passed 
a  resolution  that  the  Sheriff  of  Lancaster  county  be 
admonished  by  the  Speaker  of  the  Assembly.  The 
Sheriff  appeared  before  the  Assembly  and  was 
admonished,  and  promised  to  observe  the  law  in 
future.       He  also  altered  the  return,  thus  giving 


Samuel  Blunstoii,  the  Quaker  candidate,  the  seat 
to  which  he  was  rightfully  elected. 


In  1744  Murhancellin,  a  Delaware  Indian  chief, 
murdered  John  Armstrong  and  his  two  servants  on 
the  Juniata  river.  He  was  arrested  and  imprisoned 
at  lyancaster  for  several  months,  after  which  he 
was  taken  to  Philadelphia  jail.  Governor  Thomas 
held  a  council  with  the  Indians  at  Lancaster  in 
1744,  and  agents  from  Maryland  and  Virginia  and 
from  the  Six  Nations  of  Indians  were  also  present. 
All  disputes  between  the  whites  and  the  Indians 
were  settled  by  treaty.  The  Indians  agreed  to 
prevent  the  French  and  their  Indian  allies  from 
marching  through  their  country  to  attack  the 
English  settlements  in  Pennsylvania,  Maryland  and 
Virginia.  But  the  encroachments  of  the  white 
settlers,  and  the  conduct  of  the  white  traders  who 
furnished  the  Indians  with  liquor  in  violation  of 
the  law,  and  who  cheated  them  out  of  their  skins 
and  wampum  when  they  were  drunk,  still  threat- 
ened trouble.  Even  Governor  Thomas  said:  ''It 
is  not  to  be  wondered  at  then,  if  when  the  Indians 
recover  from  their  drunken  fit,  they  should  take 
severe  revenge."  The  Indians  committed  many 
petty  acts  to  the  annoyance  of  the  English.  They 
took  the  bark  from  the  walnut  trees  belonging  to 
John  Musser,  using  it  as  covering  for  their  cabins. 
Musser  complained  to  the  Governor,  asking  six 
pounds  damage;  but  the  Assembly  voted  him  only 
three  pounds. 


In  1749  James  Webb  complained  to  the  Assembly 
of  Pennsylvania  that  a  member  of  the  Assembly 
from  Lancaster  county  had  been  unfairly  elected 
and  returned,  and  asked  for  redress  of  the  wrong. 
Evidence  was  given  before  the  Assembly  that  the 
election  had  been  conducted  in  a  violent  and  unbe- 
coming manner  ;  that  votes  had  been  received  by 
persons  unauthorized  to  receive  them,  and  particu- 
larly two  by  Christian  Herr,  one  of  the  inspectors  ; 
that  many  persons  had  voted  as  often  as  four,  five, 
six,  and  even  ten  times  ;  that  a  candidate  who  was 
elected  encouraged  them  ;  and  that  2,300  votes  had 
been  received,  although  there  had  been  less  than 
1,000  persons  on  the  ground.  The  Assembly  con- 
firmed the  election,  but  voted  that  the  election 
officers  be  censured  and  admonished  by  the  Speaker 
of  the  Assembly.  The  latter  executed  the  order 
with  due  degree  of  severity. 


On  petition  of  the  settlers  west  of  the  Susque- 
hanna river,  the  Governor  and  Legislature  of 
Pennsylvania  erected  that  part  of  Lancaster  county 
west  of  the  river  into  a  new  county  called  York^ 
August  19,  1749.  Cumberland  county  was  erected 
west  of  the  river,  north  of  York,  January  27,  1750. 
Berks  county  was  erected  out  of  parts  of  Lancaster, 
Philadelphia  and  Bucks  counties,  March  11,    1752. 


As   there   were   frequent   disputes  between  the 


Scotch -Irish  and  the  Germans  in  Lancaster  county,     \ 
the  Penns  ordered  their  agents  to  sell  no  more  land       » 
in  York  and  Lancaster  counties  to  the  Scotch-Irish. 
Many  of  the  Scotch- Irish  settlers  of  Paxton  and 
Donegal  townnhips  accepted  the  liberal  offer  of  the 
Penns  and  settled  in  Cumberland  county.  * 


The  Moravians,  or  followers  of  Count  Zinzen- 
dorf,  settled  Lititz  in  1755  or  1756.  The  Moravians 
established  a  Christain  community  of  their  own  at 
Lititz,  as  they  had  done  at  Bethlehem,  in  North- 
ampton county,  during  the  visit  of  Zinzendorf 
Count  Zinzendorf  s  preaching  in  Pennsylvania — at 
Bethlehem,  at  Lancaster  and  in  Berks  county — 
infused  much  religious  enthusiasm  among  his  fol- 
lowers. While  holding  a  meeting  at  Mr.  Huber's, 
in  Warwick  township,  George  Kline  endeavored 
to  excite  opposition  to  Count  Zinzendorf ;  but 
after  Kline  had  followed  Zinzendorf  to  Lancaster 
and  heard  him  preach  he  became  his  most-  enthu- 
siastic convert  and  disciple.  Moravian  preachers 
from  Bethlehem  afterward  visited  Kline  and  his 
neighbors  in  Warwick  township.  In  1748  the 
Moravians  in  Warwick  township  were  granted  an 
ordained  minister  by  the  Bethlehem  conference, 
and  in  1755  Kline  bestowed  his  farm  of  over  600 
acres  to  the   Moravian  society,    which   then   and 

^he  Works,  Moores,  Galbraiths,  Bells,  Whitehills,  Silvers, 
Semples,  Sterrits,  Woods  and  others— early  Scotch-Irish  set- 
tlers in  the  eastern  end  of  Cumberland  county — went  there  from 
Donegal  township. 


there  established  a  religious  community  of  its  own 
like  the  one  at  Bethlehem.  The  village  thus 
formed  was  named  Litits^  after  a  village  in 
Bohemia,  from  which  the  ancestors  of  the  members 
of  the  society  had  emigrated.  The  Brothers'  and 
Sisters'  Houses  were  built  in  1758  and  1759.  The 
foundations  of  the  famous  institutions  of  learning 
at  lyititz — the  Young  Gentlemen's  Academy  and 
the  Young  Ladies'  Seminary — were  laid  in  the 
early  years  of  the  settlement.  These  schools  were 
built  beside  the  church  and  the  parsonage,  and 
were  under  the  direction  of  the  Morvian  society 
at  Lititz.  These  schools  attained  a  wide  celebrity, 
and  were  attended  by  pupils  from  different  parts  of 
Pennsylvania  and  from  many  other  States  of  the 
Union.  Besides  its  institutions  of  learning,  Lititz 
became  noted  for  its  beautiful  spring  grounds,  and 
in  the  course  of  years  became  a  summer  resort  for 
people  from  various  parts  of  the  country. 



LANCASTER  county  bore  an  important  part  in 
the  French  and  Indian  War,  which  broke  out 
between  the  English  and  French  colonies  in  North 
America  in  1754,  and  which  lasted  ten  years.  The 
most  important  Indian  tribes  of  Pennsylvania  that 
aided  the  French  in  the  war  were  the  Delawares 
and  the  Shawanese,  who  committed  the  most  cruel 
murders  among  the  frontier  settlements  of  Penn- 
sylvania. The  French  incited  these  Indians  by 
promising  to  restore  their  lands  to  them  after  con- 
quering them  from  the  English. 


To  Oppose  the  French  invasion  of  Pennsylvania, 
Benjamin  Franklin  was  commissioned  to  procure 
150  wagons  and  1,500  pack-horses.  In  a  few 
weeks  all  the  wagons  and  fifty  pack-horses  were 
obtained  in  Lancaster,  York  and  Cumberland 
counties.  The  wagons  and  pack-horses,  with  the 
necessary  provisions,  were  sent  to  General  Brad- 
dock  and  met  him  at  Will's  Creek,  now  Cumber- 
land, Maryland.  Braddock's  defeat  and  death  in 
the  battle  of  the  Monongahela,  July  9th,  1755, 
produced  alarm  throughout  the  English  colonies, 
as  it  exposed  the  whole  western  frontiers  of  Penn- 


sylvania,  Maryland  and  Virginia  to  the  ravages  of 
the  French  and  their  Indian  allies.  The  Indians 
roamed  unmolestedly  and  fearlessly  over  the  back 
counties  of  Pennsylvania,  committing  the  most 
dreadful  outrages  and  cruel  murders  upon  the 
white  settlers.  The  savages  ravaged  on  both  sides 
of  the  Susquehanna;  destroying  the  settlements 
at  the  Great  Cove,  in  Cumberland  county,  and 
others  on  the  Tulpehocken,  in  Berks  county. 
The  Seventh  Day  Baptists  at  Ephrata  gave  their 
cloisters,  chapels  and  meeting-rooms  for  the  shel- 
ter of  the  white  settlers  whom  the  Indians  drove 
from  the  Tulpehocken,  in  Berks  county,  and  from 
Paxton  township,  in  Lancaster  county. 


lyate  in  1755  a  block-house,  or  wooden  fort,  was 
erected  at  Lancaster,  then  a  town  of  2,000  inhabi- 
tants. Two  letters  from  Edward  Shippen,  a 
leading  citizen  of  Lancaster,  to  James  Hamilton, 
Esq. ,  of  Philadelphia,  concerning  this  block-house, 
show  the  alarm  among  the  Lancaster  people  caused 
by  the  Indian  outrages.  Some  of  the  Paxton  set- 
tlers petitioned  the  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania  for 
a  militia  law,  and  asked  that  Conrad  Weiser  be 
sent  among  the  Indians  at  Shamokin  on  a  mission 
of  peace. 


In  January,  1756,  French  and  Indian  marauding 
parties  attacked  the  English  settlements  on  the 
Juniata  river,  murdering  and  scalping  such  of  the 
settlers  as  did  not  flee  from  their  homes  or  were 

brie:f  history  of  i^ancastkr  county.      137 

not  taken  prisoners.  The  English  protected  their 
frontiers  by  erecting  a  line  of  forts  and  block- 
houses, which  they  garrisoned  with  militia.  The 
authorities  of  Pennsylvania  gathered  in  the  friendly 
Indians  from  the  Susquehanna  to  Philadelphia,  so 
that  they  would  not  be  mistaken  for  enemies. 
These  did  not  long  remain  at  Philadelphia. 
Headed  by  their  leaders,  Scarroyady  and  Montour, 
at  the  risk  of  their  lives,  they  visited  several  tribes 
of  Indians  located  along  the  Susquehanna,  to  per- 
suade them  to  live  at  peace  with  the  white  settlers 
of  Pennsylvania. 


The  people  of  Lancaster  county  joined  with 
those  of  the  frontier  counties  of  Pennsylvania  in 
expressing  the  highest  indignation  because  the  As- 
sembly of  the  province,  with  its  Quaker  majority, 
refused  to  adopt  warlike  measures  to  put  a  stop 
to  the  horrible  Indian  massacres.  They  held  pub- 
lic meetings  and  resolved  that  they  would  "repair 
to  Philadelphia  and  compel  the  provincial  authori- 
ties to  pass  proper  laws  to  defend  the  country 
and  oppose  the  enemy."  The  dead  bodies  of  some 
of  the  murdered  and  mangled  were  sent  to  Phila- 
delphia, and  hauled  about  the  streets  with  placards 
announcing  that  these  were  the  victims  of  the 
Quaker  policy  of  non-resistance. 


Governor  Morris,  of  Pennsylvania,  was  preparing 
to  wage  a  vigorous  war  against  the  Delaware  and 
Shawanese  Indians,  when  he  was  infonned  that  Sir 


William  Johnson,  through  the  medium  of  the  Six 
Nations,  had  induced  these  tribes  to  make  peace 
with  the  English.  The  Governor  then  issued  a 
proclamation  of  peace,  and  in  November,  1756, 
held  a  council  with  these  Indians  at  Easton.  At 
this  council  Governor  Morris  succeeded  in  making 
a  treaty  of  peace  with  Teedyuscung,  the  chief  of 
the  Delawares,  and  also  with  the  chiefs  of  the 


No  sooner  had  the  Treaty  of  Easton  been  con- 
cluded than  white  settlers  south  of  the  Blue 
Mountains  were  cruelly  murdered  by  the  Indians, 
and  the  frontier  settlers  again  fled  into  the  interior 
for  safety.  The  Governor  and  Council  of  Pennsyl- 
vania raised  twenty-five  companies,  amounting  to 
1,400  men,  to  defend  the  settlements  against  the 
savages.  Nine  of  these  companies  were  under  the 
command  of  Lieutenant  Colonel  Conrad  Weiser, 
and  were  stationed  at  various  points  from  the  Dele- 
ware  to  the  Susquehanna.  The  other  companies 
were  under  the  command  of  Major  James  Burd  and 
Colonel  John  Armstrong,  and  were  stationed  princi- 
pally west  of  the  Susquehanna.  The  Delawares 
and  the  Shawanese,  incited  and  aided  by  the 
French,  kept  up  their  war  on  the  English  until 
1757.  The  French  and  Western  Indians  com- 
mitted many  murders  among  the  English  settle- 
ments. Cumberland,  Berks,  Northampton  and 
Lancaster  counties  were  kept  in  continual  alarm  ; 
and  Indian  scalping  parties  came  to  within  thirty 
miles  of  Philadelphia. 


On  May  29,  1757,  Governor  Denny,  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, held  a  conncil  with  the  Indian  chiefs  of  the 
Six  Nations  at  Lancaster,  and  made  a  treaty  with 
them.  They  presented  their  grievances,  and  said 
that  the  French  told  them  as  follows:  "Children, 
you  see,  and  we  have  often  told  you,  how  the 
English,  your  brothers,  serve  you.  They  plant 
all  the  countr}'  and  drive  you  back;  so  that,  in  a 
little  time,  3'ou  will  have  no  land.  It  is  not  so  with 
us.  Though  we  build  trading-houses  on  your  lands, 
we  do  not  plant.  We  have  our  provisions  from  over 
the  great  water. ' '  The  famous  chief.  King  Beaver, 
was  also  present,  and  made  the  following  speech : 
''When  our  Great  Father  came  first,  we  stood  on 
the  Indian's  path.  We  looked  to  the  sun  as  he 
rose  in  the  east.  We  gave  the  English  venison. 
The  English  gave  us  many,  many  good  things. 
But  the  English  trod  on  our  toes.  We  turned  our 
faces  to  the  west.  The  English  trod  on  our  heels. 
We  walked  on.  The  English  followed.  We 
walked  on,  not  knowing  where  to  rest.  The  Eng- 
lish were  at  our  heels.  Father,  we  are  weary. 
W^e  wish  to  rest." 

At  this  meeting  the  Indians  complained  of  so 
much  injustice  done  them  by  the  English  settlers 
that  many  concessions  were  made  by  the  coun- 
cilors. This  was  done  to  secure  the  friendship  and 
good  will  of  the  Indians  and  to  alienate  them 
from   the    French.     To   strengthen   this    friendly 


feeling,  the  Pennsylvanians  agreed  to  furnish  them 
with  cattle,  flour  and  kegs  of  rum. 


In  August,  1757,  the  Delawares,  Shawanese  and 
other  tribes  made  a  treaty  with  the  authorities  of 
Pennsylvania,  at  Easton.  In  October,  1758,  the 
Governors  of  PenUvSylvania  and  New  Jersey  made 
a  definitive  treaty  with  the  Delawares  under  their 
chief,  Teedyuscung,  and  with  the  Six  Nations, 
the  Conoys,  the  Nanticokes  and  other  tribes,  at 
Easton.  Sir  William  Johnson  and  other  agents 
were  also  present.  The  Indians  agreed  to  a  "ces- 
sation of  hostilities  and  to  take  up  arms  with  the 
English  against  the  French." 


After  the  English,  under  General  John  Forbes,  had 
taken  Fort  Duquesne  [du-kane]  from  the  French, 
in  November,  1758,  that  post  was  garrisoned  by  a 
part  of  Forbes' s  expedition  under  Colonel  Hugh 
Mercer  ;  while  the  other  troops  were  marched  to 
and  quartered  at  Lancaster,  Reading  and  Phila- 
delphia. The  citizens  of  those  places  complained 
greatly  on  account  of  the  conduct  of  the  soldiers 
and  the  oppression  of  the  officers.  The  Assembly 
of  Pennsylvania,  after  vainly  remonstrating  against 
these  outrages,  ordered  a  barracks  for  500  men  to 
be  erected  at  Lancaster,  in  1759.  William  Baus- 
man  was  appointed  barracks-master. 


The  Shawanese  and  the  Western  Indians  still 
committed   murders   and   other  outrages   on    the 


frontier  settlements  of  Pennsylvania,  Maryland  and 
Virginia  ;  Indian  scalping  parties  marking  their 
course  with  blood  and  ruin.  Another  treaty  made 
with  the  Indians  at  Lancaster,  August  9,  1762, 
restored  peace  for  a  short  time.  In  1763  the 
Indians  overran  Cumberland  county  and  burned 
houses,  barns,  corn,  hay  and  everything  that  was 
combustible,  and  cruelly  murdered  the  settlers. 
Many  of  the  settlers  fled  to  Carlisle  and  Shippens- 
burg,  and  others  sought  refuge  in  Lancaster 
county.  Late  in  August,  1763,  about  no  volun- 
teers from  Lancaster  county  skirmished  with  a 
party  of  Indians  at  Muncy  Hill,  near  the  pres- 
ent site  of  Muncy,  Lycoming  county,  killing 
twelve  of  them,  and  losing  four  of  their  own  men 
killed  and  four  wounded.  In  September,  1763,  In- 
dians murdered  white  settlers  and  burned  dwel-. 
lings  in  Berks  county,  even  in  the  vicinity  of 
Reading.  "^ 


The  people  of  Lancaster  county,  especially  the 
Scotch-Irish  settlers  of  Pax  ton  and  Donegal  town- 
ships, suffered  terribly  from  Indian  outrages  during 
the  whole  ten  years  of  the  French  and  Indian  War. 
Men,  women  and  children  were  murdered  while  at 
work  in  the  fields,  at  their  meals,  or  in  their  beds  at 
night.   Sights  of  horror,  scenes  of  slaughter,  bloody 

*riie  Indians  were  proceeding  from  Great  Island,  in  the  Sus- 
quehanna, to  the  frontier  settlements  of  Pennsylvania,  or  to  the 
Indian  villiages  of  the  West. 


scalps,  mangled  bodies,  hacked  limbs — these  were 
the  evidences  of  Indian  cruelty  and  barbarity.  Such 
horrible  sights  and  fiendish  atrocities  excited  the 
fiercest  rage  and  indignation  among  the  people  of 
Paxton,  Hanover  and  Donegal  townships;  and  they 
became  desperate  in  their  determination  for  re- 
venge on  the  savage  butchers  of  their  kinsmen  and 


The  Conestoga  Indians  had  never  been  at  war 
with  the  whites,  and  had  always  been  classed  as 
friendly  Indians.  But  several  other  friendly 
Indians  told  the  whites  that  Bill  Sock,  a  well- 
known  Conestoga  Indian,  had  committed  several 
murders.  Colonel  John  Hambright,  Mrs.  Thompson 
and  Anne  Mary  I^e  Roy,  of  Lancaster  borough,  and 
Alexander  Stephen  and  Abraham  Newcomer,  of 
Lancaster  county,  made  affidavits  against  Bill 
Sock,  saying  that  he  had  made  threats  of  murder, 
and  that  he  had  been  seen  acting  suspiciously. 
Indians  had  been  traced  by  scouts  to  the  wigwams 
at  Conestoga.  The  Paxton  and  Donegal  Rangers 
watched  the  hostile  and  friendly  Indians  very 
closely.  In  September,  1763,  the  Indians  eluded 
their  closely  searching  pursuers.  The  "Paxton 
Boys  "  and  their  neighbors,  after  vainly  asking  pro- 
tection from  the  Governor  and  provincial  authori- 
ties at  Philadelphia,  determined  to  strike  terror 
into  all  Indians  by  exterminating  the  Conestoga 
tribe,  and  thus  put  a  stop  to  Bill  Sock's  and  George 


Sock's  prowling  around  the  country  and  to  their 
dances  at  Conestoga. 


On  Wednesday,  December  14,  1763,  a  company 
of  about  sixty  men  from  Paxton,  Hanover  and 
Donegal  townships,  called  the  Paxton  Boys^  and 
commanded  by  Captain  Lazarus  Stewart,  attacked 
the  Conestoga  Indian  town,  in  Manor  township, 
and  barbarously  massacred  the  six  Indians  at 
home,  among  whom  was  the  old  chief  Shaheas, 
who  had  always  been  noted  for  his  friendship 
toward  the  whites.  The  other  five  victims  were  a 
son  of  Shaheas,  George,  Harry,  Sally  and  another 
old  woman.  Most  of  the  Indians  were  absent  at 
the  time.  After  slaughtering  and  scalping  the  six 
at  home,  the  Paxton  Boys  burned  the  Indian  huts, 
thus  destroying  the  village.  The  news  reached 
Lancaster  the  same  day  through  an  Indian  boy 
who  escaped,  and  a  Coroner's  jury  went  to  the 
scene  of  the  tragedy.  Bill  Sock  and  several  other 
Indians,  who  had  gone  to  Thomas  Smith's  Iron 
Works  in  Martic  township  to  sell  baskets  and 
brooms,  fled  for  protection  to  Lancaster  borough, 
as  did  the  Indians  John  Smith  and  his  wife  Peggy 
with  their  child,  and  young  Joe  Hays,  who  had 
been  at  Peter  Swarr's,  about  two  and  a-half  miles 
north-west  from  Lancaster.  The  magistrates  of 
Lancaster  brought  the  other  survivors  into  town 
to  protect  their  lives,  condoled  with  them  on  the 
massacre  of  their  kinsmen,  took  them  by  the  hand 


and  promised  them  protection.  The  Indians  were 
placed  in  the  newly  erected  work-house  to  insure 
their  safety.  When  the  news  of  the  massacre 
reached  Philadelphia  and  the  eastern  counties  of 
Pennsylvania  it  caused  great  excitement  among 
the  Quakers  and  the  colonial  authorities;  and 
Governor  John  Penn  issued  a  proclamation,  de- 
nouncing the  outrage  and  offering  a  large  reward 
for  the  arrest  and  punishment  of  the  murderers. 


The  Paxton  Boys  were  two  much  exasperated 
and  too  terribly  in  earnest  to  pay  any  attention 
to  the  Governor's  proclamation;  and  as  soon  as 
they  heard  that  the  other  Conestoga  Indians  were 
at  Lancaster  they  proceeded  to  that  town,  stormed 
the  jail  and  work-house,  and  mercilessly  massacred 
the  fourteen  Indians  confined  there  for  protection, 
Tuesday,  December  27,  1763.  The  unarmed  and 
defenseless  Conestogas  prostrated  themselves  with 
their  children  before  their  infuriated  murderers, 
protesting  their  innocence  and  their  love  for  the 
English,  and  pleading  for  their  lives;  but  the  only 
answer  made  to  their  piteous  appeals  was  the 
hatchet.  The  murderers  did  their  work  with' 
rifles,  tomahawks  and  scalping-knives.  The  vic- 
tims were  horribly  butchered,  some  having  their 
brains  blown  out,  others  their  legs  chopped  off, 
others  their  hands  cut  off.  Bill  Sock  and  his 
wife  Molly  and  their  two  children  had  their  heads 
split  open  and  scalped.   The  other  victims  were  John 


146        BRI^F  HtlSTORY   OI^  LANCAST'KR   COtTNTV. 

Smith  and  his  wife  Peggy,  Captain  John  and  his 
wife  Betty  and  their  son  Little  John,  the  little 
boys  Jacob,  Christy  and  Little  Peter,  and  Peggy 
and  another  little  girl.  The  mangled  bodies  of 
the  victims  were  all  buried  at  Lancaster.  Such 
was  the  sad  end  of  the  Conestoga  Indians,  the  rem- 
nant of  the  once  powerful  Susquehannocks,  who  a 
century  before  held  dominion  over  all  the  other 
Indian  tribes  of  the  Susquehanna  Valley  and  those 
on  the  shores  of  the  Chesapeake.  Sheriff  John  Hay, 
of  Lancaster  county,  at  once  wrote  to  Governor 
John  Penn  at  Philadelphia,  informing  him.  of  this 
second  massacre.  Thereupon  the  Governor  issued 
another  proclamation,  denouncing  the  murderers 
and  offering  a  large  reward  for  their  arrest  and  pun- 
ishment, but  without  effect. 


As  soon  as  the  Paxton  Boys  heard  that  the 
Moravian  Indians  had  been  placed  for  safety  in  the 
barracks  at  Philadelphia  they  proceeded  to  that 
city  and  spread  terror  among  its  people.  Governor 
John  Penn  fled  to  Dr.  Franklin's  house  for  safety; 
and  only  the  vigorous  measures  of  the  inhabitants 
saved  the  city  from  the  fury  of  tiie  exasperated 
Paxton  Boys,  who  were  disposed  to  wreak  venge- 
ance on  the  authorities  and  the  Quakers  who  had 
undertaken  to  protect  the  Indians.  The  Paxton 
Boys  finally  concluded  to  return  peaceably  to  their 
Jiomes,  leaving  two  of  their  number,  James  Gibson 
and  Matthew  Smith,  to  present  their  views  to  Gov- 


ernor  Penn  and  to  lay  their  grievances  before  the 
Governor  and  the  A:ssembly  of  Pennsylvania. 


In  1 761  the  British  government  appointed  two 
eminent  surveyors,  George  Mason  and  Jeremiah 
Dixon,  to  run  a  line  between  Pennsylvania  and 
Maryland,  so  as  to  end  the  long  dispute  between 
those  two  English  colonies  about  the  boundary  line 
between  them.  These  surveyors  finished  their 
work  in  1767,  and  the  line  fixed  by  them  has  ever 
since  been  called  Masoii' s  and  Dixon^ s  Line.  This 
line  forms  the  southern  boundary  of  Lancaster 
county  as  well  as  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania. 


On  petition  of  the  inhabitants,  the  Lancaster 
county  court  erected  the  north-eastern  part  of 
Warwick  township  into  a  new  township  called 
Elizabeth^  from  the  furnace  of  that  name,  in  1757  ; 
and  the  north-eastern  part  of  Donegal  township 
into  a  new  township  called  Mount  Joy^  in  1759. 
During  this  period,  also,  Manor  township  was 
formed  out  of  the  Conestoga  Manor,  which  had 
hitherto  been  the  southern  part  of  Hempfield  town- 
ship ;  and  Strasburg  township  was  formed  out  of 
that  part  of  Leacock  township  south  of  the  Pequea, 
which  then  included  what  is  now  Strasburg  and 


In  1 761  William  Adams  laid  out  Adamstown  ; 
and  in  1762  Mr.  Doner  laid  out  May  town,  so  call- 
ed because  it  was  laid  out  on  May  day. 


In  1760  or  1 76 1  the  eccentric  German  baron, 
Wilhelm  Heinrich  Steigel,  who  had  managed  the 
Elizabeth  iron  works .  for  many  years  when  they 
were  owned  by  Benezet  &  Co.,  of  Philadelphia, 
began  his  strange  career.  After  purchasing  200 
acres  of  land  from  the  Messrs.  Stedman  of  Phila- 
delphia, he  built  a  grand  chateau,  or  castle,  very 
singular  in  structure,  and  afterward  laid  out  a 
town  which  he  named  after  his  native  city  in  Ger- 
many— Manheim.  This  town  was  laid  out  in  1761, 
and  in  1762  it  had  three  houses.  Andrew  Bartruff, 
another  German,  father  of  Colonel  John  Bartruff, 
erected  the  third  house  and  kept  the  first  grocery.  * 

Baron  Steigel  erected  a  glass  house,  where  he 
carried  on  the  manufacture  of  all  kinds  of  glass  for 
many  years.  After  him  Mr.  Jenkins  was  engaged 
in  the  same  industry  in  the  same  house,  of  which 
nothing  now  remains.  Steigel,  who  was  a  baron  in 
Germany,  was  an  iron  master,  a  glass  manufac- 
turer, a  preacher  and  a  teacher,  rich  and  poor,  at 
liberty  and  imprisoned,  in  America,  where  he 
died  a  schoolmaster.  The  Assembly  of  Pennsyl- 
vania passed  a  special  act  for  his  relief,  December 
24,  1774.  During  the  Revolution  he  was  a  Tory, 
siding  with  the  British  government,  and  was  vis- 
ited at  various  times  by  the  British  generals. 

*Ainong  the  first  settlers  of  the  town  were  the  Xaumans, 
Minnichs,  Wherlys,  Kaisers,  Longs  and  Hentzelmans.  In  the 
vicinity  were  the  Lightners,  Reists,  Hersheys,  Hostetters,  Leh- 
mans,  Longeneckers,  Brandts,  Witmers,  Hellars  and  others. 


Ill  1 761  John  Miller,  a  blacksmith  of  Lancaster 
borough,  laid  out  a  town  in  the  north-eastern  part 
of  Manor  township,  on  tracts  of  land  which  he  had 
purchased.  This  was  first  called  Millersbiirg^  then 
Millerstow7t^  and  lastly  Mille7^sville.  John  Miller 
laid  out  the  town  in  five-acre  lots,  subject  to  an 
annual  quit-rent,  and  laid  out  streets  on  the  four 
sides  of  his  largest  purchases.  Several  of  these 
five-acre  lots  still  remain  undivided.  Two  of  these 
lots  were  early  purchased  by  Abraham  Peters, 
father  of  the  late  Abraham  Peters,  who  was  born 
in  the  place  in  1791,  and  who  remained  a  resident 
of  the  village  until  his  death  in  1882. 


In  1763  a  petition  from  Lancaster  county  was 
sent  to  the  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania  asking  for 
the  erection  of  a  House  of  Correction,  or  Work 
House,  at  Lancaster,  to  be  used  for  the  punishment 
and  confinement  of  vagrants  and  persons  guilty  of 
drunkenness,  profane  swearing,  breach  of  the  Sab- 
bath, and  disturbances  of  public  order.  The  Legis- 
lature passed  the  law  asked  for,  and  the  Work 
House  was  erected. 


The  severity  of  the  frosts  for  several  successive 
years  upon  the  grain  in  the  low  lands  and  lime- 
stone soil  induced  many  of  the  Scotch-Irish  set- 
tlers of  Lancaster  county  to  sell  out  to  the  Ger- 
mans in  1763.     They  then  removed  to  the  Chest- 


nut  Glade,  along  the  northern  line  of  what  was 
then  Lancaster  and  Chester  counties,  where  there 
was  heavy  timber. 


Before  1776  Lancaster  county  elected  four  mem- 
bers of  the  Pennsylvania  Assembly.  The  mem- 
bers of  the  Assembly  were  then  elected  yearly,  as 
they  were  thereafter  until  1874.  During  the 
earlier  years  of  the  county  great  care  was  taken 
to  elect  only  men  of  ability  and  of  local  promi- 
nence. * 

*Those  frequently  elected  before  the  French  and  Indian  War 
were  John  Wright,  Thomas  Edwards,  Andrew  Galbraith,  James 
Mitchell,  James  Hamilton  and  Arthur  Patterson.  During  the 
same  period  George  vStuart,  John  Musgrove,  John  Coyle,  Samuel 
Blunston,  Thomas  Ewing,  Thomas  Lindley,  Anthony  Shaw, 
Calvin  Cooper  and  Peter  Worrall  W' ere  each  elected  several  times  ; 
and  Thomas  Reed,  John  Anderson  and  Samuel  Smith  were  each 
once  elected.  Those  frequently  chosen  during  the  period  of  the 
French  and  Indian  War,  and  during  the  interval  between  that 
war  and  the  Revolution,  were  James  Wright,  James  Webb  and 
Emanuel  Carpenter.  Those  elected  several  times  during  the 
same  period  w^ere  John  Douglass,  Isaac  Saunders,  George  Ross, 
Joseph  Ferree,  Matthias  Slough  and  Jacob  Carpenter  ;  and  those 
elected  but  once  were  William  Downing  and  Isaac  Whitelock. 




LANCASTER  county  bore  her  full  share  in  the 
^  great  struggle  for  American  independence,  and 
many  of  her  sons  were  found  among  the  patriots  who 
swelled  the  Continental  armies.  The  patriotic 
indignation  excited  in  all  the  English  colonies  in 
North  America  by  the  passage  of  the  oppressive 
Boston  Port  Bill  in  1774  was  the  first  occasion 
which  called  forth  public  action  in  Lancaster 
county  during  the  Revolutionary  struggle.  On 
June  15,  1774,  the  citizens  of  Lancaster  borough 
held  a  public  meeting  at  the  court-house.  This 
was  in  answer  to  a  call  from  the  Committee  of 
Correspondence  of  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  sent  by 
their  clerk,  Charles  Thompson,  Esq.,  to  William 
Atlee,  of  Lancaster,  and  made  known  by  the  latter 
to  his  fellow-townsmen.  This  meeting  adopted 
resolutions  censuring  the  British  Parliament  and 
expressing  sympathy  with  the  Bostonians.  It  agreed 
to  unite  with  the  people  of  Philadelphia  in  re- 
fusing to  import  or  export  anything  to  or  from 
Great  Britain  until  Parliament  repealed  the  Bos- 
ton  Port  Bill.     A  number   of  prominent  citizens 


were  appointed  a  Coinmittee  of  Correspondence* 
for  Lancaster,  to  correspond  with  the  General  Com- 
mittee of  Correspondence  in  Philadelphia. 


In  answer  to  a  request  from  the  Philadelphia 
Committee  of  Correspondence  for  a  meeting  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Assembly  at  Philadelphia,  and  a 
meeting  of  the  various  county  committees  of  the 
province  with  the  Philadelphia  Committee  of  Cor- 
respondence at  the  same  time  and  place,  the  Lan- 
caster committee  met  July  2,  1774.  In  connection 
with  this  business,  the  Lancaster  committee  called 
a  public  meeting  of  the  people  of  Lancaster 
county.  The  call  for  this  meeting  was  signed  by 
Edward  Shippen,  the  chairman  of  the  Lancaster 
committee,  and  printed  copies  of  the  call  were 
sent  out  and  posted  at  all  the  public  places  in 
the  county.  In  answer  to  this  call,  a  general 
meeting  of  the  citizens  of  Lancaster  county  was 
held  at  the  court-house  in  Lancaster,  July  9,  1774, 
with  George  Ross  as  chairman.  This  meeting 
expressed  loyalty  to  King  George  III. ,  but  denied 
the  right  of  Parliament  to  tax  the  colonies  without 
their  consent,  expressed  sympathy  with  the  people 
of  Boston  and  opened  a  subscription  for  their  relief, 
and  called  for  a  close  union  of  all  the  Anglo- 
American   colonies   to  resist   the   unconstitutional 

*Edward  Shippen,  Georire  Ross,  Jasper  Yeates,  Matthias 
Slough,  James  Webb,  WilHaiii  Atlee,  William  Henry,  Lndwig 
Lauman,  William  Bausman  and  Charles  Hall  formed  the  com- 


and  oppressive  acts  of  the  British  Parliament. 
The  committee  already  appointed  for  Lancaster 
borough  was  declared  a  Committee  of  Correspond- 
ence, and  a  county  committee*  was  appointed  to 
meet  the  other  county  committees  of  Pennsylvania 
at  Philadelphia. 


The  sum  of  153  pounds  was  collected  in  I^an- 
caster  borough  for  the  relief  of  the  people  of  Boston, 
and  a  considerable  sum  was  collected  in  the  sev- 
eral townships  of  the  county.  The  entire  sum  was 
sent  by  Edward  Shippen,  the  chairman  of  the  Lan- 
caster committee,  to  John  Nixon,  Treasurer  of  the 
city  and  county  of  Philadelphia,  who  sent  it  to 
Boston  along  with  the  other  contributions  from 


The  members  of  the  Lancaster  county  com- 
mittee met  the  committees  of  the  other  countiesf  of 
Pennsylvania  at  that  time,  in  convention  at  Phila- 
delphia, July  15-21,  1774.  This  convention  asked 
the  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania  to  appoint  delegates 
to  meet  with  delegates  of  the  other  English  colo- 
nies in  a  Continental    Congress  at    Philadelphia. 

*George  Ross  was  chairman  of  this  county  committee,  and 
the  other  members  were  James  Webb,  Matthias  Slough,  Joseph 
Ferree,  Kmanuel  Carpenter,  WiUiam  Atlee,  Alexander  Lowry 
and  Moses  Irwin. 

fPhiladelphia,  Bucks,  Chester,  York,  Cumberland,  Berks, 
Northampton,  Northumberland,  Bedford  and  Westmoreland 



The  Assembly  appointed  the  delegates  ;  and  the 
Continental  Congress  met  at  Philadelphia,  Septem- 
ber 5,  1774. 


The  patriotic  people  of  Lancaster  were  very 
much  in  earnest  in  the  determination  which 
they  had  expressed  at  their  meeting  of  June  15, 
1774,  against  the  importation  of  British  goods. 
When  two  merchants — Josiah  and  Robert  Lock- 
hart — were  charged  with  violating  the  agreement 
made  at  that  meeting  by  bringing  in  tea  on  which 
the  duty  had  been  paid,  the  committee  investigated 
the  matter,  and  only  acquitted  the  Lockharts  when 
it  was  proved  that  no  duty  had  been  paid  on  that 
tea,  but  that  it  had  been  seized  at  the  Philadelphia 
custom-house  and  bought  by  the  original  owner, 
who  then  sold  it. 


The  action  of  the  Continental  Congress  at  Phila- 
delphia was  as  warmly  sustained  in  Pennsylvania 
as  in  the  other  twelve  English  colonies.  On 
November  22,  1774,  the  committee  of  the  borough 
of  Lancaster  called  upon  the  freeholders  and 
electors  of  Lancaster  county  to  meet  in  the  court- 
house at  Lancaster,  December  15,  1774.  This 
meeting  was  to  be  held  for  the  purpose  of  electing 
a  Committee  of  Observation,  as  recommended  by 
the  Continental  Congress  to  all  cities,  towns  and 
counties  in  the  thirteen  colonies.  Printed  hand 
bills  for  this  call  were  posted  in  all  public  places 
throughout  Lancaster  county,  and  an  election  was 


held  in  all  the  townships  of  the  county  for  mem- 
bers of  the  proposed  committee.  Altogether  there 
were  seventy-six  persons  elected  as  a  Committee  of 
Observation,'^  of  which  twenty-one  were  from 
Paxton,  Upper  Paxton,  Derry,  Londonderry  and 
Hanover  townships,  now  in  Dauphin  county,  and 
from  Heidelberg,  Bethel  and  Lebanon  townships, 
now  in  Lebanon  county.  The  object  of  this  com- 
mittee was  to  see  that  the  agreement  not  to  import 
to  or  export  from  Great  Britain  any  goods  was 
fully  observed,  and  not  to  have  any  dealings  with 
any  one  who  had  commercial  intercourse  with  the 
Mother  Country — in  other  words,  to  "boycott" 
such  persons,  as  well  as  British  goods.  The  enemies 
of  the  patriot  cause  were  as  closely  watched  in 
Lancaster  county  as  in  any  other  part  of  Pennsyl- 
vania or  in  any  of  the  other  twelve  colonies. 


The  Lancaster  county  Committee  of  Observation 
met  at  the  court-house  at  Lancaster,  January  14, 
1775,  in  answer  to  a  call  from  the  Philadelphia 
committee,  to  elect  delegatesf  to  a  general  conven- 

*Among  the  most  prominent  uv&n  of  Lancaster  county  elected 
members  of  this  Committee  of  Observation  were  Edward 
Shippen,  George  Ross,  James  Webb,  Jasper  Yeates,  William 
Atlee,  Adam  Reigart  and  William  Bausman,  of  Lancaster  bor- 
ough ;  Bartram  Galbraith  and  Alexander  Lowry,  of  Donegal  ; 
Peter  Grubb,  of  Warwick  ;  Emanuel  Carpenter  and  Anthony 
Ellmaker,  of  Earl  township. 

fAdam  Simon  Kuhn,  James  Burd,  James  Clemson,  Peter 
Grubb,  SeVjastian  Graff,  David  Jenkins  and  Bartram  Galbraith 
were  appointed  delegates  for  Lancaster  county  in  the  proposed 
convention  of  the  province  of  Pennsylvania. 


tion  of  the  province  of  Pennsylvania  to  meet  at 
Philadelphia,  January  23,  1775.  Edward  Shippen 
was  chosen  chairman  of  the  meeting.  A  *  com- 
munication w^as  read  from  the  Berks  county  com- 
mittee urging  patriotic  action. 


The  news  of  the  first  bloodshed  in  the  Revolu- 
tion at  Lexington  and  Concord,  Massachusetts, 
reached  Lancaster  on  Tuesday,  April  25,  1775,  six 
days  after  the  occurrence  of  the  momentous  event. 
The  borough  committee  met  two  days  later,  April 
27,  1775,  at  the  Grape  Tavern,  the  house  of  Adam 
Reigart,  to  take  any  action  deemed  necessary.  Ed- 
ward Shippen  presided  at  the  meeting.*  This 
meeting  called  a  meeting  of  the  county  committee 
at  Adam  Reigart' s  house  on  Monday,  May  ist,  and 
printed  hand-bills  of  the  call  were  circulated  in  all 
public  places  throughout  the  county.  The  county 
committee  met  at  the  appointed  time  and  place, 
and  resolved  to  form  military  companies  to  defend 
their  rights  and  liberties  with  their  lives  and  for- 


The  warlike  action  of  the  county  committee  was 
followed  within  a  week  by  the  formation  of  mili- 
tary companies  called  Associators.  The  first  of 
these  Lancaster  county  companies  in  the  Revolu- 

■'^he  other  members  present  were  William  Atlee,  William 
Bausman,  William  Patterson,  Charles  Hall,  Casper  Shaffner, 
Eberhart  Michael  and  Adam  Reigart. 


tioti  composed  the  battalion  of  Colonel  Philip 
Greenawalt.  These  troops  fought  bravely  in  1776, 
^']^  and  '78,  in  the  battles  of  lyong  Island,  White 
Plains,  Trenton,  Princeton,  Brandywine,  German- 
town  and  Monmouth.  Three  officers  from  Lan- 
caster borough  were  in  Colonel  Thompson's 
Battalion  of  Riflemen — Colonel  Edward  Hand  and 
Lieutenants  David  Ziegler  and  Frederick  Hubley. 
This  battalion  joined  Washington's  army  at  Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts,  in  August,  1775.  Captain 
Matthew  Smith's  company,  of  Lancaster,  took  part 
in  the  invasion  of  Canada  in  1775.  Lancaster 
furnished  a  number  of  companies  and  soldiers  for 
other  companies  during  the  war,  and  many  of  these 
troops  endured  the  hardships  of  the  encampment 
at  Valley  Forge  during  the  severe  winter  of  1777- 
78.  The  new  nth  Pennsylvania  regiment,  under 
Lieutenant  Colonel  Adam  Hubley,  of  Lancaster, 
formed  part  of  Sullivan's  expedition  against  the 
Indians  in  1779. 


On  the  very  day  that  the  Continental  Congress 
declared  the  thirteen  English  colonies  free  and 
independent  States — July  4,  1776 — a  military  con- 
vention was  held  at  Lancaster,  composed  of  dele- 
gates* from  the  fifty-three  Pennsylvania  battalions 
of  Associators,  to  form  a  Flying  Cainp^  as  directed 

■^ Among  the  delegates  from  Lancaster  county  were  Colonels 
George  Ross,  Curtis  Grubb,  Peter  Grubb,  Robert  Thompson, 
James  Crawford,  Timothy  Green,  John  Ferree  and  Alexander 


OLD  COURT  HOUSE.     (Centre  Square.) 


by  the  Continental  Congress.  Colonel  George 
Ross  was  chosen  president  of  the  meeting,  and 
Colonel  David  Clymer  secretary.  This  military 
convention  elected  Daniel  Roberdeau  and  James 
Bwing  brigadier-generals  of  the  Flying  Camp. 


Many  British  prisoners  were  confined  at  Lan- 
caster at  different  times  during  the  Revolution, 
from  October,  1775,  to  the  end  of  the  war.  Among 
these  prisoners  were  the  Hessians  captured  by 
General  Washington  at  Trenton,  December  26, 
1776,  and  the  British  prisoners  captured  at  Prince- 
ton, January  3,  1777.  Many  of  the  British  and 
Hessians  made  prisoners  by  Burgoyne's  surrender 
at  Saratoga,  October  17,  1777,  were  confined  at 
Lancaster  and  York.  Among  the  prisoners  at 
Lancaster  at  one  time  was  the  unfortunate  Major 
Andre.  In  June,  1777,  the  prisoners  at  Lancaster 
caused  great  alarm  by  threatening  to  burn  the 
town,  and  Congress  took  measures  to  guard  them 
more  securely.  In  1781  there  was  a  daring  plot 
among  the  prisoners  at  the  Lancaster  barracks  to 
effect  their  escape  ;  but  the  plot  was  discovered  in 
time  to  prevent  its  being  carried  out,  and  they 
were  closely  guarded  by  American  troops  under 
General  Hazen. 


Dr.  John  Kearsley,  Christopher  Carter  and  a 
man  named  Brooks  were  arrested  in  Philadelphia 
on  a  charge  of  treason  in  tr>'ing  to  induce  British 


troops  to  invade  Pennsylvania  and  other  colonies. 
These  men  were  sent  to  lyancaster,  and  were 
there  confined  during  the  fall  and  winter  of  1775. 
Over  500  wounded  American  soldiers  from  the 
battle-field  of  Brandy  wine,  September  11,  1777, 
were  brought  to  Ephrata,  where  150  of  them  died. 

When  the  British  took  possession  of  Philadel- 
phia, September  26,  1777,  the  Continental  Con- 
gress fled  from  that  city  to  Lancaster  ;  but  after  an 
informal  meeting  here  they  went  over  to  York, 
where  they  met  September  30,  1777,  and  remained 
in  session  until  the  following  June  (1778). 

While  the  British  occupied  Philadelphia  the  Con- 
tinental money  was  printed  at  Ephrata.  American 
soldiers  were  quartered  at  the  barracks  at  Lancas- 
ter during  the  winter  of  1777-78,  and  also  in  the 
Lutheran  and  Reformed  churches  at  Manheim. 


The  only  considerable  body  of  people  in  Lancas- 
ter county  who  opposed  the  action  of  the  patriots, 
and  who  were  therefore  denounced  by  the  patriots 
as  "Tories"  and  "enemies  of  America,"  were  the 
non-resistant  sects,  such  as  the  Quakers,  the  Men- 
nonites  and  the  Bunkers,  whose  religion  teaches 
them  not  to  bear  arms  and  not  to  resist  constituted 
authority,  as  St.  Paul  said:  "Resist  not  the 
powers  that  be,  for  they  are  ordained  of  God." 
These  sects  believed  it  wrong  to  take  up  the  sword 
or  to  resist  "the  powers  that  be,"  under  any  cir- 
stances.     Besides  this,    the  Mennonites  who   had 


settled  here  had  vowed  loyalty  to  the  King  of 
Great  Britain  and  to  the  proprietary  of  the  province 
of  Pennsylvania,  and  they  did  not  want  to  violate 
that  vow.  The  early  Mennonite  settlers  having 
been  naturalized  as  British  subjects,  the  members 
of  that  sect  desired  also  to  remain  submissive  to 
the  power  that  naturalized  them. 


The  prominent  men  of  Lancaster  during  the 
Revolution  were  Edward  Shippen,  Jasper  Yeates, 
Adam  Reigart  and  George  George  Ross 
was  a  member  of  the  Continental  Congress,  and 
was  Lancaster's  signer  of  the  Declaration  of  Inde- 
pendence. There  was  also  a  Colonel  George  Ross. 
The  other  prominent  men  of  Lancaster  county 
were  Bartram  Galbraith  and  Alexander  Lowry,  of 
Donegal  township,  and  Emanuel  Carpenter,  of 
Earl  township.  The  last  of  these  was  President 
Judge  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  during  the 
last  twenty  years  of  his  life  (i 760-1780).* 

*The  delegates  from  Lancaster  county  to  the  State  convention 
at  Philadelphia,  in  July,  1776,  which  framed  the  first  vState  Con- 
stitution for  Pennsylvania,  were  Crcorge  Ross,  John  Hubley, 
Henry  Slayniaker,  Philip  Marsteller,  Thomas  Porter,  Joseph 
Sherer,  Bartram  Galbraith  and  Alexander  Lowry.  The  dele- 
gates from  Lancaster  county  to  the  State  convention  at  Phila- 
delphia which  framed  the  vState  Constitution  of  1790  were  Gen- 
eral Edward  Hand,  Robert  Coleman,  Sebastian  Graff,  William 
Atlee,  John  Hubley  and  John  Brackbill.  The  deiegates  from 
Lancaster  county  to  the  State  convention  at  Philadelphia,  near 
the  end  of  1787,  which  ratified  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States,  were  vStephen  Chambers,  Robert  Coleman,  Sebastian 
Graff,  John  Hubley,  Jasper  Yeates  and  John  Whitehill. 


l^TASlllA  KTGl^    'ilOTEI.1 





TN  1785  Harrisburg  was  founded  on  the  site  of 
^  Harris'  Ferry  by  John  Harris,  son  of  John  Har- 
ris, the  pioneer  Indian  trader;  and  in  the  same  year 
the  Pennsylvania  Legislature,  on  petition  of  the 
inhabitants,  erected  all  that  part  of  Lancaster 
county  north  of  the  Conewago  creek,  with  part  of 
Northumberland  county,  into  a  new  count}^  called 
Dauphin.  In  1813  the  State  Legislature,  on  peti- 
tion of  the  inhabitants,  erected  a  new  county 
called  Lebanon^  out  of  Lebanon,  Bethel  and 
Heidelberg  townships,  Lancaster  county,  with  part 
of  Dauphin  county,  thus  reducing  Lancaster 
county  to  its  present  limits. 


Lancaster  was  the  capital  of  Pennsylvania  from 
1799  to  181 2,  when  the  State  capital  was  removed 
to  Harrisburg.  On  petition  of  the  citizens,  Lan- 
caster was  incorporated  as  a  city  by  a  charter 
granted  by  act  of  the  State  Legislature  in  1818. 
Two  of  Pennsylvania's  Governors  are  buried  at 
Lancaster — Thomas  Wharton,  who  died  there  in 
1778;  and  General  Thomas  Mifflin,  [who  had  been 


Governor  twelve  years,  and  who  had  also  been 
president  of  the  Continental  Congress.  He  died 
there  while  a  member  of  the  Legislature,  and  his 
remains  lie  buried  at  the  Trinity  Lutheran  Church, 
on  South  Duke  street. 


Samuel  Wright,  son  James  Wright  and  grand- 
son of  John  Wright,  the  pioneer  settler  of  Wright's 
Ferry,  laid  out  the  town  of  Cohimbia  on  its  present 
site  in  1787.  This  place  was  one  of  three  sites 
proposed  in  Congress  in  1790  as  the  place  for  the 
permanent  capital  of  the  United  States — the  other 
two  being  Philadelphia  and  the  site  of  the 
present  capital.  Columbia  was  incorporated  by 
act  of  the  State  Legislature  in  1814.  James  An- 
derson laid  out  the  town  Waterford  at  Anderson's 
Ferry  in  1804,  next  to  »the  town  of  New  Haven, 
which  had  been  laid  out  by  David  Cook  in  1803. 
In  1 81 2  those  two  towns  were  incorporated  as  a 
borough,  called  Mai^ietta^  by  act  of  the  State 
Legislature.  The  village  of  Strasbitrg^  founded 
before  1740,  was  incorporated  as  a  borough  by  act 
of  the  Legislature  in  1816. 

In  1807  the  village  of  Woodstock  was  built  on 
the  river,  in  Manor  township,  a  few  miles  south  of 
Columbia.  In  181 1  Jacob  Dritt  laid  out  the  town 
of  Washington  on  the  site  of  this  village  ;  and  in 
1814  Joseph  Charles  laid  out  Charleston,  just  north 
of  Washington.  In  1827  ^^^^  ^wo  towns  were  in- 
corporated by  act  of  the  State  Legislature  as  the 


borough  of  Washingto7i,  Manheim  and  Elisabeth- 
toii'Ji^  both  of  which  had  existed  before  the  Revolu- 
tion, were  incorporated  by  acts  of  the  State  Legis- 
lature as  boroughs  in  1838.  Adamstoivn,  laid  out 
by  William  Adams  in  1761,  was  incorporated  as  a 
borough  by  act  of  the  State  Legislature  in  1850. 
In  18 1 1  Jacob  Rohrer  laid  out  a  town  at  first 
called  Rohrerstown,  but  afterwards  named  Mount 
Joy;  and  in  1814  the  town  of  Richland,  just  to  the 
west,  was  laid  out.  In  1851  Mount  Joy  and  Rich- 
land were  incorporated  as  Mount  Joy  borough  by 
act  of  the  State  Legislature.  This  town,  soon 
after  its  incorporation,  was  a  thriving  manufactur- 
ing place,  having  several  founderies  and  agricul- 
tural implement  manufactories.  It  also  had  a 
flourishing  young  men's  academy,  whose  buildings 
were  bought  by  the  State  in  1865  and  used  for 
a  Soldier's  Orphan  School  until  1890.  Just  below 
the  borough,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Little 
Chickies  creek,  was  Cedar  Hill  Female  seminary, 
of  which  Rev.  Nehemiah  Dodge  was  principal  and 
proprietor  for  many  years,  and  which  had  students 
from  various  parts  of  the  country.  The  seminary 
buildings  were  destroyed  by  fire  in  1891.  At  the 
time  of  their  destruction  they  were  no  longer  used 
for  school  purposes. 


Since  the  Revolution,  mainly  between  the  years 
1818  and  1855,  a  number  of  new  townships  have 
been  formed.     This  was  done  chiefly  by  the  divi- 


sion  of  the  larger  townships  into  two,  in  order  to 
secure  better  township  government  and  to  provide 
better  school  facilities.  * 


About  a  century  ago  great  attention  was  paid  to 
turnpike  roads  in  Pennsylvania.  The  turnpike 
leading  from  Lancaster  to  Philadelphia  was  erected 
in  1792,  and  is  the  oldest  turnpike  in   the  United 

*In  1 8 18  Hempfield  township  was  divided  into  two  townships, 
called  respectively  East  Hempfield  and  West  Hempfield. 
In  1827  the  western  part  of  Earl  township  was  formed  into  a 
new  township  called  West  Earl.  In  1838  Cocalico  township 
was  divided  into  three  new  townships,  named  respectively  East 
Cocalico,  West  Cocalico  and  Ephrata.  In  the  same  year  (1838) 
Donegal  township  was  divided  into  two  new  townships,  called 
respectively  East  Donegal  and  West  Donegal.  In  1841  Lam- 
peter township  was  divided  into  two  new  townships,  named  re- 
spectively East  Lampeter  and  West  Lampeter.  In  1842  the 
half  of  West  Donegal  •  township  bordering  on  the  river  was 
erected  into  a  new  township  called  Conoy.  In  1843  that  part  of 
Ivcacock  township  north  of  Mill  Creek  was  formed  into  a  new 
township  called  Upper  Leacock.  In  the  same  year  (1843)  the 
eastern  half  of  Strasburg  township  was  erected  into  a  new  town- 
ship called  Paradise.  In  1844  the  western  half  of  Little  Britain 
township  was  formed  into  a  new  township  named  Eulton,  in 
honor  of  Robert  Fulton,  who  was  born  within  its  limits.  In 
1846  the  western  part  of  Warwick  township  was  formed  into 
a  new  township  called  Penn,  in  honor  of  William  Penn.  In 
1851  the  eastern  half  of  Barl  township  was  erected  into  a  new 
township  named  East  Earl.  In  1853  three  new  townships  were 
created — the  eastern  part  of  Martic  being  erected  into  a  new 
township  called  Providence  ;  the  eastern  half  of  Conestoga  into 
a  new  township  named  Pequea  ;  and  the  eastern  half  of  Eliza- 
beth into  a  new  township  called  Clay,  in  honor  of  Henry  Clay. 
In  1855  the  western  part  of  Bart  township  was  formed  into  a 
new  township  called  Eden. 


States.  The  other  turnpikes  in  the  county  were 
afterward  constructed.  The  Philadelphia  and 
Columbia  Railroad  w^as  completed  about  1835. 
This  railroad  was  afterward  extended  from  Colum- 
bia to  Harrisburg.  The  Harrisburg  and  Lancaster 
Railroad,  by  way  of  Mount  Joy  and  Elizabethtown, 
united  with  the  other  railroad  at  Dillerville  and 
near  Middletown,  making  two  railway  routes  from 
Lancaster  to  Harrisburg.  These  became  part  of 
the  great  Pennsylvania  Railroad,  completed  in 
1854,  thus  establishing  one  continuous  railway  line 
between  Philadelphia  and  Pittsburg. 


During  the  second  war  between  the  United 
States  and  Great  Britain,  in  1812 — 1815,  Lancaster 
county  furnished  a  large  number  of  soldiers  for  the 
United  States  service  ;  but  no  companies  sent  from 
this  county  took  part  in  any  battle.  Captain  John 
Hubley  commanded  a  company  from  Lancaster. 
During  the  British  invasion  of  Maryland  and  attack 
on  Baltimore,  in  1814,  Governor  Simon  Snyder 
called  out  the  militia  of  Lancaster  and  the  neigh- 
boring counties,  in  all  about  5,000  men,  to  rendez- 
vous at  York.  The  capture  and  burning  of  Wash- 
ington brought  out*  many  volunteers  from  Lancas- 
ter county;  but  none  of  the  militia  and  volunteers 
from  this  county  w^ere  called  to  meet  the  enemy, 
as  the  British  retired  from  Maryland  after  their 
repulse  at  Baltimore. 



During  the  war  between  the  United  States  and 
Mexico,  from  1846  to  1848,  Lancaster  county  fur- 
nished a  considerable  number  of  volunteers  for  the 
armies  of  Generals  Scott  and  Taylor  ;  but  no  com- 
pany was  organized  in  this  county  for  that  service, 
and  the  volunteers  who  went  from  here  joined  dif- 
ferent commands  at  Harrisburg,  Philadelphia  and 
other  places.  Among  those  from  Lancaster  city 
was  H.  A.  Hambright,  afterwards  a  colonel  in  the 
Civil  War.  Some  of  the  Lancaster  county  volun- 
teers served  under  General  Taylor  at  Palo  Alto, 
Resaca  de  la  Palma,  Monterey  and  Buena  Vista; 
and  others  served  under  General  Scott  at  Vera 
Cruz,  at  Cerro  Gordo  and  at  the  battles  before  the 
City  of  Mexico. 


In  1780  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature  passed  an 
act  for  the  gradual  abolition  of  slavery  in  the 
State.  The  Quakers  were  very  active  in  their 
opposition  to  slavery.  Slaves  were  held  in  many 
parts  of  Lancaster  comity.  The  old  iron-masters 
were  the  principal  slave-holders  in  this  county, 
Curtis  Grubb  being  the  largest  owner  of  slaves. 
While  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature  was  discussing 
the  act  of  1780,  Colonel  Alexander  Lowry,  of 
Donegal  township,  then  a  member  from  Lancaster 
county,  although  himself  a  slave-holder,  urgently 
appealed  to  the  Legislature  to  insert  a  clause  in 
the  law  to  prevent  slave  families  from  being 
divided  and  sold  to  different  masters.     There  were 


many  cases  of  hair-breadth  escapes  and  captures 
of  fugitive  slaves  at  Columbia,  where  runaway 
slaves  often  crossed  the  river  at  the  bridge.  Their 
masters  often  followed  them,  and  arrived  there 
before  their  slaves  and  returned  them  to  slavery. 

William  Wright,  of  Columbia,  son  of  James- 
Wright  and  grandson  of  the  pioneer  John  Wright, 
was  an  old-time  Abolitionist  and  a  very  aggressive 
opponent  of  slavery,  doing  all  he  could  in  the 
interest  of  the  runaway  negroes  and  against  the 
institution  of  slavery.  He  was  once  assaulted 
with  a  rawhide  by  Charles  S.  Sewell,  a  Mary- 
lander  who  had  settled  in  Manor  township,  on  the 
old  homestead  of  the  pioneer  Indian  trader,  James 
Patterson,  after  having  married  Patterson's  grand- 
daughter. Miss  Catharine  Keagy,  in  1804.  Sewell 
was  forced  to  discharge  his  slaves  by  order  of  the 
Lancaster  county  court  made  on  application  of 
W^right.  This  so  enraged  Sewell  that  he  made  an 
assault  upon  Wright  near  Mountville.  Both  at 
the  time  were  on  horseback  en  their  way  to  Co- 
lumbia. Sewell  found  few  friends  in  Lancaster 
county,  and  soon  after  moved  back  to  Maryland. 

William  Wright  was  perhaps  the  first  person 
who  suggested  a  system  and  concert  of  action 
among  the  friends  of  the  slaves  to  help  such 
negroes  as  escaped  from  slavery  in  the  South  to 
freedom  in  the  North.  This  system  and  concert 
of  action  among  the  friends  of  the  slaves  led  to 
the  establishment  of  a  number  of  "stations" 
along   a   route    where    the  friends    of   the    escap- 


iiig  slaves  could  direct  and  pass  the  fugitives 
from  one  friend  to  another.  The  principal  of 
these  "stations"  in  Lancaster  county  were  Co- 
lumbia and  Daniel  Gibbons' s  place,  one  mile  west 
of  Bird-in-Hand.  Sometimes  half  a  dozen  or  more 
runaway  slaves  were  placed  in  the  care  of  these 
s^ret  agents.  This  was  done  so  secretly  that 
very  few  were  ever  discovered  and  prosecuted,  and 
for  this  reason  this  secret  concert  of  action  was 
called  the  "Underground  Railroad."  This  caused 
much  ill  feeling  between  the  people  of  the  Free 
States  and  those  of  the  Slave  States. 


The  first  conflict  and  bloodshed  in  the  United 
States  caused  by  the  Fugitive  Slave  Law,  passed 
by  Congress  in  1850,  occurred  at  Christiana,  Lan- 
caster county.  A  gang  of  kidnappers  in  the  vicin- 
ity of  the  Gap  had  been  in  the  habit  of  catching 
free  negroes  and  selling  them  as  slaves  in  the 
South.  The  negroes  and  their  white  friends  in 
Sadsbury  township  put  themselves  on  their  guard, 
secretly  arming  themselves  and  keeping  watch 
against  surprise  from  strangers  and  suspicious 
characters.  On  September  9th  and  loth,  1851, 
Samuel  Williams,  a  colored  man,  reported  that  he 
had  seen  a  number  of  strangers.  There  were  three 
runaway  slaves  in  the  house  of  William  Parker,  a 
colored  man  living  near  Christiana.  These  were 
claimed  by  Edward  Gorsuch,  a  Maryland  slave- 
holder,   who   obtained   a  warrant   for   their  arrest 


from  the  United  States  Commissioners  in  Philadel- 
phia. United  States  Deputy  Marshal  Henry  H. 
Kline  was  handed  the  warrant.  Kline  and  a  few 
assistants  from  the  neighborhood,  accompanied  by 
Edward  Gorsnch,  the  claimant,  and  his  son,  Dick- 
inson Gorsuch,  and  several  relatives,  J.  M.  Gor- 
such,  Joshua  Gorsuch  and  Dr.  Thomas  Pearce,  and 
several  other  men,  appeared  at  Parker's  house 
before  daylight  on  September  ii,  1851,  and 
attempted  to  take  away  the  runaway  slaves  by 
force.  The  report  of  a  gun  and  the  blowing  of  a 
dinner-horn  by  the  inmates  aroused  the  neighbor- 
hood, and  the  friends  of  the  runaway  slaves  has- 
tened to  the  place.  Deputy  Marshal  Kline  hid 
himself  in  a  corn-field,  and  Gorsuch  and  his  party 
retired  a  short  distance.  Castner  Hanway,  Elijah 
Lewis  and  Joseph  Scarlet  came  to  the  rescue,  and 
advised  the  slave-owners  to  leave;  while  colored 
people,  armed  with  guns,  scythes  and  clubs,  were 
coming  from  all  directions.  Edward  Gorsuch 
again  approached  the  house,  saying:  "I  will  have 
my  property  dead  or  alive."  His  sons  and 
nephews  followed  him,  but  the  negroes  fired 
upon  the  party.  Edward  Gorsuch  was  niortally 
wounded,  and  one  of  his  slaves  split  his  head  with 
a  cornstalk-cutter.  His  son,  Dickinson  Gorsuch, 
was  badly  wounded.  Joshua  Gorsuch  and  Dr. 
Pearce  were  also  wounded.  The  latter  only  saved 
his  life  by  taking  Castner  Hanway' s  advice  and 
riding  away  on  his  horse.  As  he  left,  a  shower  of 
missiles  was  sent  after  him.     This  event  caused  a 


great  sensation  throughout  the  country,  and  led  to 
the  defeat  of  William  F.  Johnston  for  Governor  by 
several  thousand  votes.  The  negro  Johnson,  who 
shot  his  master,  arrived  safely  in  Canada  by  the 
the  ' '  Underground  Railroad. ' '  Constables  from 
Lancaster  terrorized  the  neighborhood,  and  took 
many  colored  men  to  jail.  Castner  Hanway, 
Elijah  Lewis,  Joseph  Scarlet  and  many  colored 
men  were  arrested,  and  indicted  for  treason  in  the 
United  States  Court  at  Philadelphia.  Hanway 
was  first  tried,  and  was  acquitted.  The  others 
were  not  brought  to  trial.  There  were  three 
jurors  from  Lancaster  county  on  this  noted  case — 
Peter  Martin,  of  Ephrata  township;  James  M.  Hop- 
kins, of  Drumore  township;  and  James  Cowden,  of 


The  first  return  of  a  fugitive  slave  to  his  master 
under  the  Fugitive  Slave  Law  occured  at  Colum- 
bia in  the  fall  of  1850,  when  William  Baker,  a 
runaway  slave,  was  arrested  and  returned  to  his 
master.  The  colored  people  of  Columbia  after- 
ward bought  his  freedom.  The  first  martyrdom 
under  the  Fugitive  Slave  Law  also  occurred  at 
Columbia,  April  30,  1852.  Albert  G.  Ridgely,  a 
slave-catcher  from  Baltimore,  and  a  one-armed 
man  named  Snyder,  arrested  a  colored  man  named 
William  Smith,  claiming  him  as  a  slave  owned  by 
George  W.  Hall,  of  Harford  county,  Maryland. 
The  colored  man  broke  away  from  his  captors, 
whereupon  Ridgely  shot  him,  killing  him  instantly. 


Ridgely  escaped  across  the  bridge  and  safely 
reached  Baltimore,  although  the  Sheriff  of  York 
county  and  his  posse  were  watching  for  him  south 
of  York.     The  kidnappers  were  never  tried. 

Thaddeus  Stevens  was  council  for  Mr.  Kauff- 
man,  of  Cumberland  county,  who  was  tried  in  the 
United  States  Court  in  Philadelphia  for  violating 
the  Fugitive  Slave  Law  of  1850  by  caring  for  run- 
away slaves.  Mr.  Kauffman  was  not  found  guilty 
because  the  two  jurors  from  Lancaster  county 
— Edward  Davies,  of  Churchtown,  and  Abraham  N. 
Cassel,  of  Marietta — held  out  for  six  weeks  against 
the  other  jurors  and  finally  prevented  a  verdict 
of  guilty. 




A  S  in  every  other  part  of  the  loyal  States,  the 
'^-^  attack  on  Fort  Sumter,  in  April,  1861, 
aroused  the  patriotism  of  the  people  in  Lancaster 
county  ;  and  noble  responses  were  made  to  Presi- 
dent Lincoln's  calls  for  troops.  Though  this 
county  was  the  home  of  President  Buchanan,  dur- 
ing whose  administration  the  plans  of  the  Rebell- 
ion were  prepared,  it  was  also  the  home  of  Thad- 
deus  Stevens,  who  was  the  leader  of  the  majority 
in  the  National  House  of  Representatives  which 
assisted  in  devising  measures  for  the  suppression 
of  the  Slaveholder's  Rebellion.  The  regiment 
composed  wholly  of  volunteers  from  Lancaster 
county  was  the  well-known  79th  Pennsylvania, 
commanded  by  Colonel  Hambright,  which  took 
part  in  the  battle  of  Chickamauga,  and  in  Sher- 
man's Atlanta  campaign  and  his  march  through 
Georgia  and  the  Carolinas.  The  Pennsylvania 
Reserves  had  their  due  share  of  men  from  Lan- 
caster county,  many  of  whom  lost  their  lives  in 
defense  of  the  L^nion  on  the  many  battle  fields  of 
the  Rebellion.  Soldiers  from  Lancaster  county 
were  found  in  greater  or  less  number  in  about 
sixty  other   regiments  from    Pennsylvania   which 


served  for  longer  or  shorter  periods  during  the  war, 
as  well  as  in  several  militia  regiments  called  out 
for  a  few  months  during  the  Confederate  invasions 
of  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania  in  1862  and  1863. 
The  47th  regiment  of  Pennsylvania  militia  of  1863, 
commanded  by  Colonel  James  Pyle  Wickersham, 
principal  of  the  Millersville  State  Normal  School, 
had  among  its  members  the  students  of  that  insti- 
tution, which  closed  its  session  for  several  months 
in  consequence  of  the  invasion. 


The  invasion  of  Maryland  by  the  Confederate 
army  under  General  Lee  in  September,  1862, 
caused  great  alarm  in  Lancaster  county,  as  well  as 
in  all  the  border  counties  of  Pennsylvania  ;  but 
this  alarm  subsided  after  Lee's  defeats  at  South 
Mountain  and  Antietam,  and  his  retreat  into  Vir- 
ginia. The  people  of  Lancaster  and  the  other 
southern  counties  of  Pennsylvania  were  again 
greatly  alarmed  when  General  Lee's  army  inarched 
north  in  June,  1863,  and  invaded  Maryland  and 
Pennsylvania.  Thousands  of  farmers  froLi  Frank- 
lin, Cumberland,  Adams  and  York  counties  fled 
into  Lancaster  county  with  their  horses,  and 
remained  during  the  invasion.  The  alarm  increased 
as  the  invaders  came  nearer,  and  when  they  occu- 
pied Gettysburg,  Hanover  and  York,  shelled  Car- 
lisle and  threatened  Harrisburg,  the  people  of 
Lancaster  county,  as  well  as  those  of  other  counties, 
warmly  responded  to  the  calls  of  President  Lin- 
coln and  Governor  Curtin  for  troops  for  the  defense 


of  Pennsylvania  against  the  invaders.  Companies 
of  Lancaster  county  militia,  under  Colonel  Emlen 
Franklin,  were  at  all  the  ferries  and  towns  of  the 
Susquehanna  from  the  Dauphin  county  line  to  the 
borders  of  Maryland.  When  a  Confederate  detach- 
m.ent  under  General  Early  occupied  York,  June  27, 
1863,  a  brio^ade  of  militia  was  sent  to  hold  the 
bridge  at  Columbia.  Less  than  1,500  men  crossed 
the  river  to  Wrightsville,  and  fortified  themselves 
on  the  heights  back  of  the  town,  but  were  soon 
driven  from  their  position  by  a  Confederate  de- 
tachment and  forced  to  recross  the  river  to  Colum- 
bia. In  order  to  prevent  the  invaders  from  cross- 
ing the  river.  Colonel  Frick  caused  the  bridge  to 
be  burned  down  that  evening,  Sunday,  June  28, 
1863.  All  alarm  passed  away  with  the  great  defeat 
of  Lee's  army  at  Gettysburg  a  few  days  later,  and 
the  retreat  of  the  invaders  from  the  State. 


Among  the  many  societies  organized  by  women 
throughout  the  loyal  States  to  minister  to  the 
wants  of  the  soldiers,  the  first  was  at  Lancaster. 
On  April  22,  1861,  ten  days  after  the  attack  on 
Fort  Sumter,  the  ladies  of  Lancaster  held  a  meet- 
ing at  the  court-house  and  formed  an  association 
called  the  Patriot  Daughters  of  Lancaster.  The 
officers  of  this  association  were  :  Mrs.  R.  Hubley, 
president;  Mrs.  E.  E.  Reigart,  vice  president; 
Miss  Annie  A.  Slaymaker,  secretary;  Mrs.  J.  F. 
Long,  treasurer. 


The  Patriot  Daughters  and  other  ladies  of  Lan- 
caster took  the  first  step  to  raise  funds  for  the  erec- 
tion of  a  monument  to  the  memory  of  the  soldiers 
and  sailors  of  Lancaster  county  who  lost  their  lives 
in  defence  of  the  Union.  It  was  not  until  nine 
years  after  the  war  that  the  monument  was  erected. 
In  compliance  with  the  demand  of  public  senti- 
ment, it  was  placed  in  Center  Square,  in  the  city. 
This  beautiful  granite  structure — surrounded  with 
four  emblematic  statues  and  capped  with  a  figure 
of  the  Goddess  of  Liberty — was  unveiled  with 
imposing  ceremonies  in  the  presence  of  a  great 
multitude,  on  the  4th  of  July,  1874. 


The  Reading  and  Columbia  Railroad  was  com- 
pleted in  1863  ;  and  the  branch  of  the  road  from 
the  Junction  to  Lancaster  was  finished  in  1866,  and 
was  extended  to  Quarryville  in  1875.  The  Columbia 
and  Port  Deposit  Railroad  was  completed  in  1876. 
The  Lancaster  branch  of  the  Reading  and  Colum- 
bia Railroad  was  extended  to  Lebanon  in  1886; 
and  the  branch  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  from 
Conewago  to  Cornwall,  Lebanon  county,  was  fin- 
ished about  the  same  time.  In  1890  the  New  Hol- 
land and  Honeybrook  branch  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Railroad  was  completed.  The  eastern  part  of 
Drumore  was  erected  into  a  new  township  called 
East  Driimore^  in  1886.  Lititz  was  incorporated 
as  a  borough  in  1887,  and  Ephrata  in  1891. 




^T^HE  Indians  were  the  first  farmers  in  Lancaster 
county.  Among  them  the  farm  work  was 
done  largely  by  the  squaws.  After  the  trees  had 
been  girdled  and  trimmed  down  by  the  men,  they 
scratched  the  ground  with  crooked  sticks,  and 
leveled  it  with  shells  and  sharp  stones.  Their 
crops  were  generally  corn  and  beans.  The  corn 
stalks  and  weeds  were  burned  to  the  ground  in  the 
fall  of  the  year.  The  object  of  this  was  to  prevent 
the  sprouting  of  the  forest  trees.  There  was  one 
variety  of  trees — a  most  persistant  grower,  a  kind 
of  scrub-oak — that  baffled  all  their  efforts.  Even 
fire  would  not  kill  it.  These  scrub-oaks,  after 
alternate  burning  and  sprouting,  formed  thick 
knotted  clumps  on  the  surface  of  the  ground,  thus 
making  the  tilling  of  it  very  difficult  for  the  white 
people,  who  afterward  became  its  possessors.  There 
usually  remained  some  uncultivated  land,  which, 
after  the  burning  stopped,  was  soon  overspread 
with  young  forest  trees.  To  these  the  name 
of  "Grubenland"  was  given — a  name  derived 
from  the  word  "grub,"  meaning  in  the  German 
language  "a  small  tree."  A  great  number  of 
these  Indian  fields  were  found  in  Lancaster  county. 
One  lay  just  west  of  the  present  borough  of  Lititz. 
Another  and  larger  one  was  in  Ephrata  township, 


between  Middle  Creek  and  the  Cocalico.  The 
forests  in  these  sometimes  became  so  dense  that 
cattle  straying  into  them  were  hard  to  find.  Bells 
were,  for  this  reason,  pnt  on  some  of  them  to  in- 
dicate the  whereabouts  of  the  herd.  To  the  same 
end,  bells  were  put  on  horses  that  were  turned  out 
to  pasture  during  the  night. 

The  Indians  had  also  their  deer  pastures.  These 
were  the  natural  meadows  where  in  early  times  the 
grasses  had  grown  into  a  sod  too  close  for  the  seeds 
of  trees  to  lodge.  These  meadows  the  white  set- 
tlers enlarged  and  irrigated,  in  this  way  convert- 
ed them  into  valuable  pasture  lands.  Thus  when 
the  first  white  settlers  came  to  what  is  now  Lan- 
caster county  they  found  three  kinds  of  land — 
the  limestone  portion,  mainly  covered  with  heavy 
timber ;  the  shale  and  sandstone  ridges  in  the 
southern  belt,  covered  with  light  timber  ;  and  the 
meadow  lands,  interspersed  with  swamps. 


The  staple  farm  products  of  Lancaster  county  in 
early  days  were  spelt,  barley,  oats,  rye,  corn,  buck- 
wheat, flax,  hemp  and  a  variety  of  garden  vege- 
tables. Wheat  subsequently  took  the  place  of  bar- 
ley and  spelt.  Orchards  were  soon  planted,  and  the 
farmer  had  abundant  crops  of  fruit.  The  imple- 
ments used  in  farming  in  the  very  early  times 
were  the  German  scythe,  the  sickle  and  the  flail. 
These  were  supplanted  later  by  the  English  scythe 
and  the  grain  cradle.  Ploughs  were  early  intro- 
duced, but  were  very  rude  and  cumbrous. 


In  1 814  forty  State  banks  were  established  in 
Pennsylvania.  Speculation  ran  wild,  the  price  of 
farm  land  advancing  to  $200  an  acre.  The  panic 
that  came  on  a  little  more  than  twenty  years  after, 
as  a  consequence  of  the  failure  of  these  banks, 
affected  the  price  of  these  farm  lands  greatly,  bring- 
ing it  down  in  a  short  time  to  $50  an  acre.  Many 
persons  who  had  purchased  lands  at  high  prices, 
without  sufficient  money  to  pay  their  full  value, 
found  themselves  bankrupt.  These  were  palmy 
days  for  the  Sheriffs,  who  became  very  rich.  In 
these  times  the  jails  were  filled  with  debtors,  the 
law  of  imprisonment  for  debt  not  having  yet  been 
abolished  in  this  State. 

New  lands  were  now  taken  up  by  some  persons, 
and  the  timber  upon  them  cut  and  sold,  some- 
times for  fire- wood.  Sometimes  the  saw-millers  and 
wagon-makers  bought  it,  and  in  other  cases  the 
iron-master  purchased  it  and  converted  it  into 
charcoal  for  furnace  use. 

The  land  cleared  in  this  manner  was  farmed 
usually  for  several  years  until  it  was  worn  out,  and 
then  was  abandoned.  Many  of  these  barren  tracts 
existed  in  Lancaster  county,  and  have  been  since 
reclaimed  and  cultivated.  To  fertilize  these  bar- 
ren fields,  land-plaster  was  first  used.  The  far- 
mer generally  sowed  it  broadcast  on  the  grass 
fields,  and  sprinkled  it  on  the  young  corn  and  the 
the  garden  vegetables  in  the  early  spring.  x\bout 
1820  lime  was  introduced  as  a  fertilizer,  and  by  its 
judicious  i;se  many  of  these  "light"  or  worn-out 


lands  were  made  productive.  One  of  the  prac- 
tices of  the  farmer  was  to  rotate  his  crops.  This 
probably  began  about  1820.  The  rule  was  gener- 
ally two  years  in  grass  of  mixed  clover  and  timothy, 
one  year  in  corn,  one  in  oats,  and  then  two  in 
wheat  ;  the  land  being  enriched  from  time  to 
time  with  lime  and  other  fertilizers. 

The  rotation  of  crops  has  been  interfered  with 
considerably  by  tobacco  farming  in  later  years. 


The  first  threshing-machines  used  in  the  county 
were  stationary.  About  1832  William  Kirkpatrick 
began  manufacturing  portable  machines.  Some 
of  the  latter  class  were  brought  into  the  county 
from  Milton,  a  town  on  the  Susquehanna  river. 
All  these  machines  had  spiked  cylinders  working 
into  spiked  concaves,  connected  by  strap  and 
pulley  with  a  horizontal  cast-iron  geared  horse- 
power, to  which  four  or  more  horses  could  be 
hitched.  There  were  afterward  added  to  these 
carrying  and  separating  attachments. 

The  beater  machine  was  introduced  from  Maine 
and  used  to  some  extent.  This  had  a  cylinder 
and  concaves  of  iron  bars  in  place  of  spikes.  This 
machine  was  not  able  to  compete  successfully  with 
the  others,  and  soon  went  out  of  use. 

The  threshing-machine  was  an  inestimable  boon 
to  the  farmer,  enabling  hi'm  to  do  in  a  few  days  as 
much  as  it  had  taken  him  months  to  accomplish 

The  left-handed  plow,  which  was  introduced  at 


an  early  time,  is  still  used  in  this  county,  but  has 
been  greatly  improved.  Instead  of  the  bulky  drag 
with  wooden  mould-board,  it  is  now  a  light,  easy- 
running  implement  with  smooth  ground  chilled- 
iron  and  steel  working  parts. 

The  first  horse-rakes  were  very  simple.  In  1830 
the  double-tooth  tumbling  grain-rake  was  intro- 
duced. This  has  more  lately  been  supplanted  by 
the  wire-toothed  sulky  rake,  which,  with  one  man 
and  a  horse,  can  do  as  much  work  as  formerly 
required  six  men  in  the  same  length  of  time,  and 
certainly  with  much  less  expense  of  muscular 

The  preparation  of  the  ground  for  wheat  was  no 
small  task  in  the  early  days.  The  wheat-ground 
was  plowed  twice,  the  second  time  merely  on  the 
surface.  The  farmer  then  walked  over  the  field, 
scattering  the  seed  broadcast.  The  field  was  then 
harrowed  in  the  same  direction  in  which  it  had 
last  been  plowed.  Thus  the  grain  grew  in  rows, 
and  was  much  less  affected  by  freezing. 

About  1842  the  grain-drill  was  brought  into  the 
State.  This  sowed  the  grain  in  lows,  and  rendered 
unnecessary  the  second  plowing. 

In  these  modern  days  the  farmer  delights  in 
working  with  improved  cultivators,  harrows,  roll- 
ers, etc.,  and  puts  his  ground  in  order  with  great 
ease,  and  in  a  short  time. 

In  1 85 1  the  first  McCormick  reapers  were 
brought  into  the  county.  Many  improvements 
have  been  made  in  this  reaper  since  that  time,  as 


for  instance  the  wooden  cutter-bar  has  been  re- 
placed by  one  of  steel.  Various  kinds  of  self-rakers 
have  been  added,  and  these  have  been  followed  by 
self-binders.  The  enterprising  Lancaster  county 
farmer  is  ever  on  the  alert  to  secure  the  latest  and 
best  mechanical  aids  to  do  his  work,  and  at  pres- 
ent there  are  in  general  use  machines  for  loading 
hay  on  the  wagon,  patent  hay  forks,  steam  thresh- 
ers and  separators,  ete. 


The  farmer  of  Lancaster  county  had  other  diffi- 
culties than  trees  and  stumps  to  encounter.  Weeds 
and  insects  were  numerous  and  destructive  in  many 


The  granary  weevil  was  an  insect  th^  infested 
barns  and  frequently  ate  out  the  grain  after  it  was 
housed.  The  only  remedy  for  this  pest  was  star- 
vation. By  stacking  the  wheat  in  the  fields  for 
some  years,  keeping  the  barns  entirely  empty,  the 
farmers  could  eveatually  rid  themselves  of  this  in- 

The  potato-beetle  in  later  years  has  tried  the 
patience  and  ingenuity  of  the  farmer  to  a  con- 
siderable degree  ;  and,  so  far  as  we  know,  nothing 
but  Paris  green  has  been  found  effectual  as  a 
remedy,  and  this  must  be  administered  in  repeated 


It  has  been  observed  that  sometimes  a  vegetable, 
a  kind  of  grain  or  a  variety  of  fruit  will  flourish 
for  a  time,  and  then  appear  to  run  out.  The  prac- 
tice  has  been    among  intelligent  farmers   in   the 


county  to  plant  something  else,  trying  sometimes 
many  different  things  until  the  proper  one  is  found. 
When  the  apple  and  the  plum  have  either  wholly 
or  partially  failed,  their  place  has  been  supplied  by 
the  strawberry,  the  pear  and  the  improved  native 
grape.  Western  wheat  some  years  ago  came  into 
disastrous  competition  with  the  home-raised  wheat, 
and  as  a  consequence  Lancaster  county  farmers 
turned  their  attention  to  the  cultivation  of  tobacco. 
The  latter  industry  has  proved  to  be  very  success- 
ful and  lucrative.  The  profits  of  the  farm  are  not 
derived  wholly  from  the  great  fields  and  orchards. 
The  products  of  the  dairy,  of  the  poultry-yard  and 
the  truck  patch,  are  also  very  remunerative.  For 
these  there  is  a  good  home  market  in  Lancaster 
city  and  the  larger  towns  of  the  county.  Market- 
day  in  these  places  is  characterized  by  great  bustle 
and  business,  and  processions  of  wagons  may  be 
seen  along  the  principal  roads  leading  to  these 
towns  on  the  great  market  days.  The  farmers' 
wives  and  daughters  give  to  these  a  peculiar  and 
interesting  picturesqueness. 

The  market-wagon  of  long  ago  and  that  of 
to-day  are  in  striking  contrast.  The  former  was  a 
heavy  white-covered,  four-horse  wagon,  and  in 
those  days  came  to  market  once  or  thrice  a  year. 
The  latter  is  a  light,  easy-running,  one-horse 
spring  wagon,  drawn  by  an  active,  well-fed  trot- 
ting horse,  and  now  carries  the  market  products  to 
the  citv  once  or  twice  a  week. 



The  culture  of  tobacco  has  received  a  great  deal 
of  attention  during  the  last  fifty  years  in  the 
county,  and" has  developed  into  one  of  its  leading 
industries.  There  were  objections  made  to  it  at 
first  by  many  of  the  farmers.  Some  opposed  it  on 
moral  grounds;  others  because  they  thought  it 
would  impoverish  the  soil,  as  it  was  believed  it 
had  done  in  many  other  parts  of  the  country. 

The  cultivation  of  tobacco  in  the  county  began 
in  the  year  1825.  ^^^^  market  for  it  at  first  was 
entiiely  local.  In  fact,  in  the  early  days,  the 
grower  made  his  crop  into  cigars  for  his  own  use, 
or  for  neighboring  cigar-dealers.  No  special  li- 
cense was  then  required  to  deal  in  the  article,  and 
it  was  entirely  exempt  from  internal  revenue  tax. 
All  this  has  changed.  A  large  part  of  the  annual 
crop  is  now  carried  into  foreign  markets.  It  brings 
millions  of  dollars  annually  into  the  county  which 
is  spent  here,  and  by  this  means  all  kinds  of  trade 
and  business  are  greatly  stimulated.  There  can  be 
no  question  in  regard  to  the  advancement  of  the 
material  wealth  of  the  county  because  of  this  indus- 
try; but  there  is  a  question  as  to  whether  it  has 
not  interfered  with  the  educational  advancement 
of  the  people,  for  the  reason  that  much  of  the 
work  in  the  tobacco-field  can  be  done  by  children, 
who  are  thus  employed  when  they  should  be  attend- 
ing school,  besides  taking  away  the  winter  leisure 
that  the  farmer  formerly  had  for  profitable  reading 
or  study. 


The  various  states,  in  establishing  and  eqiiip- 
ing  surveys  for  the  thorough  study  of  the  geology, 
had  for  their  object  the  development  of  their  agri- 
cultural and  mineral  wealth.  The  reltaion  of 
geology  to  good  farming  is  intimate.  But  yet  it 
is  doubtful  whether  those  to  be  benefitted  always 
realize  this.  Successful  tillage,  and  at  the  same 
time  improvement  of  the  soil,  depend  largely  upon 
a  thorough  knowledo^e  of  the  soils  and  subsoils 
to  be  operated  upon.  Their  nature,  origin  and 
substance  must  be  understood.  Knowing  the  natute 
and  origin  of  the  soil,  the  means  by  which  it  may 
be  most  cheaply  improved  may  be  determined. 
Then  again  the  increase  in  the  average  of  the 
arable  surface  must  be  made  to  keep  pace  with 
the  increasing  population  and  needs  of  the  State. 
This  involves  the  use  of  fertilizers,  and  they  must 
be  of  such  a  mineral  character  as  to  be  adapted  to 
the  nature  of  the  soil  and  to  supply  its  wants. 


Soils  and  subsoils  are  composed  of  variable  mix- 
tures of  sand  and  clay  with  considerable  propor- 
tions of  vegetable  mold  and  iron  oxide.  They  also 
contain  salts  of  lime  and  magnesia  and  some  alka- 
lies, as  potash  and  soda,  with  phosporic  acid.  They 
have  been  produced  mainly  by  the  decay  and  wear 
of  the  rock  surface,  through  the  action  of  water. 
The  union  of  the  oxygen  of  the  water  with  some 
of  the  constituents  of  the  rocks  forms  new  com- 
pounds and  breaks  up  the  residue.     This  action  is 


often  facilitated  by  the  roots  of  trees.  Growing 
into  the  crevices  with  increasing  size,  they  force 
the  rocks  apart  and  furnish  larger  surface  for  the 
action  of  chemical  agents. 


Water  in  the  form  of  ice  and  frost  is  the  most 
important  factor  in  the  production  of  the  soils. 
Nearly  always  present  in  the  rocks,  it,  by  its  expan- 
sion in  freezing,  splits  them  and  gradually  reduces 
them  to  small  particles.  These  moved  by  running 
water  rubbing  against  another,  and  scoring  the 
surface  over  which  they  are  carried,  are  active 
agents  in  erosion.  The  process  goes  on  year  after 
year  until  what  were  once  large  angular  rocks  be- 
come fine  sand  and  mud,  the  silts  that  make  up 
the  soils  and  sub-soils  of  the  earth's  surface. 


Soils  may  therefore  be  the  result  of  decomposi- 
tion of  the  rocks  above  which  they  lie,  and  conse- 
quently of  the  same  character  ;  or  they  may  be 
produced  in  the  same  manner,  but  removed  by 
water  to  other  sections  or  reo^ions.  The  latter 
are  called  soils  of  transportation^  the  former'soils 
of  disintegration.  South  of  the  39th  parallel  in 
the  Eastern  United  States  most  of  the  soils  belong 
to  the  latter  class  ;  north  of  that  parallel  to  soils 
of  transportation,  carried  by  the  great  glaciers 
that  once  existed  there.  By  disintegration  the 
most  important  soils  are  the  sandstone,  the  shales 
and  soft  clays,   the  limestones,  granitic,  and  that 


resulting  from  breaking  up  of  trap  and  other  vol- 
canic material. 

Shales  and  soft  slates  whenever  they  contain  a 
large  amount  of  argillaceous  matter  form  heavy 
and  compact  soils.  Though  they  have  a  great  deal 
of  retentiveness,  yet  they  are  difficult  to  till  suc- 
cessfully, and  therefore  undesirable.  When,  how- 
ever, the  clayey  elements  are  mixed  with  a  suffi- 
cient amount  of  sand  they  form  light  and  loamy 
lands  easy  of  tillage,  and  sufficiently  retentive  of 
water  and  fertilizers.  On  the  other  hand,  soils 
derived  from  the  breaking  up  of  sandstoiie  are  not 
so  desirable.  They  are  so  open  and  porous  that 
moisture  is  rapidly  evaporated  from  them.  This 
makes  them  subject  to  extremes  of  temperature,  for 
a  dry  sandy  soil  under  direct  sunlight  becomes 
greatly  heated.  Then,  too,  it  rapidly  loses  its  heat 
by  radiation  at  night.  Sandstones  cemented  to- 
gether with  clayey  material  by  disintegration  form 
somewhat  better  soils,  more  retentive  of  fertilizing 
agents.  On  the  whole,  however,  the  sandstone 
soils  are  of  low  grade. 

The  Ihnesione  soils  are  of  high  grade.  Most  of 
them  have  been  produced  by  the  breaking  up  of 
limestone  rocks  by  the  action  of  water,  which,  at 
the  same  time,  dissolves  out  the  lime.*  Heavy, 
clayey  soils  are  thus  produced.  Usually,  however, 
thev  contain  sufficient  sand  to  make  them  lighter 

^Linie  is  present  in  such  soils,  however,  in  sufficient  quantities 
to  supply  that  ingredient  for  a  long  time  to  the  most  exhaustive 
among  common  crops — tobacco. 


and  more  easily  tilled.  With  the  deep  compact 
subsoil  lying  below,  they  have  great  capacity  for 
sustaining  strong  growth  during  times  of  drought. 
Sometimes  they  are  cold,  impermeable  and  diffi- 
cult to  till.  They  are,  however,  usually  of  such 
character  that  proper  cultivation  constantly  im- 
proves their  texture  and  enhances  their  fertility. 

Soils  made  by  the  .decomposition  of  granitic 
material  are  usually  thin.  Should  they  contain 
other  elements,  as  calcareous  matter,  iron  under- 
going rapid  change  or  decay,  they  may  be  brought 
to  a  fair  state  of  fertility.  On  the  contrary,  soils 
resulting  from  the  disintegration  of  trap^  or  other 
volcanic  material^  contain  all  the  more  necessary 
elements  of  plant  growth,  and  in  an  available  con- 


A  soil  may  contain  all  the  elements  necessary  to 
support  plant  growth,  but  yet  may  not  be  fertile. 
To  be  fertile  the  materials  for  the  sustenance  of 
plants  must  be  available;  that  is,  they  must  be  in 
such  conditions  that  the  plant  can  get  hold  of 
them  and  assimilate  them.  Hence,  the  mechani- 
cal agents  of  decay  wear,  and  disintegration  can 
not  make  a  fertile  soil.  The  elements,  after  these 
forces  have  done  their  work,  must  be  made  soluble. 
The  fine  rock  particle  must  be  acted  upon  by  the 
real  soil-makers — chemical  agencies — mainly  the 


Here  good  farming  comes  in.  By  proper  tillage 
the  soils  are  turned  over  to  the  action  of  sun,  wind 


and  rain.  The  capillarity  is  increased,  and  ferti- 
lizers of  the  proper  character  are  made  to  aid  the 
process.  These  are  made  to  induce  the  four  con- 
ditions of  fertility — (i)  easy  penetrability  by  roots, 
(2)  retentiveness,  (3)  color,  and  (4)  texture.  The 
last  two  are  essential  conditions  in  the  absorption 
of  the  solar  heat. 

The  renewal  of  the  soil  is  secured  by  both  nat- 
ural and  artificial  means.  As  shown  by  Darwin  by 
experiment  and  a  long  series  of  observations,  earth 
worms  do  a  great  deal  for  the  farmer.  The  worms 
burrowing  through  the  soil  loosen  it  up.  They 
feed  upon  earth  containing  some  vegetable  mold; 
and  this,  in  passing  through  their  bodies,  is  made 
more  available  for  plant.  They,  as  well  as  the 
expansion  caused  by  freezing,  give  greater  capil- 
larity to  the  soil. 

These  natural  agents  are  largely  aided  by  the 
artificial  means — by  the  hoe,  the  harrow  and  the 
plow.  Then  further,  the  renewal  may  be  aided  by 
deep  tillage,  by  subsoiling,  and  by  the  use  of  ferti- 

The  soils  of  Lancaster  county  are  all  chiefly  soils 
of  disintegration,  and  therefore  partake  of  the 
nature  of  the  rocks  upon  which  they  lie.  The 
southern  belt,  comprising  mainly  the  lands  lying 
in  the  six  lower  townships,  has  soils  derived  for  the 
greater  part  from  gneisses  and  mica-schists.  They 
are  not  nearly  so  fertile  as  those  of  the  belt  just 
north  of  it,  but  in  some  sections  the  cultivation 
of  grain  and  tobacco  is  carried  on  with  good  success. 


The  limestone  soils,  the  most  productive  in  the 
county,  are  in  the  central  valley,  and  occupy  an 
area  of  about  300  square  miles.  They  have  re- 
sulted not  alone  from  decay  of  the  rocks  beneath, 
but  have  been  further  enriched  by  detritus  brought 
from  other  areas.  In  a  large  part  of  the  valley, 
therefore,  the  soil  has  the  texture  and  fertility  of 
the  best  of  bottom  lands. 

The  breaking-up  of  feld-spar  and  thorough  mix- 
ing with  sand  and  some  other  ingredients  has  further 
enriched  this  belt,  and  has  at  the  same  time  pro- 
duced extensive  beds  of  brick-clay. 

Just  north  of  the  limestone  lands  is  a  belt  of 
shales  stretching  east  and  west  for  some  distance 
through  the  county.  The  belt  is  broken,  and  oc- 
cupies different  ridges,  often  separated  by  valleys 
with  entirely  different  soils. 

The  sandstone  soils  cover  the  mesozoic  rocks  of 
the  northern  border.  They  are  very  variable  in 
color,  texture  and  thickness,  and  often  difficult  to 
work.  They  lack  retentiveness,  but  with  skillful 
cultivation  good  crops  have  been  raised.  Though 
not  producing  so  great  a  yield  of  grain  per  acre, 
the  weight  per  bushel  is  heavier  than  that  grown 
in  limestone  sections. 


The  primitive  forrests  of  the  central  valley 
must  have  been  stately  and  beautiful.  Now  only 
isolated  woodlands  remain,  with  stately  oaks,  wal- 
nuts and  shell-barks,  majestic  elms  and  the  beau- 
yful  ash    in  localities  favorable    to  their  g-rowth. 


In  the  other  geological  belts  the  trees  are  of  some- 
what smaller  size,  because  of  slower  growth.  But 
their  wood  is  of  finer  grain. 


The  beautiful  streams  of  Lancaster  county  are 
fed  by  springs  that  are  abundant  in  nearly  all  sec- 
tions. The  character  of  the  springs  and  of  their 
waters  vary  with  the  geological  formation.  They 
are  most  abundant  in  the  shale  lands,  where  they 
are  small  and  their  waters  soft.  In  the  limestone 
belt  the  springs  are  of  deeper  origin,  the  waters 
are  clearer  and  impregnated  with  carbonate  of 
lime,  which  gives  them  their  hardness.  In  this  belt 
there  are  many  beautiful  springs,  of  strong  flow  and 
pure  water.  The  Lititz  Springs,  in  these  respects, 
are  justl}^  celebrated.  Others  are  no  less  remark- 
able, but  lack  the  surroundings  and  the  historic 
interest  attached  to  Lititz. 

The  energy  of  the  people  in  connection  with  the 
richest  natural  endowments  of  soil  and  climate  has 
made  Lancaster  county  preeminently  the  greatest 
agricultural  section  in  the  L^nited  States.  With 
a  total  land-area  of  622,720  acres,  no  less  than 
525,000  acres  is  under  skillful  and  profitable  cul- 
tivation. This  leaves  about  15  per  cent,  of  the 
total  area  unproductive.  But  much  of  this,  proba- 
bly more  than  one-half,  is  forest  land  of  high  value, 
being  covered  with  majestic  oaks. 

The  county  contains  about  10,000  farms,  thus 
making  the  average  size  of  each  farm  about  523^ 
acres  of  improved  land.     The  residences  and  farm- 

fiRIKF  HISTORY   OI^  tANCASTKR    COUNTY.         193 

buildings  are  large  and  tastefully  built.  An  air  of 
comfort  pervades  the  whole  rural  community.  The 
houses  are  commodious,  and  in  many  cases  artis- 
tic in  structure  and  surroundings. 

The  value  of  farm  property  is  about  $80,000,000. 
Adding  to  this  the  value  of  live  stock,  imple- 
ments and  utensils,  the  agricultural  wealth  of  the 
county  must  be  over  $100,000,000.  This,  with  the 
$30,000,000  at  interest  and  money  in  bonds  and 
invested  in  manufacturing  in  the  towns,  will  make 
the  entire  wealth  in  this  great  county  at  least 

Farming  is  carried  to  a  high  degree  of  perfec- 
tion. The  elements  of  plant-growth,  as  they  have 
been  taken  from  the  soil  by  exhaustive  tillage, 
have  been  restored  by  the  use  of  good  fertilizers, 
and  so  judiciously  that  the  farms  show  constant 
improvement.  After  the  thirty  years  of  tobacco 
culture,  the  soil  shows  higher  capabilities  of  pro- 
duction than  prior  to  i860.  During  these  years 
over  400,000,000  pounds  of  tobacco  have  been 
marketed,  worth  over  $35,000,000.  The  annual 
crop  is  estimated  at  nearly  25,000,000  pounds. 

The  estimated  value  of  all  agricultural  pro- 
ducts is  about  $10,000,000.  And  of  this,  the 
value  of  corn,  wheat  and  oats  forms  no  small  part; 
since  about  2,250,000  bushels  of  wheat  are  raised 
annually,  with  3,250,000  bushels  of  corn  and  1,500- 
000  bushels  of  oats.  The  corn  and  o^ats  are  largely 
used  for  home  consumption.  Cattle  and  horses  are 
fattened  upon  it  for  the  city  markets,  and  the  reve- 



nue  from  this  industry  exceeds  $500,000  every  year. 
Another  important  source  of  income  is  the  dairy, 
producing  about  4,000,000  pounds  of  butter. 
With  only  one  city  market  to  supply  with  milk 
and  butter,  the  county  still  ranks  high  in  dairy 
production.  The  report  of  the  Commissioner  of 
Agriculture  at  Washington,  in  1878,  stated  that 
the  best  farming  in  the  United  States  is  done  in 
this  region,  and  the  census  of  1880  showed  that 
this  county  produced  fifty  per  cent,  more  agri- 
cultural products  than  any  other  county  in  the 





N  1712  the  Swiss  Mennonite  settlers  in  the 
Pequea  valley,  near  the  site  of  Willow  Street, 
in  the  present  West  Lampeter  township,  erected  a 
log  structure  to  serve  the  two-fold  purpose  of  a 
meeting-house  for  religious  worship  on  Sunday, 
and  for  secular  instruction  during  the  week.  The 
latter  consisted  chiefly  in  teaching  the  children  to 
read  and  write.  Such  teaching  was  in  accordance 
with  the  precepts  of  Menno  Simon,  the  founder  of 
the  Mennonite  sect,  who  advised  his  followers  to 
teach  their  children  to  read  and  write,  to  spin  and 
to  do  other  necessary  and  proper  labor  suited  to 
their  ages  and  persons.  The  schools  in  the  Pequea 
and  Conestoga  valleys  are  now  among  the  best  in 
the  county. 


In  1733  the  Seventh  Day  Baptists  established  a 
school  at  Ephrata.  This  school  was  successfully 
conducted  for  many  years.  Among  the  branches 
taught  were  the  classics,  German  and  music. 
Much  attention  was  devoted  to  a  very  peculiar 
kind  of  vocal  music.  Penmanship  is  believed  to 
have  been  taught  by  two  women  who  made  some 
fine  chirographical  charts,  or  ink-paintings,  which 

1ih;      I'.Rii'i'  HISTORY  oi'  i<ANCAsri<:k  countv. 

arc  still  in  cxislciicc.  'I'liis  scliool  was  attc-ii(lc(l 
by  pupils  from  abroad,  and  was  oiu-  of  tlic  first 
boardiii)^  scliools  in  America. 

The  first  tcaclicrs  of  tliis  I'4)hrata  school  were 
Conrad  Ik'isscl  and  Ijidwi^  I  lacker.  Heissel  was 
tlie  founder  and  leader  of  the  Seventh  Day  P>ap- 
tists,  and  was  a  j^mxxI  teacher  and  an  expert  in 
ninsic.  He  died  in  iy()H.  I  lis  successor,  John 
i'c-ter  MillcT,  translated  the  Declaration  of  Inde- 
])cndence  into  Wvl-  diflerent  lanj^iiaj^es  lor  the 
United  vStates  ( lovernnient,  and  could  speak  Latin 

In  17/p)  Ivudwi<^  I  lacker  formed  a  plan  of  hold- 
in<^  a  school  on  vSatnrday  afternoon,  the  vSabbath 
of  the  vSeventh  Day  Haptists.  'Phis  was  the  first 
Sabbath  scdiool  recorded  in  liistory.  Ijidwij^- 
Hacker  conducted  the  school  successfully  thirty- 
seven  years,  until  ySeptember,  1777,  wlien  the 
bnil(lin<^s  were  j^iven  to  the  United  vStates  (lovern- 
ment  for  a  hospital.  ( )ver  S'>'>  wounded  American 
soldiers  from  the  battle-field  of  l>ran(l\wine  were 
cared  lor  there.  The  vSab1)alli  school  was  discon- 
tinued from  that  lime,  'i'lu-  noted  old  classical 
school  was  also  finally  closed. 


In  I /IS  the  Moravians  established  a  school  near 
keamstown.  The  teachers  occupied  the  scliool- 
house,  and  wc-re  instructed  to  teach  the  children 
of  the  community  and  to  <^ive  relij.;ious  instruc- 
lion  to  tlu-  parents  on  vSnnd.iN'  whenever  the  rej^ular 
ministir  was  absent. 


III  ly/j'S  llic  Warwick  church  and  school-house 
were  dedicated,  'i'his  scliool  ojx-ned  in  1749,  with 
the  Kev.  Leou.ird  vSehnell  as  teacher,  and  with 
four  l)()\'s  and  three  twirls  as  ])U])ils.  In  1762  this 
scliool  was  removed  to  the  viilaj^e  of  Lititz,  and 
was  for  nian\'  years  conducted  successfully  hy  the 
Rev.  Ik'rnhard  A.  (irnhc-.  As  there-  was  no  scliool 
within  four  miles  of  IJtitz,  tliis  school  was  at- 
tended 1)\'  the  children  of  the  adjacent  country. 
The  chihhtn  of  the  Moravian  vSocicty  at  Lililz 
were  tan;;hl  in  a  school  founded  hy  the  society,  in 
the  villa^a-,  about  the  year  1758.*  (irube's  school 
for  the  boys  from  the  country  was  afterward  con- 
ducted by  Christian  vSc^iropp.  In  1S15  John  lUck 
took  charj^e  of  this  school,  ;nid  .soon  ;^avc  it  tin- 
reputation  which  it  so  lon<^  lu'ld  as  John  /irrk\K 
School  /or  Hoys.  John  I>eek  remained  in  (^har<^f  of 
that  institution  until  iSOc;,  a  full  half  cenlurw 

In  1750  the  Moravians  built  a  church  and  .school- 
house  near  Centreville,  Mount  Joy  township.  This 
church  is  yet  standinj^^,  thouj^h  the  school-house  is 
not  in  e.vistence.  In  1750  the  Moravians  also 
built  a  school-house  in  Lancaster. 

In  1794  the  Mora\ians  at  IJtit/.  established  their 
celel/rated  scliool  for  j^irls,  l.indrn  Ilall  ScifiiiKirv^ 
in  that  village.  This  institution  soon  ranked  with 
the  best  ladies'  seminaries  of  Pennsylvania,  and 
has  ever  since  remained  in  a  flourishing  condition. 

'*  III  17.SS  tlif  Moravians  l»uilt  a  school  house  ;il  Lilil/  (or  the 
children  of  I  heir  socii'ly  in  the  \illa).(e. 


As  early  as  1746  schools  were  established  in  Lan- 
caster borough  by  German  Protestants  belonging- 
to  the  Lutheran  and  German  Reformed  churches. 
These  schools  were  at  first  intended  only  for  the 
children  of  members  of  those  churches.  The 
teachers  were  the  organists  of  the  churches.  As 
organists  they  were  paid  salaries  by  the  church. 
As  teachers  they  were  paid  by  those  who  were  able 
to  pay,  while  the  children  of  the  poor  were  taught 
free  of  cost.  These  schools  were  very  successful; 
and  from  1745  to  1784  they  afforded  almost  the 
only  opportunities  for  education  in  the  county, 
except  the  schools  of  Ephrata  and  Lititz  and  the 
classical  school  at  the  Pequea  Presbyterian  church 
in  Salisbury  township. 

The  highest  ecclesiastical  bodies  of  the  Lutheran 
and  German  Reformed  churches  manifested  great 
interest  in  these  church  schools  of  Lancaster  city. 
The  Reformed  Synod  of  Amsterdam,  in  Holland, 
sent  teachers  and  books  here  and  elsewhere.  In 
1746  that  synod  sent  the  Rev.  Michael  Schlatter 
to  establish  schools.  He  succeeded  very  well  in 
Lancaster.  In  1752  the  provincial  authorities  of 
Pennsylvania  appointed  a  commission  to  establish 
schools  in  the  province.  Among  the  members  of 
this  commission  were  Governor  James  Hamilton, 
of  Pennsylvania,  Benjamin  Franklin  and  Conrad 

In  1750  the  Moravians  of  Lancaster  built  a  par- 
sonage and  school-house  on  the  corner  of  Orange 


and  Market  streets.  These  buildings  are  yet 
standing,  though  the  school  has  been  discontinued 
for  many  years.  In  1750  this  Moravian  school  was 
taught  by  George  and  Susan  Ohneberg. 

In  1760  the  Reformed  church  had  a  school  in 
Lancaster,  taught  by  Mr.  Stoy,  and  attended  by 
sixty  pupils.  The  early  teachers  of  this  school 
were  sent  there  by  the  Reformed  church  in  Hol- 
land, and  the  reports  of  the  school  were  kept  among 
the  proceedings  of  the  church  there. 

About  1780  an  academy  for  boys  was  established 
in  Lancaster  by  Jasper  Yeates  and  others.  The 
Yeates  Academy  was  at  first  very  successful,  but 
was  subsequently  supplanted  by  Franklin  College, 
which  was  opened  in  1787,  and  was  conducted 
under  that  name  until  1821. 


As  early  as  1750  the  Bangor  Church  School  was 
in  operation  in  Caernarvon  township.  This  was 
conducted  under  the  auspices  of  the  Bangor  Epis- 
copal church.  In  1790  George  Hudson  and  Na- 
than Evans  left  legacies  to  the  Bangor  church, 
minister  and  school.  This  school  afterward  be- 
came a  private  subscription  school,  but  has  long 
ago  ceased  to  exist. 


As  early  as  1760  a  noted  classical  school  existed 
near  the  Pequea  Presbyterian  church,  in  Salisbury 
township.  This  school  was  founded  and  taught 
by  the  Rev.  Robert  Smith,  D.  D.,  and  was  a  clas- 


sical  and  theological  institution  of  the  highest 
character.  Latin  was  the  only  language  allowed 
to  be  spoken  in  the  school-room,  and  any  one  who 
spoke  a  w^ord  in  any  other  language  was  marked  as 
a  delinquent.  One  of  the  teachers  who  aided  Rev. 
Dr.  Smith  was  James  Waddell,  afterward  the  cele- 
brated blind  preacher  of  Virginia,  the  subject  of 
William  Wirt's  composition  entitled  The  Blind 
Preacher.  Among  the  Rev.  Dr.  Smith's  pupils 
were  th^ee  of  his  sons — Samuel  Stanhope  Smith, 
John  Blair  Smith  and  William  Smith.  Samuel 
Stanhope  Smith  was  the  first  president  of  Hamp- 
den Sidney  College,  Virginia. 

The  most  eminent  of  Rev.  Dr.  Smith's  pupils 
was  John  McMillan,  D.  D.,  the  apostle  of  Presby- 
terianism  in  the  West,  and  the  founder  of  Jefferson 
College  at  Cannonsburg,  Washington  county, 
Pennsylvania — the  famous  preacher  and  teacher 
of  theologv^  in  his  log  cabin.  The  Rev.  Dr.  Mc- 
Millan sent  more  men  into  the  ministry  than  any 
other  man  in  America  before  the  time  of  theo- 
logical seminaries.  Among  others  who  attained 
prominence  was  an  early  Governor  of  Pennsyl- 
vania. Rev.  Dr.  Smith's  school  ended  with  his 
death,  in  1793. 


As  early  as  1765  a  log  school-house  was  standing 
at  Laurel  Hill,  in  Earl  township.  The  same 
ground  is  still  used  for  school  purposes.  In  1772 
a  school-house  was  built  in  Weaverland.  About 
1783  one  was  built  in  Hinkletown.     In  the  same 


year  Jacob  Carpenter  taught  a  school  at  Bolmar- 
town.  These  school- houses  were  all  built  by  the 
voluntary  contributions  of  the  citizens. 

In  1786  the  Rev.  Mr.  Melzheimer  and  other 
public-spirited  citizens  established  an  English  and 
German  free  school  in  New  Holland:  This  school- 
house  was  built  and  furnished  by  contributions  of 
money,  building  materials  and  personal  services. 
It  was  a  two-story  log  structure,  and  was  formally 
dedicated  December  26,  1787. 

On  the  morning  of  that  day  the  scholars,  minis- 
ters, trustees,  elders  and  church  wardens  of  the 
Lutheran  and  German  Reformed  churches,  sli^ 
the  members  of  those  churches  and  members  of 
other  churches,  both  English  and  German,  as- 
sembled at  the  parsonage,  whence  they  marched 
in  procession  to  the  school-house.  More  than 
seven  hundred  persons  were  present.  The  dedica- 
tion services  on  that  occasion  consisted  of  vocal 
music,  an  appropriate  prayer,  a  suitable  oration, 
and  finally  an  eloquent  discourse. 

After  1838  the  school  directors  of  Earl  township 
used  the  school-house  for  public  school  purposes. 
In  1857  the  building  was  sold  by  authority  of  an 
act  of  the  State  Legislature,  which  directed  that 
one-half  of  the  proceeds  should  be  given  to  the 
Lutheran  church,  and  that  the  other  half  should 
be  put  on  interest  until  the  latter  should  amount 
to  one  thousand  dollars.  After  that  the  income 
from  the  amount  was  to  be  used  to  support 
one  or  more  schools  in  New  Holland,  during  the 


time  when  the  common  schools  were  not  in  session. 
In  accordance  with  that  act,  schools  have  since 
been  in  session  dnring  the  summer. 


It  is  known  that  as  early  as  1772  a  log  school- 
house  stood  near  the  old  Donegal  Presbyterian 
church,  which  had  been  erected  in  1722,  full  half 
a  century  before.  In  this  log  edifice  a  parochial  or 
church  school  was  kept.  This  school-house 
was  constructed  of  hewn  oak  ;  roof,  floor 
and  furniture  consisting  of  that  material. 
Here  the  common  branches  and  the  doc- 
trines of  the  Presbyterian  church  were  taught. 
A  night  school  was  also  held  once  a  week  for  those 
who  were  not  able  to  attend  the  day  school.  This 
old  Donegal  school  was  supported  by  subscriptions, 
and  the  teachers  "boarded  round."  The  county 
court  appointed  trustees  to  visit  the  school  once 
in  six  months.  The  school  was  discontinued  when 
the  public  free  schools  came  into  existence. 


As  early  as  1790  a  family  school  existed  in 
Strasburg  borough.  This  school  was  taught  by 
the  Rev.  Nathaniel  W.  Sample,  who  received  a 
number  of  students  into  his  house.  Mr.  Sample's 
chief  object  was  to  aid  young  men  to  prepare 
themselves  for  the  ministry.  Some  of  his  pupils 
afterward  become  very  prominent  Presbyterian 

About  1800  John  Whiteside  established  a  clas- 


sical  school  in  Strasburg  borough,  in  which  Latin, 
Greek  and  Hebrew  were  taught. 

In  1808  a  celebrated  classical  academy  was 
established  in  Strasburg  borough  by  the  Rev. 
Robert  Elliott,  who  was  afterward  a  cli^plain  to 
Congress.  This  academy  was  attended  by  pupils 
from  Delaware  and  Maryland,  as  well  as  from 
Pennsylvania.  It  was  afterward  conducted  by  Xeal 


The  Eastland  school,  in  Little  Britain  township, 
was  in  existence  as  early  as  1796. 


Under  the  law  of  1809,  embracing  the  period 
from  1809  to  1834,  little  was  done  to  educate  the 
cliildren  of  the  mass  of  the  people.  There  were  few 
good  teachers,  except  in  the  city,  the  boroughs 
and  their  vicinities.  The  furniture  was  rude;  and 
there  was  no  apparatus,  no  suitable  text-books, 
no  classification.  The  schools  were  called  "pau- 
per schools,"  and  were  despised  by  the  rich  and 
shunned  by  the  poor.  Under  the  law  of  1809  the 
schooling  of  the  poor  children  was  paid  for  by  the 
county,  and  such  children  were  classed  as  "poor 
scholars"  or  "county  scholars."  Thus  the  law 
created  an  unpleasant  feeling  of  caste  in  the 
school  and  in  the  community.  Many  parents 
would  keep  their  children  at  home,  rather  than 
say  to  the  township  assessor:  "  Put  me  on  the  poor 
list,^''     Many  poor  children  refused  to  go  to  school, 


because  they  were  taunted  with  the  remark:  ''  Oh, 
you  are  a  county  scholar." 

Under  the  law  of  1809  the  expense  of  building 
school-houses  was  paid  by  voluntary  contributions. 
Whenever  a  community  desired  a  school-house, 
one  was  built  at  some  point  convenient  to  those 
who  contributed  toward  its  erection.  The  patrons 
of  the  school  selected  trustees,  whose  duty  it  was  to 
take  charge  of  the  school  property  and  to  select  a 
teacher  for  the  school.  If  the  teacher  whom  the 
trustees  selected  was  able  to  obtain  pupils  enough 
to  pay  for  his  teaching,  he  would  open  the  school. 
If  not,  he  would  look  for  a  school  elsewhere.  The 
teacher  was  paid  by  his  patrons,  if  they  were  able 
to  do  so;  if  not,  the  tuition  of  the  children  was 
paid  by  the  county — bills  for  that  purpose  being 
presented  by  the  teacher  to  the  County  Commis- 
sioners. The  amount  of  pay  for  each  pupil  was  two 
dollars  per  quarter,  or  three  cents  per  day.  The 
pupil's  outfit  cost  one  dollar,  and  consisted  of  an 
English  Reader  or  a  New  Testament,  a  Comly's 
or  Byerly's  Spelling  Book,  a  Pike's  or  Rose's  Arith- 
metic, a  slate  and  pencil,  six  sheets  of  foolscap 
paper  stitched  together,  a  small  ink  bottle  in  a 
broad  cork  stand,  and  a  goose  quill. 

Next  to  the  academies,  the  faiJiily  schools  were 
the  best  schools  of  that  period.  They  were  far  better 
than  the  trustees'  schools.  The  most  enlightened 
and  progressive  school  sentiment  at  this  time 
exists  in  the  localities  where  those  family  schools 



About  1829  or  1830  some  enterprising  and  pub- 
lic-spirited citizens  of  Strasburg  borough  organized 
a  movement  to  secure  free  schools.  These  were 
George  Hoffman,  Alexander  Hood  and  Henry 
Spiehlman.  They  called  a  special  meeting  of  the 
citizens  in  the  Jackson  street  school-house  to  peti- 
tion the  State  Legislature  for  a  system  of  free 
schools.  The  petition  was  presented  to  the  Legis- 
lature. This  was  the  only  action  taken  in  this 
direction  at  this  time  in  the  county,  except  in  the 
city  of  Lancaster. 

In  1835  a  public  meeting  was  held  at  the  same 
place  to  protest  against  the  proposed  repeal  of  the 
free  school  law  of  1834.  Samuel  Spiehlman  and 
B.  B.  Gonder  were  appointed  a  committee  to  go  to 
Harrisburg  to  present  the  protest  to  the  Legisla- 
ture. The  people  of  Strasburg  and  its  vicinity 
were  always  very  active  in  every  movement  in 
favor  of  free  schools.  Among  those  citizens  who 
made  earnest  and  effective  efforts  in  that  direction 
were  George  Hoffman,  Alexander  Hood,  Henry 
Spiehlman,  sr.,  Benjamin  Herr,  Joseph  Bowman, 
James  McPhail  and  others. 


The  greatest  event  in  the  educational  history  of 
Pennsylvania  was  the  passage  by  the  State  Legis- 
lature of  the  free  school  law  of  1834.  This  bene- 
ficent act  provided  for  the  establishment  of  public 
free  schools   throughout   the   State    wherein   the 


children  of  all  parents,  rich  and  poor,  might  be 
educated  at  the  public  expense.  Each  city,  bor- 
ough and  township  was  to  constitute  a  separate 
school  district,  whose  schools  were  to  be  main- 
tained by  general  taxation.  Each  district  was  to 
have  a  board  of  school  directors  for  the  manage- 
ment of  its  school  affairs,  the  employment  of 
teachers,  etc.  Each  township  was  given  six 
directors,  and  each  city  and  borough  a  certain 
number  in  proportion  to  population.  The  direc- 
tors were  to  be  elected  for  a  term  of  three  years  by 
the  voters  at  the  yearly  city,  borough  and  township 
elections;  one-third  of  the  directors  of  each  district 
being  elected  each  year. 

THE  FREE  SCHOOLS  FROM  1834  TO  1851. 

Under  the  school  laws  of  1834  and  1836  the 
public  schools  of  Lancaster  county  increased  in 
numbers  and  efficiency.  At  the  end  of  tliese 
twenty  years  there  were  some  good  schools  in 
Lancaster  city  and  in  the  various  boroughs  of  the 
county.  There  were  also  some  good  schools  in 
some  of  the  townships.*  But  in  many  the  modes 
of  teaching  were  very  defective.  Teachers  were  in- 
different and  incompetent,  classification  was  want- 
ing, and  little  attention  was  given  to  the  young 
pupils.  There  were,  however,  some  very  excellent 
teachers.  Some  of  the  directors  also  took  great 
interest  in  the  schools. 

*In  those  of  Manor,  East  Donegal,  the  Henipfields,  the  Lam- 
peters,  Pequea,  Conestoga,  Strasburg,  Paradise,  Earl,  Bart  and 
several  others. 


The  school  law  of  1854  provided  for  a  County 
Superintendent  of  Common  Schools  for  each 
county  in  Pennsylvania,  to  be  elected  every  three 
years  by  the  directors  of  the  county.  The  duties  of 
the  County  Superintendents  are  to  examine  those 
who  apply  for  positions  as  teachers  in  the  cfommon 
schools,  to  visit  these  schools  each  term,  to  hold 
an  annual  County  Teachers'  Institute  and  to  report 
yearly  the  educational  progress  of  the  county.  Under 
the  County  Superintedency  the  common  schools 
have  been  gradual h'  advancing  in  every  respect. 
The  Normal  School  law  of  1857,  which  brought 
into  existence  the  State  Normal  Schools,  has  been 
the  means  of  supplying  most  excellent  teachers. 
The  County  Superintendency  and  the  State  Nor- 
mal Schools  are  the  agencies  to  which  the  progress 
of  the  common  schools  is  indebted.  The  following 
have  been  the  County  Superintendents  of  Com- 
mon Schools  of  Lancaster  county  : 

James  P.  Wickersham,  from  185410  1856,  when  he  resigned. 

John  C.  Crumbaugh,  from  1856  until  his  death  in  January, 

David  Evans,  from  1859  to  1872. 
B.  F,  Shaub,  from  1872  to  1883,  when  he  resigned. 
Milton  J.  Brecht,  since  1883. 


The  present  free  school  system  was  accepted  by 

the  various  school  districts  of  Lancaster  county,  as 

follows  : 

In  1834. 

East  Donegal,  Marietta  borough,        West  Hempfield, 

East  Hempfield,        Manor,  Washington  borough, 

Strasburg  borough,  Bart,  Drumore, 

Caernarvon,  and  four  others. 


In  1836. 

Columbia  borough, 



West  Donegal, 


Little  Britain, 

Strasburg  township. 





Manheim    borough, 


In  1838. 
Lancaster  city. 

In  1842. 

Mount  Joy  township. 

In  1843  AND  1844. 
Lancaster  township,  Ephrata  township, 

Sadsbury  and  Elizabeth  town  borough. 

In  1846. 
Bast  Cocalico. 


Manheim  towmship, 

In  1847  AND  1848. 
West  Earl, 

In  1868. 
West  Cocalico. 

Elizabeth  township, 
Upper  Leacock. 

The  new  townships  and  boroughs  which  have 
been  founded  since  the  passage  of  the  free  school 
law  have  all  accepted  the  free  school  system  since 
their  formation,  so  that  the  beneficent  system  ex- 
ists in  every  district. 


The  first  teachers'  meeting  in  Lancaster  county 
was  held  in  Lancaster,  in  June,  1850,  about  twenty 
teachers  being  present.  At  a  subsequent  meet- 
ing  this  society  adopted  the   name  of   the  Lan- 


caster  County  Educational  Society^  which  lasted 
until  i860.  At  a  meeting  of  this  society,  in  Jan- 
uary, 1852,  it  was  resolved  to  establish  a  monthly 
educational  publication  to  be  edited  by  Thomas 
H.  Burrowes.  This  was  the  origin  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania School  Journal^  which  first  appeared  in 
February,  1852. 


In  November,  1852,  the  Lancaster  County  Edu- 
cational. Society  met  at  Strasburg,  and  resolved  to 
hold  Institutes  for  the  special  improvement  of 
teachers  in  the  branches  of  study  and  in  methods 
of  teaching.  This  w^as  the  first  move  to  organize 
a  Teachers'  Institute  in  Lancaster  county.  At  this 
meeting  the  society  appointed  seven  delegates  to  the 
Educational  State  Convention  which  met  in  Har- 
risburg,  December  28,  1852.  The  first  Teachers' 
Institute  in  Lancaster  county,  which  was  also  the 
first  one  held  in  Eastern  Pennsylvania,  met  in 
Lancaster,  in  January,  1853,  with  169  members 


At  the  first  Teachers'  Institute,  just  referred  to, 
Professor  J.  P.  Wickersham  offered  a  resolution  in 
favor  of  the  establishment  of  County  Superinten- 
dents and  of  State  Normal  Schools.  This  resolu- 
tion was  adopted  unanimously  and  was  sent  to  the 
State  Legislature.  The  second  meeting  of  the  In- 
stitute, in  September,   1853,   took  similar   action. 


The  third  meeting  of  the  Institute,  at  Hinkletown, 
in  November,  1854,  adopted  a  resolution  calling 
upon  the  County  Superintendent  to  call  a  County 
Teachers'  Institute  to  remain  in  session  three 
months.  The  County  Superintendent,  Professor  J. 
P.  Wickersham,  declared  his  willingness  to  hold 
such  an  Institute  if  he  could  find  suitable  build- 
ings. The  trustees  of  the  Millersville  Academy 
offered  their  building  to  the  County  Superinten- 
dent, and  agreed  to  pay  $1,000  toward  the  expenses 
of  the  Institute.  This  offer  was  readily  accepted; 
and  the  three  months'  Institute  was  held  in  the 
Millersville  Academy,  in  the  summer  of  1855, 
under  County  Superintendent  Wickersham's  direc- 
tion. The  school  was  called  the  Lancaster  County 
Nonual  Institute.  Its  wonderful  success  induced 
the  trustees  to  continue  the  school  as  a  permanent 
institution;  and  it  became  the  Lancaster  County 
Normal  School^  on  November  i,  1855,  with  John 
F.  Stoddard  as  principal.  In  the  fall  of  1856 
Professor  Wickersham  resigned  the  office  of  County 
Superintendent,  and  became  principal  of  the  new 
County  Normal  School,  which  became  the  first 
State  Normal  School  oi  Pennsylvania  on  December 
2,  1859. 


The  first  District  Teachers'"  Institute  in  Lancaster 
county  was  held  in  the  Jackson  street  school-house, 
in  Strasburg  borough,  by  the  teachers  of  Strasburg 
borough  and  township,  July  12,  185 1.  Among  the 
leaders  in  the  movement  were  D.  S.  Kieffer,  Amos 


Row,  E.  Lamborn  and  T.  K.  White.  This  Insti- 
tute adopted  eight  progressive  resolutions,  and 
elected  five  delegates  to  the  Lancaster  County 
Teachers'  Convention  held  in  Lancaster,  August 
2,  1851.  There  have  since  been  District  Institutes 
in  various  townships  of  the  county. 

UNDER  THE  ACT  OF  i8og. 

Franklin  College  closed  in  1821  for  some  years, 
as  did  also  the  private  classical  academy  some 
time  afterward.  Under  the  law  of  1809  a  number 
of  schools  were  opened  in  Lancaster  city  for  the 
education  of  poor  children,  but  the  teachers  were 

UNDER  THE  ACT  OF  1822. 

On  April  i,  1822,  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature 
passed  an  act  to  provide  for  the  education  of  the  chil- 
dren of  the  city  and  boroughs  of  Lancaster  county 
at  the  public  expense.  Under  this  law  the  Court 
of  Common  Pleas  of  Lancaster  county  appointed 
twelve  directors  each  year,  and  the  expenses  of  the 
schools  were  paid  out  of  the  county  treasury.  A 
large  school-house  was  erected  on  the  south-east 
corner  of  Prince  and  Chestnut  streets,  and  was 
opened  for  the  instruction  of  boys  and  girls  in 

General  Lafayette  visited  this  school  in  1824 
and  addressed  the  children.  The  girls  were  taught 
needle-work.  This  school  lasted  until  1838,  when 
the  present  free  school  system  was  adopted  by  Lan- 
caster city.  The  building  is  now  used  for  school 
purposes  by  the  city  school  board- 


In  April,  1827,  ^^^^  Pennsylvania  Legislature 
passed  an  act  incorporating  the  Lancaster  County 
Academy.  This  academy  lasted  until  May  15, 
1839,  when  the  buildings  were  conveyed  to  the 
trustees  of  Franklin  College,  which  again  opened 
and  used  those  buildings  until  1853,  when  it  was 
consolidated  with  Marshall  College  under  the  name 
of  Franklin  and  Marshall  College. 


The  Abbeville  Institute  was  incorporated  in  1835, 
and  was  an  academy  of  high  rank.  Its  leading 
founders  were  Dr.  John  L.  Atlee,  Bishop  Samuel 
Bowman  and  Honorable  A.  L.  Hayes.  This  insti- 
tution lasted  only  a  few  years. 


In  1843  ^  ladies'  seminary  was  conducted  suc- 
cessfully in  Lancaster  by  James  Damant. 


The  Yeates  Institute  of  Lancaster  was  incor- 
porated August  18,  1857,  for  tlie  education  of 
young  men  in  all  the  customary  branches  of  a 
thorough  academical  course  of  learning.  The  in- 
stitution was  named  after  Miss  Catharine  Yeates, 
who  liberally  endowed  it.  The  school  was  once 
closed,  but  reopened  September  i,  1878.  In  1880 
it  was  removed  to  the  present  building  at  the  north- 
east corner  of  Duke  and  Walnut  streets,  which 
had  just  been  erected  on  a  lot  purchased  the'year 

BRIEI^   HISTORY   OF  tAKCASTER   COt'NTY.         213 

In  1822  an  academy  was  in  operation  north  of 
the  Gap,  in  Salisburg  township,  taught  by  John 
Dickinson,  father  of  the  celebrated  Miss  Anna 
Dickinson.  In  1842  Bellevue  Academy  was  in 
operation  in  Salisbury  township,  taught  by  the 
Rev.  Mr.  Timlow. 


x\n  academy  for  boys  was  established  in  Marietta 
borough  in  1833  by  the  Rev.  Timothy  Simpson, 
but  it  was  soon  discontinued.  In  1836  a  female 
seminary  was  established  in  Alarietta,  but  this  in- 
stitution finally  became  a  public  school.  In  1836 
Susquehanna  Institute  was  established  by  a  joint 
stock  company.  Edwin  A.  Leiker,  an  accom- 
plished scholar,  was  principal  of  this  institution. 
Honorable  John  J.  Libhart,  James  Mehaifey  and 
A.  N.  Cassel  were  prominent  trustees.  The  insti- 
tution proved  a  financial  failure,  and  the  building 
in  which  it  w^as  held  afterward  became  a  private 
residence.  In  1845  Marietta  Academy  was  estab- 
lished, with  James  Pyle  Wickersham  as  principal, 
and  was  in  successful  operation  until  May,  1854, 
when  Professor  Wickersham  was  elected  the  first 
County  Superintendent  of  Lancaster  county.  Both 
sexes  were  admitted  to  this  Academy,  and  much 
attention  was  given  to  preparing  teachers  for  their 
work.  The  library  had  over  500  volumes.  The 
building  was  afterward  used  for  a  boarding-house. 


In    1814   the   few   remaining   members   of    the 


old  society  of  the  the  Seventh  Day  Baptists 
at  Ephrata  were  incorporated  by  the  State  Leg- 
islature. In  1837  this  corporation  founded  the 
Ephrata  Academy.  This  institution  was  in  opera- 
tion until  1855,  when  the  building  was  leased  to 
the  school  board  of  Ephrata  township,  and  it  has 
ever  since  been  used  for  public  school  purposes. 


In  1837  Cedar  Ui'Il  Female  Sej)it?taiy  ^2iS  ts\.2ih- 
lished  near  Mount  Joy  by  Rev.  Nehemiah  Dodge, 
an  enthusiastic  teacher  and  an  active  worker 
in  every  good  cause.  This  seminary  became  a 
flourishing  and  celebrated  institution,  and  at  var- 
ious times  was  attended  by  young  ladies  from  ele- 
ven different  States.  In  1874  Professor  David  Den- 
linger  became  principal,  and  both  sexes  were  ad- 
mitted to  the  institution,  the  name  being  changed 
to  Cedar  Hill  Seminary.  This  institution  under 
Professor  Denlinger's  charge  lasted  several  years, 
and  belonged  to  the  estate  of  its  founder.  In  1838 
Mount  Joy  htstitute  for  boys  was  established  by  J. 
H.  Brown  as  principal,  but  was  not  long  in  opera- 
tion. In  185 1  MotiJtt  Joy  Academy  W2is  chartered. 
E.  Iv.  Moore  and  J.  W.  Simonton  were  associate 
principals  of  this  institution,  which  flourished  for 
some  years,  but  was  after  a  time  discontinued.  In 
1865  the  building  was  purchased  by  the  State  for 
a  Soldiers'  Orphan  School,  and  was  used  for  that 
purpose  until  1889. 


In  1839  the  Strasburg  Academy  was  founded  by 


tlie  Rev.  David  McCarter.  This  was  one  of  the 
most  flourishing  academies  in  the  county  for  many 
years,  and  was  attended  by  students  from  all  the 
States  from  the  Great  Lakes  to  the  Gulf.  Mr.  Mc- 
Carter was  principal  until  1853,  and  three  assistant 
teachers  were  employed.  This  academy  lasted 
until  1858,  and  the  building  was  afterward  sold 
and  converted  into  a  private  residence.  The  pub- 
lic high  school  of  Strasburg  borough  now  fills  the 
place  made  vacant  by  the  discontinuance  of  the 


In  1842  the  Paradise  Academy  was  in  operation, 
with  Enos  Stevens  as  principal.  In  1854  the 
Young  Ladies^  Seminary  at  Paradise  was  founded 
under  the  principalship  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Killi 
Kelly,  but  was  soon  closed  on  account  of  financial 
troubles.  The  building  was  used  awhile  for  a 
Soldiers'  Orphan  School,  and  since  fcr  a  private 
residence.  Another  Paradise  Acadefny  was  founded 
by  a  stock  company  in  1859,  and  flourished  for 
several  years  under  the  management  of  E.  J. 
Rogers,  but  w^s  discontinued  in  1865.  The  build- 
ing was  sold,  and  has  since  been  used  for  a  private 


The  CJiestmtt  Level  Academy  was  founded  in 
1852.  P.  W.  Housekeeper,  Esq.,  donated  an  acre 
of  land  and  $150  for  its  use,  and  others  contributed 
sums  of  $75  each.  The  trustees  then  borrowed 
money  to  erect  a  large   boarding-house,  thus  in- 


volving  them  in  debt.  The  buildings  were  sold 
at  Sheriff's  sale  to  Sanders  McCullongh,  who  pre- 
sented them  to  the  Presbyterian  Church,  which 
still  owns  them  and  now  leases  them  for  school 
purposes.  The  citizens  of  the  surrounding  country 
still  liberally  patronize  the  academy. 


The  Presbyterian  Church  established  the  Clmrch- 
town  Academy^  in  Caernarvon  township,  in  1854, 
with  James  E.  Giffin  as  its  first  principal.  The 
trustees  afterward  leased  the  building  to  Thomas 
H.  Reifsnyder,  who  conducted  the  academy  until 
1872,  when  it  was  finally  closed.  The  buildings 
are  yet  standing. 


The  Union  High  School^  in  Coleraine  township, 
was  founded  in  1859  t>y  James  W.  Andrews,  who 
became  its  first  principal.  This  was  designed  for 
the  education  of  both  sexes. 


In  1874  Wagner' s  Academy  for  boys  was  estab- 
lished in  Lancaster  township,  just  outside  the  limits 
of  Lancaster  city.  J.  H.  B.  Wagner  was  principal 
of  this  academy,  which  was  under  Catholic  con- 
trol, and  which  was  attended  by  students  from 


There  are  several  parochial  schools  in  Lancaster 
city,  connected  respectively  with  the  three  Catho- 
lic churches,  with  Zion\s  Lutheran  church,  and 
with   St.  James'    Episcopal   church.     There   is   a 


Catholic  parochial  school  in  Marietta  borough.  In. 
1877  a  kindergarten  school  was  established  in  Lan- 
caster city  by  the  Misses  Gleim,  of  lycbanon.  The 
Children'' s  Home  Schooliwrmsh^s  excellent  school 
privileges  to  the  poor,  friendless  children  of  that 


In  1864  and  1865  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature 
passed  bills  providing  for  the  establishment  of 
Soldiers^  Orpha7i  Schools  in  the  State.  On  June 
16,  1864,  Honorable  Thomas  H.  Burrowes  was 
commissioned  Superintendent  of  Soldiers'  Orphan 


On  December  20,  1864,  a  Soldiers'  Orphan 
School  was  opened  at  Strasburg,  with  Professor  J. 
R.  Carothers  as  principal.  In  1865  the  State 
bought  the  academy  buildings  at  Mount  Joy,  and 
removed  the  school  from  Strasburg  to  that  place 
the  same  year.  The  Mount  Joy  Soldiers'  Orphan 
School  prospered  until  it  was  closed  in  1889.  On 
December  i,  1867,  Professor  Jesse  Kennedy  be- 
came principal,  having  bought  the  buildings.  Pro- 
fessor Kennedy  remained  in  charge  until  Sep- 
tember, 1877,  when  State  Senator  George  W. 
Wright,  of  Mercer  county,  Pennsylvania,  bought 
the  buildings  and  took  charge  of  the  school. 


A  Soldiers'  Orphan  School  was  for  some  time 
held  in  the  old  academy  building  in  Paradise,  but 
this  school  has  been  closed  for  some  years. 


(linden  hall.) 

Linden  Hall  Seminary^  at  Lititz,  was  opened  in 
1794.  It  was  first  conducted  partly  in  the  Sister^ s 
House  and  partly  in  an  adjacent  house.  The  new 
building,  built  expressly  for  school  purposes,  was 
first  occupied  in  1804.  It  is  100  feet  long,  60  feet 
wide,  and  three  stories  high.  In  the  basement  is 
a  large  dining-room.  In  the  first  and  second 
stories  are  the  school  rooms,  principal's  residence, 
and  a  chapel  designed  for  religious  devotion.  The 
third  story  consists  of  a  domitory  and  a  sick  room. 
In  the  rear  of  the  building  is  a  large  yard,  with  a 
pavilion,  seats,  swings,  etc.,  for  the  pleasure  and 
amusement  of  the  pupils.  The  institution  has  an 
extensive  library.  The  course  of  instruction  is  de- 
signed to  afford  a  practical  education  to  young 
ladies.  Considerable  attention  is  given  to  instruc- 
tion in  music,  and  ornamental  needle-work  is 
taught  with  rare  success.  Each  school-room  is 
constantly  under  the  supervision  of  a  teacher,  who 
has  a  watchful  eye  over  her  respective  pupils.  The 
principal  is  aided  in  his  work  by  a  vice-principal. 
This  institution  of  a  century  has  enjoyed  an  unin- 
terrupted career  of  prosperity,  and  has  during  this 
entire  period  ranked  with  the  best  ladies'  semi- 
naries of  Pennsylvania.  It  is  conducted  on  a  plan 
adopted  several  centuries  ago  in  Europe,  and 
has  had  students  from  almost  every  State  of  the 



As  we  have  seen,  there  were  two  schools  at 
Lititz  in  the  early  days  of  the  village — the  War- 
wick school  for  children  from  the  surrounding 
country  not  belonging  to  the  Moravian  society, 
and  the  one  belonging  to  the  society  and  conducted 
by  the  Rev.  Bernhard  A.  Grube.  As  Warwick 
township  became  more  settled,  the  country  chil- 
dren were  no  more  sent  to  school  in  the  village. 
The  village  school  for  boys  was  conducted  for 
many  years  by  Christian  Schropp.  In  1815  John 
Beck  took  charge  of  the  school,  which  he  conduct- 
ed for  fifty  years,  until  he  resigned  in  1865.  John 
Beck  was  one  of  the  most  famous  and  successful 
teachers  of  his  time.  His  school  for  boys,  or  Young 
GentlemerC s  Academy^  obtained  a  wide  reputation, 
and  was  attended  by  students  from  many  States 
and  from  Canada  and  the  West  Indies.  When 
Mr.  Beck  took  charge  of  the  school  it  was  held  in 
an  old  building.  In  1822  the  present  brick  build- 
ing was  erected  on  the  same  spot,  and  as  the  num- 
ber of  pupils  increased  each  year  the  large  build- 
ing formerly  called  the  Brother''  s  House  was  used 
for  the  school.  As  the  school  increased,  Mr.  Beck, 
as  principal,  was  assisted  by  other  teachers.  The 
institution  remained  in  active  operation  about 
twenty  years  after  Mr.  Beck's  retirement. 


This  institution  was  established  in  1863  by  Rev. 


J.  T.  Beckler,  who  died  in  1876,  when  the  institu- 
tion was  closed  permanently. 


This  school  was  established  in  1865  by  Abraham 
Beck,  and  is  still  in  successful  operation. 


This  institution — the  leading  college  of  the  Re- 
formed Church  in  the  United  States — owes  its 
origin  to  the  consolidation  or  union  of  two  older 
institutions,  Franklin  College  at  Lancaster,  and 
Marshall  College  at  Mercersberg,  which  consolida- 
tion took  place  in  1853. 


The  Lancaster  High  School^  founded  by  Jasper 
Yeates  and  other  gentlemen  about  1780  for  the 
education  of  their  sons,  and  which  closed  several 
years  later  on  account  of  the  teacher's  violent 
temper,  suggested  the  establishment  of  another. 


On  March  10,  1787,  the  Pennsylvania  Legisla- 
ture passed  an  act  incorporating  an  institution  at 
Lancaster  named  Franklin  College^  in  honor  of  Dr. 
Benjamin  Franklin.  This  institution  was  under 
the  management  of  a  board  of  trustees.  The  act 
of  incorporation  provided  that  the  youth  should  be 
taught  in  the  German,  English,  Latin,  Greek  and 
other  learned  languages,  in  theology,  in  the  useful 
arts,  sciences  and  literature.  The  College  was 
endowed  with  ten  thousand  acres  of  land.     It  was 


opened  in  1786  as  a  Grammar  School,  with  a  pro- 
fessor of  the  Latin  and  Greek  languages  and  a  pro- 
essor  of  mathematics.  A  German  named  Mels- 
heimer  was  the  first  principal.  Franklin  College 
prospered  until  182 1,  when  it  was  closed,  being 
not  reopened  until  1839. 


As  already  noticed,  the  State  Legislature  incor- 
porated the  Lancaster  County  Academy  April  14, 
1827,  ^^^  granted  a  donation  of  $3,000  to  the  insti- 
tution as  a  gift  from  the  State  on  the  condition 
that  at  least  four  poor  children  should  always  be 
educated  there  free.  As  also  noticed,  the  trustees 
bought  a  lot  on  North  Lime  street,  Lancaster, 
where  they  erected  the  academy  in  1828.  The 
academy  was  opened  with  a  competent  teacher, 
and  prospered  until  1839,  when,  in  persuance  of 
an  act  of  the  State  Legislature  authorizing  the 
arrangement,  the  academy  buildings  were  con- 
veyed to  the  trustees  of  Franklin  College,  which 
was  reopened  as  a  respectable  classical  academy. 


In  1835  Marshall  College  was  established  by 
the  Reformed  Church  at  Mercersburg,  Frank- 
lin county,  Pennsylvania,  to  which  place  the 
Theological  Seminary  of  the  Reformed  Church 
in  the  United  States  was  removed  from  York  in 
1837.  The  Reformed  Church  bought  out  the  Lu- 
theran interest  in  Franklin  College  ;  and  in  April, 
1850,  the   Pennsylvania    Legislature  passed  an  act 


for  the  consolidation  of  Franklin  College  with  Mar- 
shall College,  the  latter  institution  being  thus  re- 
moved from  Mercersburg  to  lyancaster,  thus  ending 
its  history  as  a  separate  institution.  The  two  col- 
leges thus  became  a  united  institution  at  Lancaster, 
under  the  name  of  Franklin  and  Marshall  College. 
The  new  college  charter  went  into  effect  when  the 
board  of  trustees  first  met  in  January,  1853.  '^^^ 
college  opened  in  May,  1853  ;  and  the  event  was 
formally  solemnized  by  a  public  celebration  in 
Fulton  Hall  in  the  evening  of  June  7,  1853. 

The  college  was  conducted  in  the  Franklin  Col- 
lege building  on  North  Lime  Street  until  April, 
1856.  The  city  and  county  of  Lancaster  raised  a 
fund  of  $25,000,  which  was  used  in  purchasing  a 
fine  tract  of  ground  on  the  west  side  of  the  city  and 
erecting  a  college  building  thereon.  The  new 
building  was  dedicated  with  appropriate  cere- 
monies. May  16,  1856.  Each  of  the  two  literary 
societies  of  the  college  erected  a  large,  beautiful 
and  commodious  hall.  The  hall  of  the  Goethean 
Literary  Society  is  on  the  south  side  of  the  col- 
lege building,  and  that  of  the  DiagJiothian  Lit- 
erary Society  is  on  the  north  side.  These  two 
halls  thus  hold  the  relation  of  wings  to  the  college 
edifice,  and  were  formally  opened  on  Tuesday, 
July  28,  1857.  Since  then  Franklin  and  Marshall 
College  has  had  a  wonderful  career  of  prosperity. 

Franklin  and  Marshall  College  is  under  the  im- 
mediate care  of  the  Reformed  Church,  but  one- 
third  of  its  board  of  trustees  are  members  of  other 


religious  denominations.  It  is  thus  a  public  in- 
terest in  the  full  sense  of  the  term — an  interest  in 
which  the  State  is  as  much  concerned  as  the 
Church.  There  is  a  great  deal  of  local  interest  and 
pride  felt  in  the  institution.  It  thus  holds  a  double 
relation  to  the  Reformed  Church  and  to  the 
community  around  it.  It  is  the  leading  college 
of  the  Reformed  Church  in  the  United  States.  The 
centennial  of  the  establishment  of  Franklin  Col- 
lege was  held  in  June,  1887.  The  college  com 
mencement  is  always  held  early  in  June  of  each 
year.  The  anniversaries  of  the  literary  societies  of 
the  college  are  held  shortly  before  the  commence- 
ment. The  president  of  the  college  now  is  Dr. 
John  S.   Stahr. 


In  1853  the  trustees  of  Franklin  and  Marshall 
College  founded  Franklin  and  Marshall  Academy, 
designed  as  a  preparatory  school  for  the  college, 
and  under  the  supervision  of  the  college  faculty, 
but  being  no  part  of  the  college  proper. 


The  Theological  Seminary  of  the  Reformed 
Church  in  the  United  States  has  been  at  I^an- 
caster  since  1871,  and  uses  the  buildings  of  Frank- 
lin and  Marshall  College.  This  theological  semi- 
nary was  founded  at  Carlisle  in  1825  5  removed 
to  York  in  1829  5  ^^  Mercersburg,  in  Franklin 
county,  in  1837  >  ^^^^  ^^  Lancaster  in  187 1.  It  is 
the  oldest  educational  institution  of  the  Reformed 


Church  in  the  United  States,  and  is  open  to   stu- 
dents of  all  Christian  denominations. 


This  flourishing  institution  owed  its  origin 
directly  to  the  influence  of  the  first  County  Super- 
intendent of  Lancaster  County,  J.  P.  Wickersham. 
During  a  visit  to  Millersville,  Professor  Wicker- 
sham alluded  in  a  public  lecture  to  the  project  of 
founding  a  Normal  School  for  the  training  of  teach- 
ers. The  trustees  of  the  new  building  designed 
for  an  academy  at  Millersville  offered  this  building 
to  the  County  Superintendent  without  charge. 
He  accepted  their  offer,  and  opened  the  Lancaster 
County  Normal  Institute  at  Millersville  in  April, 
1855,  with  135  students,  the  term  being  three 


The  trustees  at  once  enlarged  the  buildings  for 
a  permanent  Normal  School,  and  the  Lancaster 
County  Normal  School  opened  about  November  i, 
1855,  with  Professor  John  F.  Stoddard  as  principal. 
In  1856  Mr.  Stoddard  resigned,  whereupon  the 
trustees  elected  County  Superintendent  Wicker- 
sham as  principal.  Mr.  Wickersham  then  re- 
signed the  County  Superintendency,  and  took 
charge  of  the  Normal  School,  which  he  launched 
on  an  unbroken  career  of  prosperity.  From  1855 
to  1859  the  institution,  under  the  title  of  the  Lan- 
caster County  Normal  School^  was  wholly  in  private 
hands  ;  but  was  virtually  doing  the  work  of  a 
State  Normal  School,  as  its  students  came  from  all 


parts  of  Pennsylvania,  and  its  special  aim  was  to 
train  teachers. 


The  Normal  School  Law  of  Pennsylvania,  pre- 
pared by  the  Honorable  Thomas  H.  Burrowes, 
became  a  law  May  20,  1857.  On  December  2, 
1859,  th^  Lancaster  County  Normal  School  at 
Millersville  became  a  State  Normal  School — the 
first  institution  of  that  kind  in  Pennsylvania.  The 
State  has  ever  since  granted  it  appropriations, 
and  incurred  the  expense  of  supplying  certificates 
and  diplomas.  In  i860  the  ladies'  building  was 
erected,  in  the  lower  story  of  which  were  the 
rooms  of  the  Model  School.  The  pupils  in  this 
department  were  taught  by  students  of  the  Normal. 
M.  D.  Wickersham,  brother  of  J.  P.  Wickersham, 
was  principal  of  this  school  until  the  fall  of  1861, 
when  he  was  succeeded  by  John  V.  Montgomery, 
who  remained  its  principal  for  a  number  of  years. 

The  number  of  students  attending  the  State 
Normal  School  continued  to  increase  yearly  for  a 
number  of  years,  and  it  was  the  largest  institution 
of  the  kind  in  the  United  States  for  a  time.  In 
1875  the  number  of  students  in  attendance  was 
about  650.  Under  Professor  Wickershan-a's  man- 
agement the  institution  was  put  on  a  firm  founda- 
tion of  prosperity. 

In  the  fall  of  1866  Professor  Wickersham  resign- 
ed the  principalship,  to  accept  the  office  of  State 
Superintendent  of  Common  Schools,  to  which  he 
had  been  appointed  by  Governor  Curtin.  Pro^ 


fessor  Edward  Brooks,  who  had  been  connected 
with  the  school  since  1855,  ^^^  ^^^  ^^^  ^^  ^^^^ 
time  its  popular  professor  of  mathematics,  then  be- 
came principal,  and  remained  in  this  position  sev- 
enteen years.  In  1869  a  large  addition  was  made 
to  the  ladies'  building.  The  great  growth  of  the 
school  made  larger  accommodations  necessary,  and 
a  new  building  was  erected  in  1874.  The  building 
consists  of  library  halls,  chapel,  recitation  rooms 
and  a  large  dining-room. 

In  1875  an  additional  story  was  put  on  the  gen- 
tlemen's building.  Dr.  Edward  Brooks  retired  from 
the  principalship  in  the  fall  of  1883,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Professor  B.  F.  Shaub.  In  the  fall  of 
1887  Professor  Shaub  retired  from  the  principal- 
ship,  and  was  succeeded  by  Dr.  E.  O.  Lyte,  a  grad- 
uate of  the  institution,  and  who  had  been  a  teacher 
and  professor  in  the  school  for  twenty  years.  Under 
Dr.  Lyte's  able  management  the  school  has  taken 
new  strides.  In  1890  a  gymnasium  building  was 


The  Mechanics^  Library  Association^  founded  in 
1829  by  some  mechanics  of  Lancaster  city  for  the 
benefit  of  their  fellows  and  of  apprentices,  is  the 
oldest  literary  organization  in  Lancaster  county. 
This  association  has  now  a  large  circulating  library, 
and  deserves  credit  for  introducing  serial  lectures 
and  night  schools  into  Lancaster  city. 


A  Lyceum  of  Natural  Sciences  was  organized  at 
Marietta  in  1837,  through  the  efiforts  of  Josiah  Hoi- 


brook.  In  1874  the  Marietta  Lyceum  of  Natural 
History  was  incorporated.  This  society  has  a  large 
collection  of  specimens  and  a  fine  library. 


In  1857  '^^^  Historical^  Agricultjiral  and  Me- 
chanical Society  was  organized  in  Lancaster  city  ; 
and  in  1858  the  Athenceujn  was  also  organized  in 
the  city..  In  i860  the  two  societies  were  consoli- 
dated into  one  association,  called  the  AthencFeum 
and  Historical^  Agricultural  and  Mechanical  So- 
ciety. This  society  has  not  been  in  active  opera- 
tion for  some  years. 


In  1862  Professor  S.  S.  Rath  von,  the  noted  en- 
tomologist, and  other  citizens  organized  the 
Li7incFan  Society  in  Lancaster  city.  This  associa- 
tion has  since  been  one  of  the  molst  important 
scientific  societies  in  Eastern  Pennsylvania.  It 
has  a  very  large  and  valuable  collection  of  speci- 
mens in  almost  every  department  of  natural  science. 
It  also  has  papers  and  books  of  rare  value. 


In  1867  th^  Agricultural  a7id  Horticultural  So- 
ciety of  Lancaster  County  was  organized.  During 
its  earlier  years  it  published  a  monthly  paper  called 
the  Lancaster  Farmer. 


The  Lancaster  County  Lyceum  was  organized  in 
1836  ;  and  John  Beck,  the  well-known  teacher  of 
Lititz,  was  its  first  president.     It  did  not  last  long. 


The  Eastland  Lyceum^  in  Little  Britain  town- 
ship, was  organized  in  1841,  mainly  through  the 
efforts  of  Mary  Fell.  The  lyceum  erected  a  hall 
in  1844,  but  has  not  been  in  active  operation  since 


The  Lancaster  City  Lyceum  was  established  in 
1852,  but  soon  discontinued,  and  its  valuable  col- 
lection of  apparatus  was  placed  in  the  city  high 


The  Lititz  Lyceum^  founded  in  1870,  soon  had  a 
librar}^  and  reading-room. 


The  Pioneer  Literary  Society^  in  West  Donegal 
township,  was  founded  in  1872.  It  built  for  itself 
Pio7ieer  Hall^  costing  about  $1000,  and  collected  a 
large  library. 


During  the  winter  season  lyceums  are  in  active 
operation  in  various  parts  of  the  county. 


The  Juliana  Library  was  founded  in  Lancaster 
in  1765  by  Thomas  Penn,  and  was  named  in  honor 
of  his  wife,  Juliana  Penn.  It  was  merged  into 
another  library  which  was  finally  sold. 


The  Mechanics'*  Library  was  founded  in  Lancas- 
ter in  1829  ^y  t^^^  Mechanics'  Library  Association. 


The  Athe7iceum  Library  was  founded  in  Lancas- 


ter  in  1859  by  two  associations,  one  called  the 
AthencBuin^  and  the  other  named  the  Historical^ 
Agricultural  and  Mechanical  Society. 


The  library  and  free  reading  room  of  the  Young 
Men's  Christian  Association  of  Lancaster  was  es- 
tablished in  1872. 


The  Workingmen^  s  Library  was  established  at 
Lancaster  in  1890,  by  Hamilton  Assembly,  Knights 
of  Labor. 


In  1873  a  Public  School  Library  was  established 
at  Strasburg,  through  the  exertions  of  the  school 
board  of  that  borough,  in  accordance  with  the  pro- 
visions of  the  school  law.  A  Public  School  Li- 
brary had  existed  for  some  years  in  the  borough  of 
Columbia.  Within  the  last  few  years  public  school 
libraries  have  sprung  up  in  all  parts  of  the  county. 



^T^HE  Solitary  Brethren  of  the  community  at 
^  Ephrata  possessed  as  early  as  1743  or  1744  such 
facilities  for  printing  as  existed  nowhere  else  in  the 
county.  They  owned  a  rude  printing-press,  and 
operated  a  paper-mill  and  book-bindery.  In  1745 
a  book,  entitled  Apples  0/  Gold  in  Vessels  of  Silver^ 
Beautiful  Words  and  Truths  Necessary  to  Salva- 
tioji^  was  issued  from  their  press.  It  was  followed 
by  many  books  and  pamphlets,  in  number  about 
100,  one  of  the  most  noted  of  which  was  the 
Chronicoii  Ephratcnse^  published  in  1786. 

The  rarest  of  their  publications  at  the  present 
time  are  some  of  t^xe  pamphlets.  One  of  these  was 
on  a  Cornet^  and  was  designed  to  show  that  the 
comet  was  sent  as  a  warning. 

This  community  took  the  initiative  in  issuing 
school-books.  As  early  as  1786  they  had  pub- 
lished a  Kiirz  Gefasztes^  2nd  edition,  which  was 
used  in  their  own  schools.  The  book  corresponds 
to  a  speller  and  reader  combined,  grading  from 
a  primary  to  about  a  secondary  schooh  reader. 

In  1747  the  Brethren  entered  into  a  contract  to 
translate  from  the  Dutch  language  into  German, 
and  to  print  the  Mennonites'  Great  Book  of  Mar- 
tyrs.    The  first  volume  appeared  in  1748,  and  the 


second  in  1749.  The  next  copy  in  the  German 
languag^e  in  America  was  published  in  Lancaster 
in  1814.  Subsequently  it  was  translated  by  Rupp, 
and  issued  with  imprint  near  Lampeter  Square,  in 
1837,  but  actually  printed  in  Lancaster.  This  work 
did  not  appear  in  America  again  until  1889. 

No  Bible  was  ever  issued  from  the  Ephrata 
press,  but  in  1787  they  printed  a  New  Testament 
in  the  German  language. 

Most  of  the  publications  of  the  Ephrata  Brethren 
were  on  theological  subjects  and  music.  They 
wrote  all  of  their  own  hymns  and  set  them  to  a 
peculiar  music.  Some  of  these  were  published, 
while  others  remained  in  manuscript,  embellished 
with  ornamental  figures  and  letters. 

In  Lancaster  printing  was  begun  about  1747  by 
James  Coulter,  who  issued  first  a  pamphlet.  An 
almanac  was  printed  in  1751  by  James  Chattin. 

It  is  generally  understood  that  there  existed  in 
Octoraro  a  press  contemporary  with  the  one  at 
Ephrata.  Nothing  definite,  however,  is  known 
except  that  from  it  there  probably  was  issued  a 
small  local  paper. 


Before  and  during  the  Revolution  there  were  sev- 
eral newspapers  published  in  Lancaster  county  in 
both  the  English  and  German  languages.  The 
first  one  ever  printed  in  Lancaster  city  was  the 
Lancaster  Gazette.  This  was  issued  in  1752  by 
S.  Miller  and  S.  Holland,  and  was  a  bi-weekly 
newspaper.     It  had  but  a  transient  existence,  the 


last  issue  being  that  of  June,  1753.  After  that, 
until  1778,  there  was  no  newspaper  published.  In 
that  year  Die  Pennsylvanische  Zietiuig  was  issued. 
The  Supreme  Executive  Council  being  then  in 
session  in  Lancaster,  five  hundred  copies  were  sub- 
scribed for  by  them  and  circulated  gratuitously. 
This  was  at  the  time  the  British  were  in  possession 
of  Philadelphia.  On  their  withdrawal  in  the  sum- 
mer of  that  year  to  New  York,  the  Council  returned 
to  Philadelphia  ;  and  with  that  event  the  publica- 
tion of  the  paper  ceased.  Numerous  other  news- 
papers were  started,  seemed  to  flourish  for  a  short 
season,  then  collapsed.  In  1808  a  German  paper 
was  issued  in  this  city  under  the  name  of  Der 
Volksfrund  iind  Beobachter.  The  first  editor  was 
William  Hamilton.  It  in  now  published  by  John 
Baer's  Sons. 

On  the  8th  day  of  August,  1787,  appeared  the 
first  number  of  the  Neu  Unparthejiische  Lancaster 
Zeititng  mid  Ai^ozeige  Nochriechter.  This  paper, 
under  different  names,  was  issued  for  a  number  of 
years.  The  present  Laiicaster  Intelligencer  may 
be  said  to  have  been  begun  in  1794,  under  the 
name  of  the  Lancaster  Journal.  This  was  after- 
ward united  with  the  Daily  Advertiser^  and  after 
several  changes  of  editorship,  took  the  name  of  the 
Lancaster  Intellige^icer^  imder  which  name  it  is 
published  to-day. 

The  first  daily  newspaper  in  Lancaster  was  the 
Express^  founded  in  1856.  This  continued  to 
exist   for   twenty    years.       The   other    daily    and 


weekly  journals  of  Lancaster  city  and  of  the  other 
towns  of  the  county  have  mostly  been  founded 
within  the  last  fifty  years. 

It  is  not  necessary  to  name  all  the  numerous 
papers  which  have  at  different  times  risen  and 
fallen  in  Lancaster  city,  nor  would  it  be  interesting. 

Besides  the  Lancaster  papers,  there  are  weekly 
papers  published  in  the  principal  towns  of  the 
county.  There  are  three  at  Columbia.  Marietta, 
Mount  Joy,  Manheim,  Lititz  and  Christiana  each 
have  two.  Elizabethtown,  Ephrata,  New  Holland 
and  Denver  have  one  each. 

The  four  dailies  of  Lancaster  supply  their  readers 
with  all  the  latest  local  and  general  news.  The  six 
weeklies,  two  in  German,  have  a  large  circulation 
throughout  the  county. 

Steam  and  electric  presses  have  taken  the  place 
of  the  old  hand  presses. 




AMONG  the  early  emigrants  to  Pennsylvania 
-^^  almost  every  Protestant  sect  was  represented. 
We  have  learned  that  many  of  these  people  came 
here  to  escape  persecntion  in  Europe.  Among 
them  were  numerous  representatives  of  non-resist- 
ant sects,  such  as  the  German  and  Swiss  Mennonites. 
These  people,  of  plain  and  simple  tastes  and  habits, 
found  here  that  freedom  of  conscience  which  was 
denied  them  in  their  own  country.  In  Pennsyl- 
vania there  never  existed  a  union  of  church  and 
state.  Thus  their  religious  faith  and  practice  was 
never  interfered  with  by  colonial  or  State  authority, 
and  the  adherents  of  other  churches  exercised  only 
toleration  toward  them.  The  Golden  Rule  as 
practiced  in  letter  and  spirit  among  all  religious 
denominations  in  this  State  greatly  augmented 
the  influence  of  the  generous,  wise  and  friendly 
policy  of  its  founder. 


In  Lancaster  city  and  county  we  fiad  well  estab- 
lished churches  with  large  congregations,  of  Roman 
Catholics,  Episcopalians,  Presbyterians,  Lutherans, 
Methodists,  Baptists  and  Reformed.  The  Evan- 
gelical Association,  Church  of  God,  the  Moravians, 


the   Winebrennarians,     the    Swedenborgians,   are 
also  represented  here. 

The  Quakers  have  meeting-houses  in  the  southern 
and  south-eastern  parts  of  the  county.  The  Men- 
nonites,  the  Reformed  Mennonites,  the  Amish 
and  the  Dunkers  have  numerous  places  of  wor- 
ship in  the  rural  parts  of  the  county.  In  the 
north-western  part  are  found  the  River  Brethren, 
who  hold  their  religious  services  largely  in  the 
houses  of  the  members.  Few  places  of  public 
worship  exist  among  them.  In  Lancaster  city  the 
Hebrews  have  a  synagogue. 

Among  the  early  German  settlers  of  Jhe  county 
were  a  great  many  Lutherans,  and  the  Trinity 
Lutheran  church  was  organized  as  early  as  1733. 

Here  the  Rev.  Dr.  Henr>'  Melchoir  Muhlenberg 
occasionally  officiated.  His  son,  the  renowned  Dr. 
Henry  Ernest  Muhlenberg,  was  pastor  of  the  con- 
gregation from  1780  until  his  death  in  1815,  a 
period  of  thirty-five  years.  A  German  Reformed, 
now  Reformed,  church  was  established  here  by 
the  Rev.  Michael  Schlatter,  of  St.  Gall,  Switzer- 
land. This  sect  increased  in  numbers  very  rapidly, 
many  of  the  early  German  settlers  of  the  county 
holding  to  that  faith  when  they  came  to  i\m erica. 

The  Moravians  built  a  church  and  school-house 
on  Orange  and  Market  Streets,  in  Lancaster,  very 
early  in  the  history  of  the  city. 

The  school-house,  which  was  once  used  as  a  par- 
sonage, still  stands. 

The  oldest  Methodist  church  in  the  county  is 


known  as  Boehm's  Chapel.  It  is  situated  one  mile 
south  of  Willow  Street.  This  was  built  in  1780, 
and  named  after  the  Rev.  Henry  Boehm,  who  died 
as  late  as  1875  at  the  advanced  age  of  one  hundred 
years  and  a  few  months.     He  was  born  in  1775. 

One  of  the  churches  that  has  interesting  histori- 
cal associations  is  the  St.  James'  Episcopal  in  Lan- 
caster city.  The  first  congregation  here  was  or- 
ganized in  1717  by  the  Society  for  the  Propagation 
of  the  Gospel  in  Foreign  Parts. 

In  1744  the  parish  was  organized  and  a  church 
soon  built.  Thomas  Cookson  and  James  Postle- 
thwaite  were  wardens  at  that  time.  In  1745  they 
received  a  special  license  from  the  provincial  gov- 
ernment to  carry  on  a  lottery  to  provide  funds  for 
the  erection  of  the  church.  The  first  rector  of  im- 
portance was  Thomas  Barton,  who  had  charge  of 
the  church  from  1759  until  after  the  Revolutionary 
War.  During  the  w^ar  service  here  was  suspended 
for  the  reason  that  the  rector  and  many  members 
of  the  congregation  were  Tories.  The  present 
church  was  built  in  1820.  The  style  is  unique, 
being  in  character  Lombardic.  The  edifice  is 
noted  for  beautiful  and  costly  memorial  windows, 
and  in  the  church  yard  are  buried  many  persons  of 
distinction,  among  others  the  noted  Jasper  Yeates. 

We  have  already  called  attention  to  the  plain 
sects  of  religious  people  who  early  came  to  the 
county.  It  might  not  be  amiss  to  particularize 
these  as  their  influence  has  extended  far  and  wide 
through  the  county  and  the  State. 


The  Mennonites  throughout  the  county  are  the 
descendents  of  the  Swiss  Palatines  who  settled  here 
early  and  effected  the  first  organization  of  a  relig- 
ious body  in  the  county. 

In  1 791  and  1792  there  was  a  secession  from  this 
organization.  Many  joined  at  that  time  a  new  sect 
known  as  the  United  Brethren. 


In  181 1  a  large  number  of  Mennonites  under  the 
leadership  of  John  Herr,  of  Strasburg,  left  the 
established  Mennonite  organizations  and  formed 
congregations.  They  gave  as  their  reason  for  the 
step  they  took,  that  the  existing  organizations  had 
departed  from  the  faith  and  practices  of  their 

Their  doctrine  and  discipline  are  very  strict. 
Members  of  the  church  are  not  permitted  to  vote 
or  hold  office  or  to  serve  as  jurors.  They  refuse  to 
bear  arms,  and  will  never  use  law  to  settle  disputes. 
They  have  great  reverence  for  the  Scriptures, 
and  bind  themselves  by  the  rigid  literal  interpre- 
tations of  them. 


The  Amish,  or  Omish,  another  branch  of  the 
Mennonites,  resemble  the  latter  very  closely,  dif- 
fering slightly  in  the  character  of  the  dress  they 
wear,  this  being  even  plainer  than  that  presented 
by  the  Mennonites.  They  accept  the  tenets  of  the 
Mennonite  church,  and  their  forms  of  worship 
closely  resembles  those  of  the  present  organization. 
They,  however,  have   few  meeting-houses ;  their 


services  being  generally  conducted  in  the  houses  of 
members.  The  name  is  derived  from  Jacob  Amen, 
of  Amenthal,  Switzerland,  a  rigid  Mennonite 
preacher  of  two  centuries  ago. 


The  Dunkers,  or  Tunkers,  also  known  as  German 
Baptists,  call  themselves  Brethren.  They  settled 
in  this  county  before  1721,  and  formed  a  congrega- 
tion, with  Peter  Becker  as  preacher.  They  may  be 
found  to-day  in  almost  all  the  German  sections  of 
the  county. 

The  church  prescribes  a  very  rigid  discipline, 
and  requires  baptism  by  immersion,  declaring  it 
the  only  true  method  of  administering  that  ordi- 
nance. In  many  points  they  resemble  the  Men- 
nonites.  As  for  example,  simplicity  of  dress  and 
manners,  opposition  to  war,  refusal  to  appeal  to 
law,  and  refusal  to  vote  or  to  hold  office. 


This  sect  was  founded  by  Conrad  Beissell  at  Eph- 
rata  in  very  early  times.  The  name  arose  from  the 
fact  that  they  observe  Saturday,  the  seventh  day 
of  the  week,  as  the  Sabbath,  thus  differing  from 
most  Christian  sects,  who  keep  the  first  day,  Sun- 
day, as  the  Sabbath.  These  people  seceded  from 
the  Dunkers,  or  German  Baptists.  They  are  to-day 
few  in  number,  and  these  are  found  in  or  near  the 
orginal  place  of  settlement. 


These  people  are  so  called,  it  is  said,  because  the 
sect  originated  near  the  Susquehanna  River.    Their 


founder  was  Jacob  Engle,  a  Mennonite,  who  organ- 
ized a  congregation  in  1776.  They  are  mainly  found 
to-day  in  Conoy  and  the  Donegal  townships.  Their 
creed  prohibits  them  from  wearing  the  dress  of  the 
fashionable  world.  It  imposes  non-resistance,  and 
prescribes  that  all  disputes  shall  be  settled  among 
them  by  chosen  arbitrators.  Like  the  Quakers 
and  Mennonites,  they  have  no  paid  ministry. 



A  MONG  the  prominent  men  in  the  early  history 
-^-^  of  Lancaster  county  was  Conrad  Weiser,  the 
famous  interpreter.  He  was  born  in  Germany  in 
1696.  In  1709,  when  he  was  thirteen  years  old,  he 
went  with  his  father  and  seven  brothers  and 
sisters  and  several  thousand  other  Germans  to  Eng- 
land, whence  they  sailed  to  New  York,  where  they 
arrived  June  13,  1710.  In  the  fall  of  the  same 
year  Conrad's  father  and  hundreds  of  these  German 
families  were  removed,  at  Queen  Ann's  expense, 
to  Livingston's  Manor,  in  Columbia  county.  New 
York,  where  many  of  them  remained  until  1713. 
In  that  year  about  150  of  these  families  moved  to 
Schoharie,  to  occupy  lands  which  a  Mohawk  chief 
presented  to  Queen  Anne  for  the  benefit  of  these 
Germans.  While  there  Conrad  Weiser's  father 
became  acquainted  with  Quagnant,  a  Mohawk 
chief.  This  chief  proposed  to  the  father  to  take 
Conrad  with  him  into  his  country  and  teach  him 
the  Mohawk  language.  The  father  consented,  and 
Conrad  went  with  the  chief  to  his  home  in  the  fall 
of  1 714.  There  he  suffered  dreadfully  from  hunger 
and  cold,  and  his  life  was  often  threatened  by 
drunken  Indians.  Many  times  he  saved  himself 
by  hiding  until  the  Indians  became  sober.     After 

SRIEI^   mSl^ORY   OI^   LANCASTER   COUNTY.         24 1 

Spending  eight  months  with  the  Mohawks  and 
learning  their  language,  he  returned  to  the  German 
colony  and  became  an  interpreter.  On  account  of 
a  defect  in  their  land  titles,  many  of  these  German 
settlers  moved  from  Schoharie,  New  York,  to  the 
Swatara  and  the  Tulpehocken,  in  Pennsylvania. 
TheWeisers  settled  on  Tulpehocken  in  1723,  though 
Conrad  did  not  go  there  until  1729,  when,  with  his 
wife  and  four  children,  he  took  up  a  tract  of  land 
near  the  site  of  Womelsdorf,  in  the  present  Berks 
county.  He  was  a  man  of  wonderful  activity  and 
energy,  and  was  repeatedly  called  upon  by  the 
Governor  and  provincial  authorities  of  Pennsyl- 
vania to  act  as  interpreter  between  the  whites  and 
the  Indians.  Governor  Patrick  Gordon  called 
upon  him  to  perform  that  duty  as  early  as  1731. 
He  was  appointed  Justice  of  the  Peace,  and  inter- 
preter to  the  provincial  government  of  Pennsyl- 
vania. He  suffered  great  hardships  on  a  mission 
from  the  Governor  and  proprietor  of  Pennsyl- 
vania to  the  Six  Nations,  in  1736.  He  acted 
as  interpreter  when  Count  Zinzendorf  preached 
to  the  sachems  of  the  Six  Nations  at  Tulpe- 
hocken, August  14,  1752.  In  September  of 
that  year  he  acted  as  interpreter  between  Count 
Zinzendorf  and  the  Indians  at  Shamokin,  a  popu- 
lous Indian  town  on  the  site  of  the  present  town  or 
Sunbury.  He  acted  as  interpreter  at  all  the  princi- 
pal Indian  treaties  for  more  than  twenty-five  years. 
In  1752  he  was  appointed  a  trustee  of  the  public 
schools  at  Lancaster,  York,  Reading,  New  Han- 


over,  Skippack  and  Goshenhopen.  During  the 
French  and  Indian  War  he  was  lieutenant-colonel, 
commanding  the  Second  Battalion  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania regiment,  consisting  of  nine  companies.  He 
died  July  13,  1760,  and  his  remains  were  interred 
two  days  later  near  Womelsdorf. 


Lancaster' s  signer  of  the  Declaration  of  Indepen- 
dence was  George  Ross.  He  was  born  at  New  Cas- 
tle, Deleware,  in  1730, 
and  was  admitted  as  an 
attorney -at -law  in  the 
courts  of  Lancaster  coun- 
ty in  1750.  He  was  a 
member  of  the  Colonial 
Assembly  of  Pennsylva- 
nia from  1768  to  1776. 
In  1774  he  was  chosen 
one  of  the  seven  dele- 
gates to  represent  Penn- 
sylvania in  the  Conti- 
nental Congress  at  Philadelphia.  He  remained 
a  member  of  the  Continental  Congress  until  Jan- 
uary, 1777,  when  he  retired  on  account  of  ill 
health.  Lancaster  county  offered  him  the  sum 
of  150  pounds  for  his  services  in  the  Continen- 
tal Congress,  but  he  refused  to  accept  it.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  Pennsylvania  convention  in 
1776,  which  adopted  the  first  State  Constitution. 
On  April  14,  1779,  he  was  appointed  Judge  of  the 
Court  of  Admiralty.     He  died  at  Lancaster  from 



a  sudden  attack  of  the  gout,  in  July,  1779,  and  was 
buried  in  the  graveyard  of  St.  James'  Episcopal 


The  most  prominent  military  man  of  Lancaster 
county  during  the  Revolution  was  General  Edward 
Hand.  He  was  born  in  King's  county,  Ireland, 
December  31,  1744.  He  came  to  America  in  1767, 
and  settled  at  Lancaster  in  1774.  x\t  the  begin- 
ning of  the  Revolution  he  was  made  lieutenant- 
colonel  of  the  First  Battalion  of  Pennsylvania 
Riflemen.  He  afterwards  became  brigadier-gen- 
eral, and  later  he  was  made  adjutant-general  on 
Washington's  staff.  He  practiced  medicine  before 
and  after  the  war.  He  died  at  his  farm,  Rockford^ 
near  Lancaster,  September  3,  1802. 


Among  the  prominent  men  of  Lancaster  during 
the  period  of  the  Revolution  was  Jasper  Yeates. 
He  was  born  in  Philadelphia  in  1745,  and  settled  at 
Lancaster  in  1764.  He  was  a  great  lawyer  and 
judge,  and  took  a  prominent  part  in  public  affairs 
at  Lancaster  during  the  Revolution.  He  was  ap- 
pointed Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Pennsylva- 
nia in  1 791,  and  passed  twenty-five  years  of  his  life 
upon  the  bench.  He  died  at  Lancaster  in  181 7,  and 
his  remains  were  interred  in  St.  James'  Episcopal 


Among  the  leading  men  of  Lancaster  of  the  Rev- 
olutionary period  was  Edward  Shippen,  a  grandson 


of  the  Edward  Shippen  who  emigrated  from  York- 
shire, England,  to  Boston,  Massachusetts,  in  1668, 
and  moved  to  Philadelphia  in  1693.  He  was  born 
at  Boston,  July  9,  1703.  He  became  a  merchant 
in  Philadelphia,  was  a  Councilman  of  that  city 
for  many  years,  and  was  finally  elected  Mayor 
in  1744.  In  1752  he  removed  to  Lancaster,  and 
was  appointed  Prothonotary  of  Lancaster  county, 
and  continued  in  that  office  until  1778.  He  was 
paymaster  for  supplies  for  the  British  and  provin- 
cial troops  during  the  French  and  Indian  War. 
He  was  also  a  county  Judge  for  Lancaster  county, 
under  the  provincial  and  State  governments  of 
Pennsylvania.  He  was  also  one  of  the  founders  of 
the  New  Jersey  College  at  Princeton,  and  was  one 
of  its  trustees  for  twenty  years,  until  1767.  He  died 
at  a  great  age  at  Lancaster,  and  his  remains  lie  in 
the  churchyard  of  St.  James'  Episcopal  church. 
His  son,  Edward  Shippen,  became  Chief  Justice  of 
the  Supreme  Court  of  Pennsylvania  in  1799.  One 
of  his  daughters  married  Benedict  Arnold  in  1778. 


One  of  the  most  active  Pennsylvanians  during 
the  Revolution  was  General  Thomas  Mifflin.  He 
was  born  at  Philadelphia  in  1744.  He  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Continental  Congress  in  1774.  Although 
he  was  a  Quaker,  he.  joined  the  patriot  army  in 
1775,  and  soon  rose  to  the  rank  of  major-general. 
After  the  war  he  again  became  a  member  of  the 
Continental  Congress,  and  was  president  of  that 
body  at  Annapolis,   Maryland,  when  Washington 


resigned  his  commission  of  commander-in-chief,  in 
1783.  In  1787  he  was  a  member  of  the  national 
convention  which  formed  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States.  In  1788  he  was  elected  President 
of  the  Supreme  Execative  Council  of  Pennsylvania, 
and  was  the  first  Governor  of  Pennsylvania  under 
the  State  Constitution  of  1790.  He  was  Governor 
of  the  State  for  about  nine  years.  He  died  at 
Lancaster  in  1800,  and  his  remains  lie  at  the 
Trinity  Lutheran  church  on  South  Duke  street, 
close  by  the  remains  of  Governor  Thomas  Wharton, 
who  died  in  Lancaster  in  1778. 


Simon  Snyder  was  born  at  Lancaster,  in  No- 
vember, 1759.  He  was  a  member  of  the  State  con- 
vention which  framed  the  State  Constition  of  1790. 
In  1797  he  was  elected  to  the  Legislature  of  Penn- 
sylvania, and  was  reelected  so  often  that  he  served 
for  eleven  years.  In  1802  he  was  chosen  Speaker 
of  the  House  of  Representatives.  Most  of  the  time 
that  he  was  in  the  Legislature,  Lancaster  was  the 
capital  of  Pennsylvania.  In  1808  he  was  elected 
Governor  of  the  State,  and  w^as  reelected  in  181 1, 
and  again  in  1814,  so  that  he  was  Governor  nine 
years.  During  his  administration  the  State  capital 
was  removed  from  Lancaster  to  Harrisburg.  He 
died  in  1820. 


Among  the  families  that  ranked  high  for  patriotic 
services  to  the  colonists  during  the  Revolution 
none  stood  higher  than  that  of  Muhlenberg.     Emi- 




grating  from  Germany,  the  family  was  founded  in 
this  country  by  Henry  Melchior  Muhlenberg,  the 
great  teacher,  divine,  and  patriarch  of  the  German 
IvUtheran  Church  in  America.  The  unassuming 
and  distinguished  services 
of  his  sons,  John  Peter  Ga- 
briel, the  patriot-preach- 
er, and  Frederick  Augus- 
tus Conrad,  the  minister- 
statesman,  won  fbr  them 
no  mean  place  in  Amer- 
ican History.  Not  less 
eminent  for  his  services  to 
science  was  their  brother, 
Gotthilf  Henry  Ernst,  who 
was  born  at  New  Providence,  Montgomery  county, 
in  1753.  He,  with  other  brothers,  was  sent  at 
a  proper  age  to  Halle,  in  Germany,  to  be  educated  ; 
and  there  he  graduated  in  1770.  Returning  to 
America,  he  was  at  once  ordained  a  minister. 
For  the  next  nine  years  he  was  engaged  in  min- 
isterial work  in  Philadelphia  and  New  Jersey,  part 
of  the   time  acting  as  his  father's  assistant. 

In  1780  he  received  a  call  from  a  church  in  Lan- 
caster. This  he  accepted,  and  filled  its  pulpit  until 
his  death  in  1815.  Though  faithful  and  distin- 
guished as  a  minister,  yet  it  was  chiefly  because  of 
his  scientific  attainments  that  he  became  noted. 
His  contributions  to  botany,  while  in  Lancaster, 
placed  him  in  the  front  rank  of  men  eminent  for 
scientific  erudition. 


He  corresponded  with  all  the  o-reat  scientific 
writers  of  that  day,  among  them  Humboldt  and 
Bonpland,  both  of  whom  visited  him.  A  man  of 
varied  attainments  and  profound  scientific  judg- 
ment, he  was  a  prominent  member  and  corres- 
pondent of  all  the  important  philosophical  and  sci- 
entific societies  of  that  time,  in  both  Europe  and 

His  works,  characterized  by  clearness,  precision 
and  faithful  description,  are  standards  among 
writers  of  science.  Written  in  Latin,  they  are  not 
so  w^ell  known  as  later  English  works. 

Though  he  wrote  on  many  scientific  subjects,  yet 
his  service  to  the  science  of  botany  was  the  most 
important.  He  left  in  manuscript  a  work  entitled 
Flora  Lancastriensis^  from  which  most  of  our 
knowledge  of  the  rich  and  varied  indigenous  flora 
of  Lancaster  county  has  been  obtained. 

His  brother,  Frederick  Augustus  Muhlenberg, 
was  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Representatives  of  the 
First  and  Third  Congresses,  but  did  not  represent 
this  Congressional  District,  though  he  was  after- 
ward a  resident  of  Lancaster. 


The  first  great  iVmerican  historian  was  Dr. 
David  Ramsay,  who  was  born  in  Drumore  town- 
ship, Lancaster  county,  Pennsylvania,  April  2, 
1749.  The  house  in  which  he  was  born  is  still 
standing.  He  graduated  at  Princeton  College,  New 
Jersey,  in  1765,  and  at  the  Medical  College  of  Phila- 
delphia in  1772.     He  removed  to  CharlCvSton,  South 


Carolina,  in  1773.  He  was  a  member  of  the  South 
Carolina  Legislature  during  the  Revolution,  and 
took  an  active  part  in  the  patriot  cause.  He  was 
also  a  member  of  the  Privy  Council,  and  was 
banished  to  St.  Augustine,  Florida,  by  I^ord  Corn- 
wallis.  In  1782  he  was  elected  to  the  Continental 
Congress,  and  was  reelected  to  that  body,  and  was 
chosen  president  pro  tempore  during  the  illness  of 
John  Hancock.  He  resumed  the  practice  of  medi- 
cine, and  was  quite  a  distinguished  physician.  He 
became  a  great  historian,  and  was  the  first  person 
who  took  out  a  copyright  under  the  laws  of  the 
United  States.  His  historical  works  were  :  a 
History  of  the  Revolution  in  South  Carolina^  pub- 
lished in  1785  ;  a  History  oj  the  American  Revolu- 
tion^ published  in  1790  ;  a  Life  of  Washington^ 
published  in  1801  ;  a  History  of  South  Carolina^ 
published  in  1808  ;  a  Universal  History  ;  and  a  His- 
tory of  the  United  States.  He  was  mortally  wounded 
by  a  maniac,  and  died  May  7,  1815. 


The  man  who  first  successfully  applied  steam  to 
navigation — Robert  Fulton — was  also  a  native  of 
Lancaster  county.  He  was  born  in  1765,  in  that 
part  of  the  township  now  named  after  him,  but 
which  was  then  a  part  of  Little  Britain  township. 
At  a  suitable  age  he  was  apprenticed  to  a  jeweler 
at  Lancaster,  where  he  accidentally  caught  a  taste 
for  painting.  At  the  age  of  seventeen  he  went  to 
Philadelphia,  where  he  practiced  drawing  and  por- 
trait-painting with  skill  and  profit  for  several  years. 



In  1786  he  went  to  London,  where  he  devoted  him- 
self to  painting  under  the  tuition  of  the  great  Ben- 
jamin West,  who  was  a  native  of  Chester  county, 
Pennsylvania,  and  who  was  then  President  of  the 
Royal  Academy.  Sev- 
eral years  afterward  Ful- 
ton turned  his  attention 
to  the  mechanic  arts  and 
civil  engineering.  He 
conceived  the  idea  of  us- 
ing steam  as  a  motive- 
power,  and  in  1793  he 
engaged  in  a  project  of 
steam  navigation.  He 
invented  a  machine  for 
spinning  flax  and  anoth- 
er for  making  ropes,  and 
obtained  patents  for  them  in  England.  In  1796  he 
published  in  London  a  Treatise  011  Canal  Naviga- 
tion. At  Paris  he  resided  with  the  American  poet, 
Joel  Barlow,  from  1797  to  1804,  where  he  displayed 
his  ingenuity  in  various  projects  and  inventions, 
and  in  the  study  of  the  sciences  and  modern  lan- 
guages. He  was  the  proprietor  of  the  first  pano- 
rama exhibited  in  Paris.  He  invented  a  torpedo 
or  submarine  boat  for  naval  warfare,  and  induced 
Napoleon  Bonaparte,  as  First  Consul  of  France,  to 
appoint  Volney,  Laplace  and  Monge  as  a  commis- 
sion to  examine  it.  In  1801  he  made  an  experi- 
ment in  the  harbor  of  Brest,  when  he  remained 
oae  hour  under  water  and  guided  the  boat  with 

'S/zi.  ^^^ 



ease.  Other  experiments  at  the  expense  of  the 
French  government  were  partly  successful,  but 
that  government  at  last  refused  to  patronize  the 
scheme.  In  1804  Fulton  accepted  an  invitation 
from  the  British  government,  which  appointed  a 
commission  and  made  trials  with  his  torpedo.  In 
1806  Fulton  returned  to  New  York,  where,  with 
Robert  R.  Livingston's  help,  he  perfected  his  great 
project  of  steam  navigation.  In  1807,  his  boat, 
the  Clermojit^  was  launched  at  New  York,  and 
made  the  trip  to  Albany  in  thirty-two  hours.  This 
vessel  made  regular  voyages  from  New  York  to 
Albany  in  fifteen  hours,  but  this  rate  was  soon 
increased  by  improved  machinery.  The  number 
of  steamboats  rapidly  multiplied  on  American 
rivers.  Several  other  larger  vessels  were  built 
under  Fulton's  direction.  In  1806  he  married 
Harriet,  daughter  of  Walter  Livingston.  He  died 
in  New  York  City,  in  February,  181 5. 


Lindley  Murray,  the  English  grammarian,  was 
born  in  1745,  near  the  Swatara,  in  what  was  then 
a  part  of  Lancaster  county,  but  is  now  in  Dauphin 
county.  His  Grammar  of  the  English  Language^ 
issued  in  1795,  was  for  many  years  the  best  author- 
ity on  that  subject.  After  making  considerable 
money  in  mercantile  pursuit,  he  went  to  England 
on  account  of  impaired  health,  where  he  died  on 
his  estate  at  Holdgate,  near  York,  in  1826. 


James  Buchanan,  the  fifteenth  President  of  the 
United  States,  was  a  citizen  of  Lancaster  county. 




He  was  born  near  Mercersburg,  Franklin  county, 
Pennsylvania,  April  23,  1791,  of  Scotch-Irish 
parentage.  His  father, 
James  Buchanan,  had  em- 
igrated to  Franklin  coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania,  from 
Donegal  county,  Ireland, 
in  1783.  Young  James  en- 
tered Dickinson  College, 
at  Carlisle,  in  1805,  ^"^ 
graduated  there  with  high 
honors  in  1809.  He  stud- 
ied law  with  James  Hop- 
kins at  Lancaster,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar 
there  in  1812.  In  the  War  of  1812  he  enlisted 
in  Captain  Henry  Shippen's  company.  He  was 
elected  to  the  Lower  House  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Legislature  in  1814,  and  again  in  1815.  In  1820 
he  was  elected  to  the  Lower  House  of  Congress 
from  the  Lancaster  district,  and  was  reelected 
every  two  years  until  1830.  At  first  he  was  a 
Federalist,  but  in  1828  he  became  a  Democrat. 
In  1831  President  Jackson  appointed  him  LTnited 
States  Minister  to  Russia.  In  1834  he  was  elected 
United  States  Senator  from  Pennsylvania  to  fill 
a  vacancy,  and  was  reelected  in  1837,  and  again 
in  1843  '•>  b^t  h^  resigned  in  1845,  when  President 
Polk  appointed  him  Secretary  of  State.  In  1849 
he  retired  to  private  life,  and  in  1853  President 
Pierce  appointed  him  United  States  Minister  to 
England.     In    1856   he   was   elected  President  of 



the  United  States  as  the  Democratic  candidate, 
over  Colonel  John  Charles  Fremont,  the  first  Re- 
publican candidate,  and  over  ex-President  Mil- 
lard Fillmore,  the  candidate  of  the  "American" 
or  "Know  Nothing"  party.  In  1861  Mr.  Bu- 
chanan retired  to  his  farm  at  Wheatland,  half  a 
mile  west  of  Lancaster.  He  died  there  June  i, 
1868,  and  his  remains  lie  buried  in  Woodward 
Hill  Cemetery,  Lancaster. 


The  great  leader  in  the   House  of  Representa- 
tives, or  Lower  House  of  Congress,  during  the  Civil 

War,  and  for  several  years 
thereafter,  was  the  Repre- 
sentative from  Lancaster 
county — Th.addeus  Ste- 
vens, the  "Great  Com- 
moner. ' '  He  was  born  at 
Danville,  Caledonia  coun- 
ty, Vermont,  April  4,  1792. 
His  early  education  was 
obtained  in  the  common 
schools  and  at  Peacham 
Academy.  His  parents 
were  poor,  and  he  taught  school  during  vacation 
in  order  to  get  money  to  finish  his  education.  In 
1810  he  entered  the  Vermont  University  at  Burling- 
ton, but  when  that  institution  closed  on  account 
of  the  War  of  1812,  he  went  to  Dartmouth  College, 
where  he  graduated  in  i8i4with  high  honors.  He 
then    studied   law  with  Judge  Mattocks.     In  1851 



he  moved  to  York,  Pennsylvania,  where  he  con- 
tinued the  study  of  law  and  taught  in  Dr.  Perkins's 
academy.  In  1816  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  as  a 
lawyer  at  Bel  i\ir,  Harford  county,  Maryland. 
Subsequently  he  opened  a  law  office  at  Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania.  In  1833  he  was  elected  to  the  Penn- 
sylvania Legislature  as  an  Anti-AIason  from  Adams 
county,  and  was  reelected  every  year  until  1840. 
He  was  a  great  friend  of  the  common  school  system, 
which  was  adopted  in  1834.  The  school  law  was 
so  unpopular  that  the  Legislature  of  1835  was  about 
to  repeal  it  ;  but  that  action  was  prevented  by 
Mr .  Stevens,  who  made  a  great  speech  in  favor  of 
the  law,  thus  defeating  the  motion  to  repeal  it. 
This  speech  Mr.  Stevens  himself  ever  afterward 
considered  the  most  effective  of  his  life.  In  that 
speech  he  pleaded  the  cause  of  the  poor,  and  highly 
praised  his  political  opponent.  Governor  George 
Wolf,  for  his  efforts  in  behalf  of  popular  education. 
Mr.  Stevens  was  a  member  of  the  State  conven- 
tion of  1838  which  framed  a  new  State  Constitu- 
tion. As  that  Constitution  denied  colored  men  the 
right  to  vote,  he  refused  to  sign  it,  and  opposed  its 
ratification  by  the  people  of  the  State.  Mr.  Ste- 
vens suffered  great  losses  in  the  iron  business,  and 
in  1842  he  moved  to  Lancaster,  and  there  practiced 
law.  In  1848  and  1850  he  was  elected  to  Congress 
from  Lancaster  county.  He  then  declined  reelec- 
tion until  1858,  when  he  was  again  elected,  and 
was  reelected  thereafter  every  two  years  until  his 
death  ten  vears  later.      He  was  the  leader  of  the 


Republican  majority  in  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives during  the  Civil  War  and  thereafter  until  his 
death.  He  died  at  Washington,  D.  C. ,  August  ii, 
1868.  As  the  other  cemeteries  excluded  colored 
persons  from  burial  within  their  limits,  he  was,  at 
his  request,  buried  in  the  small  cemetery  on  West 
Chestnut  street,  Lancaster. 


Lancaster's  great    hero    in    the  Civil   War  was 
Major-General   John   Fulton   Reynolds,    who   was 

killed  at  Gettysburg, 
July  I,  1863.  He  was 
born  at  Lancaster,  Sep- 
tember 21,  1820.  He 
was  taught  in  the  schools 
of  his  native  city,  and 
in  1837  became  a  cadet 
at  the  West  Point  Mil- 
itary Academy,  where 
^„^.         he  o:raduated  with  hon- 

GKN.    J.    F.   REYNOLDS.  Or         lU  I84I.  HC     WaS 

then  appointed  a  lieutenant  in  the  Third  United 
States  Artillery,  which  was  stationed  at  Balti- 
more, St.  Augustine  and  Charleston  until  the 
war  with  Mexico  broke  out.  In  1846  he  was  bre- 
veted captain  for  bravery  at  Monterey,  and  in  1847 
he  was  breveted  major  for  gallantry  at  Buena  Vista. 
After  the  war  with  Mexico  he  was  stationed  in  com- 
mand of  various  posts  throughout  the  United  States 
until  the  breaking  out  of  the  Civil  War  in  1861. 
In  August  of  that  year  he  was  appointed  briga- 


dier-general  of  volunteers,  and  was  given  the  com- 
mand of  the  First  Brigade  of  the  Pennsylvania  Re- 
serves. He  took  part  in  the  campaign  of  the  iVrmy 
of  the  Potomac  on  the  Virginia  peninsula  and  in 
the  Seven  Da3's'  Battles  near  Richmond,  in  1862. 
He  also  fought  in  General  Pope's  army  during  that 
general's  disastrous  campaign,  in  August,  1862. 

On  September  12,  1862,  he  was  appointed  to 
command  the  75,000  militia  called  out  by  Governor 
Curtin  of  Pennsylvania  to  defend  the  State  against 
Lee's  invasion  ;  but  after  Lee's  defeat  at  Antietam, 
Reynolds  rejoined  the  Army  of  the  Potomac.  He 
captured  the  Confederate  works  on  the  left  at 
the  battle  of  Fredericksburg,  December  13,  1862. 
After  the  battle  he  was  appointed  military  governor 
of  Fredericksburg. 

He  led  the  advance  of  the  Union  army  and 
opened  the  fight  at  Gettysburg,  where  he  lost  his 
life  in  defense  of  the  Union  and  of  his  native  State 
against  invasion,  July  i,  1863.  His  remains  were 
brought  to  Lancaster,  July  4,  1863,  and  were  in- 
terred in  Lancaster  Cemetery,  where  they  rest  be- 
neath a  neat  monument.  He  is  also  honored  with 
a  fine  monument  at  Gettysburg,  and  with  an  eques- 
trian statue  in  Philadelphia. 

General  Reynolds  was  one  of  our  country's 
greatest  soldiers.  His  troops  had  the  warmest 
affection  for  him.  He  shared  their  hardships,  their 
toils  and  the  dangers  of  the  camp,  the  march  and 
the  field.  He  was  devoted  to  his  profession,  and 
was  ever  actuated  by  those  noble  and  lofty  prin- 


ciples  which  make  an  American  soldier  worthy  to 
become  the  defender  of  his  country.  He  fell  at  the 
beginning  of  the  great  and  bloody  conflict,  leading 
a  corps  of  brave  and  determined  patriots,  who  fol- 
lowed him  in  fighting  the  great  decisive  battle  of 
the  Civil  War.  He  died  fighting  gallantly  for  the 
Union,  and  in  defense  of  the  homes  of  his  neigh- 
bors and  kinsmen. 


Samuel  Peter  Heintzelman,  a  major-general  in 
the  Union  army  during  the  Civil  War,  was  born  at 
Manheim,  this  county,  about  1807.  He  graduated 
at  West  Point  in  1826.  He  served  as  colonel  in  the 
first  battle  of  Bull  Run,  July  21,  1861,  and  soon 
afterward  became  brigadier-general.  He  com- 
manded a  corps  in  the  Seven  Days'  Battles  before 
Richmond,  June  25 — July  i,  1862,  and  took  part  in 
the  second  battle  of  Bull  Run,  August  30,  1862. 
He  died  at  Washington,  D.  C,  in  1880. 


John  W.  Forney,  a  celebrated  journalist  and 
politician,  was  born  at  Lancaster,  in  1S.17.  He 
began  to  edit  the  Lancaster  Intelligencer  about 
1838.  In  1845  ^^^  removed  to  Philadelphia,  where 
he  edited  the  Pennsylvaniait^  a  daily  journal, 
for  many  years  chief  organ  of  the  Democratic 
party  in  Pennsylvania.  He  was  Clerk  of  the  United 
States  House  of  Representatives  from  1852  to  1855. 
Through  his  eflforts  James  Buchanan  carried  Penn- 
sylvania and   was   thus  elected   President  in  1856. 


In  Atig^ust,  1857,  he  established  the  Philadelphia 
Press^  which  became  the  organ  of  the  Douglas 
Democrats,  as  opposed  to  the  Buchanan  Democracy. 
He  was  again  chosen  Clerk  of  the  United  States 
House  of  Representatives  in  December,  1859.  He 
supported  Stephen  A.  Douglas  for  the  Presidency 
in  i860.  About  the  end  of  that  year  he  left  the 
Democratic  party  and  joined  the  Republican  party. 
He  became  Secretary  of  the  United  States  Senate 
in  1861,  and  held  that  position  until  1868.  In  the 
meantime  he  established  the  Washington  Chronicle. 
In  1874  he  was  appointed  United  States  Centennial 
Commissioner  to  Europe,  and  remained  abroad  for 
several  years.  In  1880  he  returned  to  the  Demo- 
cratic party  and  supported  General  Hancock  for 
President.     He  died  in  December,  188 1. 


Simon  Cameron,  one  of  Pennsylvania's  noted 
politicians,  was  born  at  Maytown,  this  county,  in 
1799.  He  learned  the  printer's  trade,  and  edited 
a  Democratic  newspaper  at  Harrisburg  about  1822, 
after  which  he  acquired  a  fortune  by  operations  in 
banking,  railroads,  etc.  In  1845  ^^  was  elected 
United  States  Senator  as  a  Democrat  by  the  Penn- 
sylvania Legislature,  and  served  until  March  5, 
1849.  He  left  the  Democratic  party  in  1855,  and 
joined  the  newly  formed  Republican  party  in  1856, 
when  he  supported  John  C.  Fremont  for  President. 
At  the  end  of  1856  he  was  again  elected  United 
States  Senator  by  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature. 
On  March   4,    1861,    President  Lincoln  appointed 


him  Secretary  of  War  ;  but  he  resigned  in  January, 

1862,  when  the  President  appointed  him  Minister 
Plenipotentiary  to  Russia.      He  returned  home  in 

1863,  and  was  a  third  time  elected  United  States 
Senator  by  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature  in  1866. 
He  was  reelected  in  1872.  He  resigned  in  1877, 
and  retired  to  private  life.  He  died  in  1889,  at  the 
age  of  ninety. 


The  Right  Rev.  Samuel  Bowman,  D.  D. ,  Bishop 
in  the  Protestant  Episcopal  church,  was  the  fourth 
child  of  Captain  Samuel  Bowman,  an  officer  of 
the  American  army  during  the  Revolution,  who 
settled  at  Wilkesbarre,  this  State,  at  the  close  of 
that  war.  Bishop  Bowman  was  born  at  Wilkes- 
barre, May  21,  1800.  He  was  educated  at  the 
academy  there,  after  which  he  studied  law  in 
Philadelphia.  He  soon  abandoned  the  practice  of 
law,  and  took  holy  orders  in  the  Protestant  Epis- 
copal church.  Bishop  White  admitted  him  to  the 
diaconate  in  1823,  ^^^  ^^  ^^e  priesthood  in 
1824.  I^^  1823  ^^^  began  his  ministry  at  St. 
John's  church  at  Pequea,  in  Salisbury  township, 
this  county,  where  he  remained  two  years.  He 
next  had  charge  of  Trinity  church  at  Easton,  this 
State,  for  a  short  time.  He  then  returned  to  his 
first  charge  at  Pequea,  and  remained  there  until 
1827,  when  he  took  charge  of  St.  James'  church  at 
Lancaster,  which  post  he  retained  until  his  death. 
In  1845  the  clergy  elected  him  Bishop  of  the  Diocese 
of  Pennsylvania,  but  the  laity  refused   to  concur, 


and  he  then  declined  the  honor.  In  1848  he  was 
elected  Bishop  of  the  Diocese  of  Indiana,  but  he 
refused  the  position.  In  1858  he  was  chosen  and 
consecrated  Asssitant  Bishop  of  the  Diocese  of 
Pennsylvania.  He  died  suddenly  August  3,  1861, 
in  Allegheny  county,  while  on  his  way  to  the  Oil 
Region.  His  remains  were  brought  to  Lancaster 
and  inferred  in  St.  James'  Episcopal  churchyard. 


John  Williamson  Nevin,  D.  D. ,  LL.  D.,  president 
of  Franklin  and  Marshall  College,  and  the  leading 
divine  and  theologian  of  the  German  Reformed 
Church  in  the  United  States,  was  born  in  Franklin 
county,  Pennsylvania,  February  20,  1803.  His 
ancestry  was  Scotch- Irish,  and  was  conspicuous 
in  statesmanship  and  literature.  His  maternal 
grandmother  was  a  sister  of  Hugh  Williamson, 
one  of  the  framers  of  the  United  States  Constitu- 
tion, and  a  noted  literary  man.  He  was  born  and 
reared  a  Presbyterian.  His  father,  a  farmer,  was 
a  graduate  of  Dickinson  College,  at  Carlisle,  in 
this  State.  In  1827  ^^^  subject  of  this  sketch  en- 
tered Union  College,  New  York,  where  he  gradu- 
ated with  honor  in  1821.  In  1823  he  entered  the 
Theological  Seminary  at  Princeton,  New  Jersey. 
In  1826  he  temporarily  filled  the  chair  of  Oriental 
and  Biblical  Literature  in  that  institution,  during 
which  he  wrote  his  Biblical  Anliqitities^  which  had 
a  large  circulation  in  America  and  Europe.  In 
1828  he  was  licensed  to  preach  by  the  Presbytery 
of  Carlisle,  held  at  Philadelphia.     In  1829  ^^^  ^^' 


came  professor  of  Biblical  Literature  in  the  new 
theological  seminary  at  Alleghany,  this  State. 
He  held  that  position  ten  years,  during  which  he 
preached  regularly  at  Braddock's  Field  and  occa- 
sionally at  other  places,  contributed  articles  to  the 
Presbyterian  Christian  Herald^  and  edited  The 
Friend^  in  the  interest  of  the  Young  Men's  Society 
of  Pittsburg  and  vicinity.  He  did  much  for  the 
Western  Theological  Seminary,  now  such  a  power 
in  the  Presbyterian  Church.  In  his  sermons  and 
lectures,  and  with  his  pen,  he  was  an  uncom- 
promising opponent  of  slavery,  infidelity,  fashion- 
able amusements,  ladies'  fairs  and  theatrical  enter- 
tainments. In  1840  he  entered  the  Reformed 
Church  by  accepting  the  professorship  of  theology 
in  the  Reformed  Theological  Seminary  at  Mercers- 
burg,  Franklin  county,  Pennsylvania  ;  and  in  1841 
he  became  president  of  Marshall  College  at  the 
same  place.  He  was  editor  of  the  Mercersburg 
Review  from  1849  ^*^  ^^SS-  During  this  period  he 
wrote  many  theological  works,  and  contributed 
articles  to  the  Reformed  CJmrch  Messenger.  He 
resigned  his  professorship  in  the  Reformed  Theo- 
logical Seminary  in  1851,  and  the  presidency  of 
Marshall  College  in  1853,  when  the  latter  institu- 
tion was  removed  to  Lancaster.  He  still  preached 
and  wrote.  In  1861  he  became  professor  of  his- 
tory and  aesthetics  in  Franklin  and  Marshall  Col- 
lege at  Lancaster,  and  in  1866  he  became  presi- 
dent of  that  institution,  which  position  he  held  ten 
years,  resigning  in    1876.      His    numerous    theo- 



logical  and  ecclesiastical  works  gave  him  his  great 
reputation  as  a  divine  and  theologian.  He  died 
June  6,  1886,  in  the  eighty-fourth  year  of  his  age. 



One  of  the  most  noted  physicians  and  surgeons 
of  Lancaster  county  was  John  Ivight  Atlee. 
was  born  in  Lancaster 
November  2,  1799.  He 
was  graduated  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Pennsylvania 
in  1820.  After  gradu- 
ation he  opened  an  office 
in  his  native  city,  and  be- 
fore long  his  skill  as  a 
physician  became  known. 
He  was  a  very  success- 
ful practitioner,  especial- 
ly in  surgery.  While  at- 
tending to  his  profession-  dr.  j.  l.  atlee 
al  duties,  he  took  an  active  part  in  advancing  the 
interests  of  his  city  and  county.  He  was  one  of 
the  founders  of  the  Lancaster  City  and  County 
Medical  Society  in  1843,  ^^^  ^^  the  Pennsylvania 
Medical  Society  in  1848.  He  was  twice  president 
of  the  former,  and  became  president  of  the  latter  in 
1857.  He  was  also  one  of  the  organizers  of  the 
American  Medical  Association  in  Philadelphia,  and 
became  its  president  in  1882.  In  1853,  when 
Franklin  and  Marshall  Colleges  were  united,  he 
became  professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology,  which 



position  he  held  until  1869.  He  was  an  enthu- 
siastic supporter  of  the  public  schools,  and  served 
his  city  in  the  capacity  of  school  director  for 
forty  years.  He  proved  himself  an  efficient  mem- 
ber of  the  boards  of  trustees  of  many  public  institu- 
tions.    He  died  October  i,  1885. 


The  father  of  the  free  school  system  of  Pennsyl- 
vania was  Thomas  H.  Burrowes,  a  native  and  resi- 
dent of  I^ancaster  county. 
He  was  born  at  Stras- 
burg,Noveniberi6,  1805. 
He  was  educated  at  Que- 
bec, Canada,  and  at  Trin- 
ity College,  Dublin,  Ire- 
land, wdiere  his  parents 
resided  for  some  years. 
In  1831  and  1832  he  was 
elected  to  the  House  of 
Representatives  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Legislature  as  a  Whig.  In  1835  Gov- 
ernor Joseph  Ritner  appointed  him  Secretary  of 
the  Commonwealth,  which  was  the  beginning  of 
his  labors  in  the  cause  of  popular  education.  When 
Governor  Ritner' s  term  ended,  in  1839,  Mr.  Bur- 
rowes retired  to  his  farm  near  Lancaster.  He  re- 
turned to  his  profession  as  a  lawyer  in  1845.  He 
presided  over  an  educational  convention  at  Harris- 
burg  in  January,  1850.  In  185 1  he  commenced  the 
publication  of  the  Pennsylvania  School  Journal^  to 
which  he  devoted  much  of  his  time  and  attention 




until  a  few  years  before  his  death.  By  act  of  the 
State  Legislature,  in  1855,  the  Pen7isylvania  School 
Journal  was  made  the  organ  of  the  school  depart- 
ment of  the  State.  In  1854  Mr.  Burrowes  prepared 
for  the  State  descriptive  matter  for  Peiutsylvania 
School  Architecture^  a  volume  of  276  pages.  He 
wrote  nearly  all  the  important  school  laws  passed 
by  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature  after  1836,  and  his 
great  act  in  this  particular  was  the  drafting  of  the 
Normal  School  law.  In  1858  he  was  elected  Mayor 
of  Lancaster,  and  in  i860  he  was  appointed  State 
Superintendent  of  Common  Schools.  In  1864  Gov- 
ernor Curtin  appointed  him  Superintendent  of 
Soldiers'  Orphan  Schools,  and  he  established  these 
institutions  in  different  parts  of  the  State.  In  1869 
he  was  elected  president  of  the  Pennsylvania  Agri- 
cultural College.      He  died  March  25,  1871. 


John  Beck,  the  well-known  principal  of  the 
Young  Men's  Academy  at  Lititz,  was  born  in  Grace- 
ham,  Maryland,  June 
16,1791.  Soon  after  his 
birth  his  parents  moved 
to  Mount  Joy,  this  coun- 
ty. He  received  his  edu- 
cation in  the  Moravian 
school  at  Nazareth,  this 
State,  and  at  the  age 
of  fifteen,  in  obedience 
to  the  wishes  of  his  pa- 
rents, learned  shoemak- 
ing  with  a  worthy  man  john  beck. 


in  Lititz,  to  whom  he  had  been  apprenticed.  His 
employer  said  he  was  the  best  and  quickest  work- 
man he  ever  had,  and  when  his  trade  was  com- 
pleted he  gave  him  a  fine  suit  of  clothes  and 
fifty  dollars.  The  people  of  Ivititz,  after  some 
persuasion,  induced  him  to  take  charge  of  their 
school.  He  occupies  a  prominent  place  in  the  his- 
tory of  popular  education  in  this  county.  He  died 
February  ii,  1873. 


Samuel  Stehman  Haldeman,  the  noted  natur- 
alist and  linguist,  was  born  at  Locust  Grove,  a 
family  homestead  on  the  Susquehanna,  in  what  is 
now  Conoy  township,  Lancaster  county,  August  12, 

He  was  educated  in  the  public  schools,  and  after- 
ward at  a  classical  academy  in  Harrisburg  and 
at  Dickinson  College,  Carlisle.  He  left  college 
in  two  years,  at  the  age  of  eighteen,  without 
graduating,  and  afterward  educated  himself,  pass- 
ing most  of  his  time  in  his  library.  He  attended 
lectures  in  the  Pennsylvania  University,  in  Phila- 
delphia, in  1833  and  1834. 

He  had  already  made  large  collections  of  speci- 
mens in  natural  history,  and  had  also  collected  a 
scientific  and  linguistic  library. 

He  next  assisted  his  father  in  a  saw-mill  at 
Chickies,  where  he  built  his  residence  after  marry- 
ing. He  was  also  a  partner  in  a  blast  furnace  then 
erected  at  Chickies,  and  afterward  entered  into  the 
iron  business  as  a  silent  partner  with  his  brothers, 


Dr.  Edwin  Haldeman  and  Mr.  Paris  Haldeman. 
He  wrote  articles  on  anthracite  furnaces  for  Si'/h'- 
man^  s  JouruaL 

In  1835  he  wrote  for  the  Lancaster  Journal  a 
refutation  of  Locke's  Moon  Hoax.  Thenceforth 
his  life  was  devoted  to  science  ;  and  for  forty-five 
years  he  spent  most  of  his  time  in  his  library,  often 
working  sixteen  hours  a  day,  though  he  accepted 
several  professorships  and  delivered  a  number  of 
courses  of  lectures. 

In  1836  he  was  assistant  on  the  State  Geological 
Survey  of  New  Jersey,  and  in  1837  he  was  assistant 
on  the  Geological  Survey  of  Pennsylvania. 

He  became  professor  of  zoology  in  the  Franklin 
Institute  of  Philadelphia  in  1841  ;  chemist  and 
geologist  of  the  Pennsylvania  Agricultural  Society 
in  1852  ;  professor  of  natural  history  in  the  Univer- 
sity of  Pennsylvania  from  1850  to  1853;  professor 
of  natural  history  in  Delaware  College  at  Newark, 
Delaware,  from  1855  to  1858  ;  and  professor  of  com- 
parative philology  in  the  University  of  Pennsyl- 
vania from  1876  to  the  time  of  his  death.  This 
university  conferred  upon  him  the  degree  of  Doctor 
of  Laws. 

He  wrote  150  different  works,  of  which  120  were 
on  natural  science,  and  30  on  language.  His 
works  on  natural  science  were  mainly  on  zoology, 
entomology,  geology,  etc. 

He  visited  Europe  at  different  times  in  quest  of 
knowledge.  He  studied  the  languages  of  our 
Indian  tribes,  and  of  the  various  nations  and  tribes 


of  Other  parts  of  the  world.  He  often  lectured  be- 
fore Lyceums  and  Teachers'  Institutes.  He  took 
a  prominent  part  in  scientific  conventions  in  this 
country.  He  was  a  member  of  many  scientific  so- 
cieties in  America  and  Europe,  and  was  president 
of  the  American  Philological  Association. 

He  corresponded  w^ith  Noah  Webster,  who  credi- 
ted him  with  many  words  and  definitions  in  his 
Dictionary.  He  was  also  engaged  on  the  National 
Dictionary^  on  Worcester's  Dictionary  and  on 
Johnson's  Cyclopaedia.  He  also  helped  to  organize 
the  Spelling  Reform  Association. 

In  1844  he  wrote  a  paper  on  Species  and  their 
Distribution^  which  was  highly  praised  by  the  great 
English  naturalist,  Charles  Darwin,  in  the  preface 
of  his  work,  the  Origin  of  Species.  In  1858  he 
issued  the  Trevelyan  Prise  Essay ^  which  was  pub- 
lished in  i860  as  Analytic  Orthography^  and  which 
contains  specimens  of  about  seventy  languages  and 
dialects  as  heard  from  the  lips  of  the  natives  them- 
selves. For  this  work  Professor  Haldeman  gained 
a  prize  offered  by  Sir  Walter  Trevelyan,  of  Eng- 
land, over  sixteen  competitors,  who  were  among 
the  best  European  philologists.  Dr.  Haldeman 
died  September  10,  1880,  at  the  age  of  sixty-eight. 


Simon  Snyder  Rathvon,  the  noted  Lancaster 
entomologist,  was  born  at  Marietta,  April  24,  1812. 
He  was  a  resident  of  Lancaster  from  1848  until  his 
death.  He  was  a  scientist  whose  entomological 
researches   extended   througfhout   the  world.     He 


was  a  corresponding  or  honorary  member  of  all 
the  important  associations  of  entomologists  in  this 
country  and  in  Europe. 

From  1827  until  within  a  month  of  his  death 
he  worked  almost  continuously  at  the  tailor's 
bench.  During  his  sixty-four  years  as  a  tailor, 
Mr.  Rathvon  devoted  his  nights  to  study  and 
scientific  research.  He  had  enormous  capacity 
for  work,  giving  from  eighteen  to  twenty  hours 
each  day  to  his  trade  and  to  his  researches. 

His  work  attracted  the  attention  of  scientists. 
He  was  made  professor  of  entomology  in  the  Penn- 
sylvania Horticultural  Society,  and  corresponding 
member  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  in 
Philadelphia,  and  of  the  American  Entomological 
Society.  Numerous  foreign  societies  honored  him 
with  medals  and  membership.  He  was  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Linnsean  Society  in  Lancaster.  In 
1878  Franklin  and  Marshall  College  conferred 
upon  him  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy. 

He  wrote  a  great  deal  for  the  newspapers  and  for 
scientific  and  agricultural  journals.  He  was  editor 
of  the  Lancaster  Farmer  from  1869  until  its  sus- 
pension in  1884,  a  period  of  fifteen  years.  He  had 
a  large  stock  of  information  on  almost  all  subjects 
of  human  interest ;  but  during  all  his  long  life 
after  the  age  of  fifteen  he  was  obliged  to  make  a 
livelihood  by  working  at  his  trade,  attending  to  its 
duties  diligently  while  attaining  his  great  reputa- 
tion as  a  naturalist,  especially  as  an  entomologist. 


Dr.  Rathvon  died  in  lyancaster,  March  19,  1891,  in 
the  79th  year  of  his  age. 


Among  the  great  educators  of  Pennsylvania  and 
of  the  United  States  was  James  Pyle  Wickersham, 

who  was  born  of  Quaker 
parentage  on  a  Chester 
county  farm,  March  5, 
1825.  His  ancestors,  who 
came  from  England  two 
hundred  years  ago,  were 
among  the  early  Quaker 
settlers  of  Chester  coun-. 
ty.  He  was  educated  at 
theUnionville  Academy, 
Chester  county,  with  the 
famous    Bayard   Taylor 


and  others. 

He  founded  the  Marietta  Academy,  in  Lancaster 
county,  in  1845,  when  he  was  only  twenty  years 
old.  He  conducted  that  institution  successfully 
until  1854,  when  he  was  elected  the  first  County 
Superintendent  of  the  schools  of  Lancaster  county. 

He  resigned  the  County  Superintendency  in 
1856,  to  become  Principal  of  the  Lancaster  County 
Normal  School  at  Millersville,  which  became 
the  first  State  Normal  School  of  Pennsylvania, 
December  2,  1859.  He  remained  principal  of  that 
school  until  1866,  and  his  ten  years'  principalship 
placed  that  institution  upon  the  firm  foundation  of 
its  wonderful  prosperity. 


In  1866  Governor  Cur  tin  appointed  him  ^tate 
Superintendent  of  the  Common  Schools  of  Penn- 
sylvania, to  which  office  he  was  successively  reap- 
pointed until  1881,  so  that  he  held  the  position 
fifteen  years. 

For  many  years  Professor  Wickersham  had  borne 
the  degree  of  A.  M. ;  and  in  1871  Lafayette  College, 
at  Easton,  Pennsylvania,  conferred  upon  him  the 
title  of  LL.  D. 

In  1882  President  Arthur  appointed  him  to  the 
post  of  United  States  Minister  to  Denmark  ;  but 
he  remained  in  Copenhagen  only  a  few  months, 
and  then  returned  to  Ivancaster. 

He  thereafter  lived  at  his  home  in  Lancaster,  to 
which  he  had  moved  his  family  in  1867  ;  and  his 
last  years  were  spent  in  literary  and  business  pur- 
suits. He  was  president  of  the  Inquire  Printing 
and  Publishing  Company  for  some  years. 

Dr.  Wickersham  was  editor  of  the  Pennsylvania 
School  Journal  for  some  years.  He  was  also 
author  of  School  Economy  and  Methods  of  Ins  true- 
tio7i^  standard  educational  works,  which  have  been 
translated  into  various  European  and  Asiatic  lan- 
guages. After  his  return  from  Denmark  he  wrote 
and  published  a  large  History  of  Education  in 

He  was  a  member  of  the  Boards  of  Trustees  of 
Franklin  and  Marshall  College  and  other  edu- 
cational institutions,  and  of  the  Lancaster  School 
Board.  He  was  also  at  different  times  President 
of  the  State  Teachers'  Association  of  Pennsylva- 


nia,"''and  was  twice  President  of  the  National  Teach- 
ers' Association.  He  was  an  active  Grand  Army 
man,  and  was  prominent  in  Grand  Army  circles. 

Dr.  Wickersham's  greatest  work,  and  that  for 
which  he  will  be  longest  remembered,  was  in  the 
cause  of  popular  education.  To  this  he  was  thor- 
oughly and  most  enthusiastically  devoted.  No 
man  did  more  for  the  success  of  the  common 
school  system  of  Pennsylvania  than  he,  and  no 
other  gave  it  such  whole-souled  and  enthusiastic 

He  was  a  public-spirited  and  enterprising  citizen. 
He  took  an  active  interest  in  literary  and  business 
enterprises,  and  encouraged  every  measure  designed 
for  the  public  welfare.  He  died  suddenly  March 
25,  1891,  at  the  age  of  sixty-six  years. 




T)ENNSYIvVANIA  had  from  its  beginning  the 
county  system.  In  this  it  served  as  a  model 
for  many  of  the  other  States  of  the  Union.  The 
county  officers  have  been  for  some  years  elected  by 
the  people,  thus  giving  the  government  a  truly  rep- 
resentative character. 


The  county  officers  are  two  Judges  of  the  Courts, 
the  Sheriff,  Prothonotary,  Register  of  Wills,  Re- 
corder of  Deeds,  County  Treasurer,  Coroner,  three 
County  Commissioners,  three  County  Auditors,  two 
Jury  Commissioners,  District  Attorney,  Clerk  of 
Quarter  Sessions,  Clerk  of  Orphans'  Court,  County 
Solicitor,  County  Surveyor,  Prison  Keeper,  six 
Directors  of  the  Poor,  six  Prison  Inspectors — all 
elected  by  the  voters  of  the  county  for  three  years, 
except  the  Judges,  who  are  elected  for  ten  years. 

The  Sheriff's  duty  is  to  execute  the  State  laws 
in  the  county.  He  or  his  deputies  execute  civil 
and  criminal  processes  in  the  county.  He  attends 
the  courts  and  has  charge  of  the  prisoners  while 
attending  court,  and  keeps  the  peace. 

The  Prothonotary  is  the  chief  clerk  of  the  Court 
of  Common  Pleas.  He  enters  and  enrolls  all  dec- 
larations,   pleadings,  judgments,    etc. ;   makes  out 


judicial    writs    and    exemplifications    of    records, 
enters  recognizances,  etc. 

The  Register  of  Wills  keeps  records  of  wills  and 
letters  of  administration. 

The  Recorder  of  Deeds  keeps  records  of  deeds 
and  mortgages. 

The  County  Treasurer  has  charge  of  the  county's 
money  received  from  taxes,  and  pays  the  county's 
debts,  expenses,  etc. 

The  Coroner's  duty  is  to  inquire  into  the  causes 
of  violent  death. 

The  three  County  Commissioners  legislate  for 
the  county,  transact  the  general  business,  levy 
taxes,  say  what  new  improvements  shall  be  made, 
bridges  built,  etc. 

The  three  Auditors  audit  the  public  accounts  of 
the  county. 

The  two  Jury  Commissioners  draw  the  lists  of 
those  to  serve  as  Jurors  from  names  presented  to 
them  for  that  purpose. 

The  District  Attorney  is  the  counsel  and  advo- 
cate of  the  Commonwealth  in  prosecuting  criminal 
cases  in  the  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions. 

The  Clerk  of  Quarter  Sessions  and  the  Clerk  of 
Orphans'  Court  are  the  chief  clerks  of  those  respec- 
tive courts. 

The  County  Solicitor  is  the  attorney  and  legal 
advisor  of  the  County  Commissioners. 


The  government  of  Lancaster  city  is  like  that 
of  other  cities  of  its  class  in  Pennsylvania.     The 


Mayor  is  the  executive  and  judicial  officer,  and  is 
elected  every  two  years  by  a  vote  of  the  citizens. 
The  city  legislature  is  composed  of  the  Select  and 
Common  Councils^  each  ward  electing  one  Select 
Councilman  and  three  Common  Councilmen.  The 
School  Board  \^  also  elected  by  popular  vote.  The 
City  Treasurer^  City  Solicitor^  Sicperijitendent  of 
Water  Works^  Chief  of  the  Fire  Departme7tt 
and  Street  Commissioner  are  the  city  officials 
elected  by  the  City  Councils.  The  city  police  are 
appointed  by  the  Mayor,  and  confirmed  by  the 
Select  Council.  Lancaster  city  is  divided  into 
nine  wards  ;  each  of  which,  according  to  the  State 
laws,  has  its  own  Alder^nan^  who  acts  as  Justice  of 
the  Peace,  and  its  own  Constable^  Assessor^  etc. 


There  are  ten  boroughs  in  Lancaster  county,  the 
largest  of  which  is  Columbia.  *  In  Pennsylvania 
the  officers  of  each  borough  are  a  Burgess^  a  Bor- 
ough Council  with  more  or  less  members  according 
to  size,  Treasurer^  Cojistables^  fustices  of  the  Peace^ 
School  Board^  Auditor  and  other  local  officers — all 
elected  by  popular  vote,  most  of  them  yearly.  Each 
township  likewise  has  its  own  officials,  such  2ls  fns- 
tices  of  the  Peace  ^  Constable^  Assessor^  Auditor^  Su- 
pervisors^ six  School  Directors^  Township  Clerk  and 
Tax   Collector — all  elected  by  popular  vote,  some 

*The  other  nine  are  Marietta,  Manheim,  Mount  Joy,  Eliza- 
bethtown,  Lititz,  Ephrata,  Strasburg,  Washington  and  Adams- 


for  one  year,  some  for  three  years,  and  Justices  of 
the  Peace  for  five  years. 


I^ancaster  county  sends  one  member  to  the 
House  of  Representatives  of  the  United  States 
Congress,  and  comprises  the  Tenth  Congression- 
al District  of  Pennsylvania.  The  county  sends 
eight  members  to  the  Pennsylvania  lyCgislature, 
two  State  Senators  and  six  members  of  the  House 
of  Representatives,  or  lower  house  of  the  State 
IvCgislature — all  elected  by  the  voters,  the  Senators 
for  four  years,  and  the  Representatives  for  two  years. 
The  county  is  divided  into  two  State  Senatorial 
Districts,  and  three  State  Representative  Districts. 
The  Northern  District  elects  one  Senator  and  three 
Representatives  to  the  State  Legislature.  The 
Southern  District,  including  Lancaster  city,  elects 
one  Senator  to  the  Legislature.  The  Southern 
District,  without  Lancaster  city,  elects  two  Rep- 
resentatives to  the  Legislature.  Lancaster  city 
elects  one  Representative  of  its  own,  and  thus 
comprises  a  separate  Representative  District. 




^npHE  pioneer  iron-masters  in  Lancaster  county 
-*-  were  generally  Welsh.  We  find  among-  these 
such  names  as  David  Jenkins,  David  Caldwell, 
James  Old  and  Cyrus  Jacobs.  These  were  from 
time  to  time  the  proprietors  of  the  old  forges  in  Caer- 
narvon and  Elizabeth  townships.  Curtis  Grubb, 
a  Welshman,  was  the  founder  and  original  owner 
of  the  Cornwall  furnace,  now  in  Lebanon  county. 
Robert  Coleman,  a  Scotch-Irishman,  and  one  of 
the  most  prominent  of  the  old  iron-masters  of  this 
county,  afterward  became  one  of  the  owners  of  the 
Cornwall  furnace  and  of  the  furnace  and  forges  in 
Elizabeth  township.  The  Grubbs,  the  Freemans 
and  the  Colemans  are  to-day  the  most  noted  iron- 
masters in  Lancaster  and  Lebanon  counties.  There 
were  also  among  the  first  iron-masters  of  the  county 
two  Germans — ^Jacob  Huber,  the  founder  of  Eliza- 
beth furnace,  and  Baron  Stiegel,  the  founder  of 
Manheim.  On  the  Conowingo  and  the  Octoraro 
there  were  formerly  several  furnaces  and  forges, 
but  they  have  not  been  in  operation  for  many  years. 
Marti c  forge  and  Colemanville  forge  and  rolling- 
mill,  both  located  on  the  Pequea,  were  in  operation 
until  a  recent  period.     The  old  charcoal  furnaces, 


which  at  one  lime  were  quite  numerous,  have 
ceased  to  exist  since  the  development  of  the  an- 
thracite coal  mines  ;  and  to-day  we  find  flourish- 
ing anthracite  furnaces  and  rolling-mills  at  Lan- 
caster, Columbia,  Marietta,  Chestnut  Hill  and  Safe 
Harbor.  * 


There  was  a  paper-mill  established  at  Ephrata 
about  1820  ;  and  one  was  in  operation  on  the  West 
Branch    of   the    Octoraro,  in    Bart    township.      In 

*The  old  forges  were  :  Windsor,  Pool  and  Spring  Grove,  in 
Caernarvon  township  ;  Speedwell  and  Hopewell,  in  Elizabeth 
township  ;  Martic,  in  Martic  township  ;  Colemanville,  in  Cones- 
toga  township  ;  Sadsbury,  in  Sadsbury  township  ;  line  Grove, 
White  Rock  and  Black  Rock,  in  Little  Britain  township  ;  and 
Mount  Vernon,  in  West  Donegal  township. 

The  old  charcoal  furnaces  were  :  Those  of  Cornwall  and 
Colebrook,  now  in  Lebanon  county  ;  Elizabeth,  in  Elizabeth 
township  ;  Martic,  in  Martic  township  ;  Conowingo,  in  what  is 
now  East  Drumore  township  ;  Mount  Hope,  in  Rapho  town- 
ship ;  Mount  Vernon,  in  West  Donegal  township  ;  Mount 
Eden,  in  what  is  now  Eden  township  ;  and  Black  Rock,  in 
Little  Britain  township. 

The  anthracite  furnaces  have  been  :  Sarah  Ann,  in  Rapho  town- 
ship ;  Safe  Harbor,  in  Conestoga  township  ;  Conestoga,  in  Lan- 
caster city  ;  Chickies,  at  the  mouth  of  Big  Chickies  creek,  in 
West  Hempfield  township  ;  Cordelia,  in  West  Henipfield  town- 
ship ;  Shawnee,  St.  Charles  and  Henry  Clay,  in  Columbia  ;  and 
Donegal,  Marietta,  Vesta  and  Eagle,  near  Marietta. 

The  rolling-mills  have  been  :  Chickies,  near  the  mouth  of  Big 
Chickies  creek,  in  East  Donegal  township  ;  Safe  Harbor  and 
Colemanville,  in  Conestoga  township  ;  Conowingo,  in  what  is 
uow  East  Drumore  township  ;  Rohrerstown,  in  East  Hempfield 
township  ;  Penn  Iron  Company's  in  Lancaster  city  ;  and  Shaw- 
nee and  Susquehanna,  in  Columbia. 


J855  one  was  established  at  Eden,  Manheim  town- 
ship. This  was  operated  there  for  ten  years,  until 
1865,  when  it  was  removed  to  Slackwater,  in  Con- 
estoga  township,  where  it  is  to-day  ;  and  under  its 
present  enterprising  management,  until  within  a 
year,  it  was  very  prosperous. 

From  1855  to  1862  a  paper-mill  was  conducted 
at  Camargo,  Eden  township,  by  the  Camargo 
Manufacturing  Company.  In  the  fall  of  1865  the 
newspaper  proprietors  of  Lancaster,  and  others, 
established  the  Printers'  Paper  Mill  at  Binkley's 
Bridge,  in  Manheim  township.  This  was  operated 
successfully  until  November  25th,  1882,  when  it 
was  burned  down. 


There  are  half  a  dozen  cotton-mills  in  Lancaster 
city  ;  and  besides  these  there  are  locomotive  works, 
a  number  of  foundries  and  machine-shops,  a  watch 
factory  and  some  other  manufacturing  establish- 
ments. There  are  also  foundries  and  machine- 
shops  at  Columbia,  jMarietta,  Mount  Joy,  Chris- 
tiana and  other  places  in  the  county.  Besides,  in 
every  part  of  it,  we  find  grist-mills  and  saw-mills, 
located  at  convenient  distances  from  the  centers  of 


Another  striking  evidence  of  the  immense  wealth 
of  Lancaster  county  is  the  number  of  banking  in- 
stitutions. There  are  twenty-five  National  Banks 
in  the  county,  besides  a  number  of  private  banking 


houses.  *  The  Lancaster  Trust  Company  of  Lan- 
caster city,  established  in  1890,  is  the  first  and  only 
institution  of  the  kind  in  the  county. 


The  great  fire-insurance  companies  of  America 
and  Europe  are  represented  in  Lancaster  city. 
There  are  a  number  of  farmers'  mutual  fire  insur- 
ance companies  in  existence  throughout  the  county, 
which  insure  most  of  the  property  of  our  agricul- 
tural population.  According  to  the  mutual  plan, 
the  members  of  each  of  these  are  joined  together 
by  agreeing  to  pay  their  respective  shares  of  losses 
sustained  by  their  neighbors  belonging  to  their 
association.  Our  various  large  metropolitan  life- 
insurance  companies  also  have  agencies  in  Lan- 
caster city  and  other  large  towns  of  the  county,  and 
have  a  large  number  of  policy-holders  throughout 
the  county. 


Besides  the  County  Aims-House  and  Hospital 
there  are  several  private  charitable  institutions. 
The  Orphan  Asylum  of  Lancaster^  an  incorporated 
institution,  cares  for  female  orphans  between  the 
ages  of  six  and  ten.     The  Bishop  Bozvman  Church 

*Of  the  twenty-five  National  Banks  seven  are  in  Lancaster 
city,  three  in  Columbia,  two  in  Mount  Joy,  two  in  Manheim,  and 
one  in  each  of  the  following  eleven  places  :  Marietta,  Eliza- 
bethtown,  Lititz,  Ephrata,  Lincoln,  New  Holland,  Strasburg, 
Gap, ^  Christiana,  Quarry ville  and  Mountville.  Lancaster  city, 
Columbia,  Marietta  and  Elizabethtown  have  each  a  private 
banking  establishment. 


Home,  for  the  aged  and  infirm,  was  founded  by- 
Bishop  Samuel  Bowman,  and  is  supported  by  vol- 
untary contributions.  The  Home  /or  Friendless 
Children  was  established  in  1859  by  the  efforts  and 
contributions  of  Miss  Mary  Bowman  and  other 
benevolent  persons,  and  was  incorporated  by  act 
of  the  State  Legislature  in  i860.  St.  Marfs  Hos- 
pital^ a  Roman  Catholic  institution,  was  estab- 
lished in  recent  years. 


The  Free  Masons,  Odd  Fellows,  and  the  various 
other  secret  orders  whose  objects  are  of  a  philan- 
thropic and  beneficial  character,  have  organizations 
in  Lancaster  city  and  in  the  various  large  and 
small  towns  throughout  the  county.  The  Grand 
Army  has  a  number  of  posts  in  various  parts  of 
the  county.  The  various  new  secret  orders  have 
rapidly  established  themselves  in  different  portions 
of  the  county.  The  strength  of  these  associations 
here,  as  well  as  the  number  of  religious  societies, 
shows  that  our  county  is  not  behind  the  age  in 
anything  that  tends  to  the  advancement  and  happi- 
ness of  our  fellowmen. 



^  I  ^HE  rock  structure  of  Eaucaster  county,  though 
comparatively  simple,  is  yet  interesting.  The 
rocks  belong  in  the  main  to  the  older  formations  and 
present  no  evidence  upon  the  surface  of  great 
changes  of  position.  They  have  not  been  folded, 
bent,  or  contorted  as  in  other  regions  where  geo- 
logical forces  have  been  more  active.  But  if  fold- 
ing  forces  have  not  been  active,  erosion  has  been  an 
important  factor  in  shaping  the  surface  features  and 
adding  to  the  potential  wealth  of  the  county.  This 
it  has  done  in  the  formation  of  the  soil,  and  in 
bringing  to  the  surface  the  valuable  series  of  rocks 
in  the  main  limestone  valley  of  the  county.  Per- 
haps thousands  of  feet  of  rock  strata  have  been  worn 
away  by  this  ever  active  force. 


In  its  surface  features  Lancaster  county  presents 
three  well-marked  series  of  rocks  that  run  entirely 
across  the  county  from  east  to  west.  The  series 
form  broad  parallel  belts  of  nearly  equal  width. 


The  most  northern  of  the  belts  is  of  the  Meso- 
zoicor  Middle-life  series,  composed  mainly  of  sand- 
stone and  argillite,  a  thin  slaty  rock  like  shale. 


Near  the  mountains  of  the  northern  boundary  they 
attain  their  greatest  thickness,  but  the  series  thin 
out  as  you  approach  the  next  belt.  The  surface 
here  presents  more  folding  than  that  of  the  next 
belt,  and  the  hills  present  angular  or  broken  out- 
lines. In  two  places  basins  of  rocks  that  form  the 
next  lower  horizon  are  enclosed  by  the  Mesozoic 
sandstones  as  though  tongues  of  the  sandstones 
were  run  out  to  enclose  the  lower  series.  The 
basins  are  those  limestone  valleys  in  which  Eph- 
rata  and  Lititz  are  situated. 


The  Mesozoic  rocks,  here  as  everywhere  else, 
are  of  lake  and  river  formation.  At  some  time  in 
the  past  geological  history  of  the  earth  when  the 
rainfall  was  abundant,  the  rivers  and  smaller 
streams  were  the  mills  that  ground  up  the  harder 
granites  and  quartzes,  and  thus  furnished  the  ma- 
terials from  which  the  Mesozoic  sandstones  were 
made.  The  waters  rushing  down  mountain  and 
hillside  tore  great  gullies  in  their  faces,  and  aided 
by  the  detritus  tore  up  even  their  rocky  framework 
and  carried  the  gravel  and  silt  out  toward  the  level 
plain.  Here  by  means  of  pressure  and  the  action 
of  water,  perhaps  this  material  was  consolidated 
into  solid  beds  of  rock. 


They  are  not  rich  in  fossil  remains  probably 
because  of  their  weathered  condition,  or  it  may  be 
on  account  of  the  condition  under  which  they  were 


laid  down.  Their  thinning  out  as  we  approach 
the  next  belt  indicates  that  after  they  were  bedded 
the  elements  rapidly  disintegrated  them.  The 
eroded  material  from  them  was  carried  away  to 
furnish  components  for  other  beds,  or  for  the  soils 
of  other  sections. 


The  Mesozoic  sandstones  here  lie  directly  upon 
the  Trenton  limestones,  though  the  latter  belongs 
mainly  to  the  older  Palaeozoic  series.  The  latter 
dips  directly  under  the  former  and  was  at  one  time 
completely  covered  by  it,  as  is  shown  by  the  fact 
that  the  higher  hills  are  yet  crowned  with  sand- 


The  Trenton  series,  which  forms  the  middle  belt 
of  rocks  through  the  county,  is  by  far  the  most 
important.  The  action  of  the  air  and  the  water 
upon  its  surface  has  produced  that  deep  rich  soil 
for  which  this  section  is  famous.  All  of  the  best 
farms  lie  in  this  belt.  The  rocks  are  laid  down 
along  a  great  synclinal  axis  and  form,  therefore, 
a  wide,  trough-shaped  valley.  I  They  must  be  of 
great  thickness,  perhaps  thousands  of  feet.  Owing, 
however,  to  their  position  and  the  small  number 
and  extent  of  the  outcroppings  of  the  edges  of  the 
rocks,  their  depth  cannot  be  exactly  ascertained. 
They  have  not  been  subjected  to  any  great  flexing 
and  folding,  hence  the  section  is  comparatively 
level.  The  undulations  present  only  gentle  swells 
with  long  slopes.     Occasionally  along  the  Cones- 


toga  Creek  an  outcrop  presents  complicated  fold- 
ings that  are  evidences  of  the  wonderful  power  of 
those  subterranean  forces  that  in  times  long  past 
made  and  contorted  our  mountains.  They  are 
evidences  too  of  the  plastic  state  of  the  beds  of 
sediment  when  originally  laid  down. 


A.n  nearly  the  middle  line  of  the  belt  a  large  part 
of  the  Trenton  limestones  has  been  carried  away 
by  the  action  of  rains  and  the  streams.  This,  in 
three  sections — Chickies,  NefFsville  and  the  Welsh 
Mountains — has  exposed  rocks  of  an  earlier  age. 


The  limestones  of  this  belt  are  bluish  or  grayish 
and  are  composed  mainly  of  carbonate  of  lime, 
though  some  contain  a  large  proportion  of  magne- 
sium. Toward  the  southern  side  of  the  belt  in 
many  quarries  the  limestone  contains  much  schist, 
either  disseminated  all  through  the  strata  or  as  an 
incrustation.  When  burned,  the  carbonate  of  lime 
forms  good  quicklime  or  oxide  of  lime.  In  burn- 
ing, a  suffocating  gas,  carbon  dioxide,  is  driven  oflf 
and  the  quicklime  remains. 


They  are  made  up  almost  entirely  of  the  shells 
of  minute  animals  that  at  one  time  existed  in 
countless  numbers  in  the  sea.  Like  the  coral 
polyp,  they  were  simple  in  organization  and  secured 
their  food  and  materials  to  build  up  a  shell  cover- 
ing from  the  sea  water. 

284         BRIEF   HISTORY   OF   I.ANCASTE:r   COUNTY. 

South  of  the  Trenton  belt  is  the  last  and  lowest 
of  the  three  important  series  in  Lancaster  county. 
The  rocks  belong  to  the  Archaean  era  and  mainly 
to  the  Eozoic  or  first  life  age.  Schistose  slates,  or 
those  slates  in  which  the  cleavage  is  into  thin  lam- 
inar plates,  are  the  predominant  rock^J  Here  the 
contractile  force  of  the  earth's  cooling  is  more  evi 
dent,  and  shows  itself  in  the  contorted  character  of 
the  strata,  in  their  bent  and  folded  positions,  and 
also  in  the  greater  complication  of  the  surface 
features.  Instead  of  the  long  swells  and  gentle 
undulations  characteristic  of  the  limestone  belt, 
the  hills  present  steep  slopes,  sharper  angles  and 
broken  crests. 


Not  only  are  the  Eozoic  rocks  represented  in 
this  section,  but  other  series  seem  to  be  pushed  into 
the  predominant  rocks.  Gneisses,  mica-schists 
and  serpentines  crop  out  along  the  bases  of  many 
hills.  Ivike  all  rocks  so  low  down,  they  contain  a 
great  deal  of  iron  disseminated  through  them.  The 
only  outcrops  of  industrial  value  is  the  Peach 
Bottom  roofing-slate,  or  true  Argillite. 


Running  into  the  Trenton  limestone  from  the 
west  is  a  well-marked  area,  in  the  form  of  a  wedge, 
of  what  is  known  as  Chickies  quartzite.  The  rock 
is  an  old  sandstone  and  has  been  referred  to  the 
Potsdam  age.  The  outcrops  occur  at  Chickies, 
from  which  place  the  formation  extends  eastward 


forsome  distance  along  the  north  side  of  Chestnut 
Hill.  After  the  quartzite  disappears  beneath  the 
limestone,  it  does  not  come  to  the  surface  except 
at  two  places — on  the  hills  south  of  Neflfsville  and 
in  the  Welsh  Mountains. 


The  Trenton  formation  at  Chickies  seems  to  dip 
right  down  under  the  quartzite  ;  but,  of  course, 
this  is  due  to  the  folded  character  of  the  rocks. 
Chickies'  bold  escarpment  toward  the  Susquehanna 
is  a  great  double  fold  that  has  placed  rocks  of  a 
lower  series  above  those  that  originally  were  far 
above.  Were  we  to  mark  out  the  limestone  strata 
we  would  have  a  great  bend  of  this  formation  over 
the  quartzite,  reaching  to  a  height  represented  by 
the  thickness  of  the  Trenton  belt.  All  of  this 
may  have  been  carried  by  erosion. 


In  several  sections  of  the  county  sharp  angular 
ridges  exist  with  great  masses  of  hard  rock  lying 
exposed  upon  the  surface.  The  stone  known  as 
trap^  shows  a  conchoidal  fracture,  great  toughness, 
and  gives  a  metallic  ring  when  struck,  due  to  the 
presence  of  a  large  amount  of  iron. 


Trap-dykes  are  common  in  Ivancaster  county — 
one  extending  clear  through  the  northern  belt 
of  sandstones  from  the  Welsh  Mountains  to  the 
Susquehanna.  In  the  Eozoic  of  the  South  there 
are  several  outbreaks  of  this  basaltic  material,  and 


one  mile  west  of  Millersville  there  is  a  local  out- 
crop of  about  a  mile  in  length  and  a  few  yards  in 
width.  Great  blocks  of  the  dolerite  are  nearly 
always  scattered  over  the  surface  along  the  line 
of  outbreak. 


The  rocks  are  evidently  of  igneous  origin,  and 
have  been  forced  up  through  fissures  in  the 
earth's  crust.  As  the  earth  cooled  off,  the 
outer  crust  became  too  small  for  the  intensely 
heated  part  within  ;  hence  fissures  would  be  formed 
and  the  molten  material  within  forced  out.  But 
as  the  crust  grew  thick  and  the  part  within  radi- 
ated its  heat,  the  interior  would  become  too  small 
for  the  crust,  and  the  latter  would  adjust  itself 
to  the  contracting  mass.  Hence  the  crust  would 
be  thrown  into  folds,  and  perhaps  fissured  when 
bent  a  great  deal.  The  heavy  outside  shell  press- 
ing inward  gradually  forced  basaltic  materials 
upward  into  the  fissures  and  thus  caused  the  trap- 
dykes.  These  are  most  common  in  the  Mesozoic 


The  Chestnut  Hill  iron  mines  are  situated  in  a 
series  of  rocks  of  the  Cambrian  age,  under-bedded 
with  very  old  white  sandstones.  Slaty  rocks,  rich 
in  iron  particles  and  in  masses  of  iron  pyrites,  in 
some  forms  called  jackstones,  and  known,  also,  as 
fool's  gold,  overlaid  the  series.  Water,  in  leaching 
through  the  slate  rocks,  combined  with  the  iron  to 
form  iron  oxide.     Carried  down  through  the  per- 


meable  rocks  by  the  water,  the  solution  gradually 
saturated  the  rocks  above  the  white  sandstone  and 
formed  the  rich  deposits  of  hematite.  The  posi- 
tion of  the  impermeable  sandstones  was  admirably 
adapted  in  every  way  to  favor  the  formation.  * 


According  to  the  traditions  of  the  neighborhood, 
the  Gap  copper  mines  were  discovered  about  the 
year  1718.  From  about  this  time  until  1800  they 
were  irregularly  worked  by  various  companies, 
none  of  which  were  able  to  procure  copper  in  pay- 
ing quantities.  After  lying  idle  for  about  fifty  years, 
or  in  1849,  ^  company  was  formed  to  engage  in  cop- 
per ore  mining,  which  they  continued  until  1852. 

At  this  time  miners  in  the  United  States  knew 
nothing  of  nickel.  The  nickel  ore  at  these  mines 
was,  therefore,  all  the  time  being  thrown  out  as 
worthless  material.  They  thought  it  merely  ' '  Sul- 
phuretof  Iron."  In  that  year  Captain  Doble  came 
to  work  as  a  miner.  He  had  an  intimate  knowledge 
of  practical  mining,  and  at  once  announced  that 
the  so  called  iron  pyrites  was  not   that  material. 

^Minerals. — There  are  iron  ore  mines  in  East  Donegal  town- 
ship, near  Marietta;  on  Chestnut  Hill,  in  West  Hempfield  towri- 
ship ;  on  Turkey  Hill,  in  Manor  township  ;  in  Conestoga  a 
township,  near  Safe  Harbor  and  Shenk's  Ferry  ;  in  Pequea 
township,  near  Pequea  Valley  ;  in  Providence  and  Eden  town- 
ships, near  Quarryville  ;  on  both  sides  of  Beaver  Creek,  in 
Providence  and  Strasburg  townships  ;  in  Strasburg  township, 
near  Mine  Ridge  ;  at  several  places  in  Bart  township  ;  in  Fulton 
and  Little  Britain  townships  ;  and  in  several  places  in  Caernarvon 
township,  on  the  Welsh  Mountains. 


Specimens  were  sent  to  several  chemists,  one  of 
whom,  Dr.  F.  A.  Geuth,  a  skillful  chemist  of 
Philadelphia,  made  a  satisfactory  analysis  pro- 
nouncing the  ore  nickel,  and  giving  the  percentage. 
The  name  of  the  mines  was  now  changed  to  Gap 
Nickel  Mines,  and  were  operated  for  some  years  by 
several  companies,  but  with  little  financial  success. 
Joseph  Wharton,  the  present  owner,  however,  by 
skillful  mining  and  business  tact  in  disposing  of  all 
the  products*  has  made  the  mines  pay. 

The  nickel  ore  which  is  found  in  the  form  of 
millerite,  or  nickel  sjilphide,  forms  an  incrustation 
on  hornblende,  or  lies  in  contact  with  schistose 
rocks.  The  mines,  situated  in  Bart  township,  are 
near  a  trap-dyke  in  the  Eozoic  belt  of  rocks.  The 
region  is  surrounded  by  limestones.  The  horn- 
blende is  in  a  large  lenticular  or  wedge  shaped 
mass,  imbedded  in  the  schists. 


But  few  portions  of  the  United  States  have  a 
more  varied  and  more  luxuriant  flora  than  Lancas- 
ter county.  Its  position  in  latitude,  its  great  rain- 
fall, its  protection  by  mountains  on  the  north,  its 
many  springs,  creeks  and  rivers,  as  well  as  its 
great  fertility  of  soil,  unite  to  give  large  growth 

*The  refinery  at  Camden,  New  Jersey,  is  called  the  "Ameri- 
can Nickel  Works"  The  crude  material  after  smelting  at  the 
mills  is  known  as  matte.  At  the  refinery  from  the  matte  is  made 
pure  nickel,  nickel  oxide,  nickel  alloys,  nickel  castings,  nickel 
salts,  pure  cobalt,  cobalt  oxide,  cobalt  alloys,  cobalt  castings, 
cobalt  salts,  copper,  blue  vitriol,  etc. 


and  unusual  vitality  to  all  native  and  naturalized 
plants.  It  has  a  great  variety  of  soil.  There  are 
a  number  of  large  swamps  with  black,  loamy  bot- 
toms; of  woody  thickets,  damp  forests,  rocky  hill- 
sides and  dry  sandy  river  hills.  Plants  of  entirely 
different  natures  find,  on  this  account,  all  the  con- 
ditions of  soil  necessary  for  their  healthy  growth. 
There  are,  accordingly,  over  one  thousand  species 
or  kinds  of  native  flowering  plants,  and  at  least 
two  hundred  species  that  have  been  introduced 
into  the  county  and  have  become  naturalized. 
This  number  includes  only  trees,  shrubs  and 
plants  producing  flowers  and  true  seeds.  There 
are  also  in  the  county  hundreds  of  species  of  flow- 
erless  plants  propagated  by  spores,  as  ferns  and 


Nearly  all  the  weeds  that  cause  the  husbandmen 
any  trouble  have  been  brought  here  from  Europe. 
Many  of  these  came  over  as  packing  in  boxes  and 
barrels,  containing  chinaware  and  hardware  ;  and 
for  this  reason  the  counties  near  Philadelphia  have 
more  weeds  than  those  farther  away  from  the  sea- 

The  Canada  thistle,  perhaps  our  most  formidable 
pest,  was  brought  here  from  Europe  early  in  the 
last  century.  It  found  a  congenial  climate  and  a 
soil  suitable  to  its  growth,  and  soon  spread  over 
large  areas  of  fertile  lands. 

By  reason  of  its  subterranean  branches,  which 
grow  far  down  into  the  deep  soil  and  project  them- 


selves  in  every  direction,  it  strenuously  resists 
almost  every  effort  made  to  destroy  it. 

The  farmers,  however,  stimulated  by  a  recent 
legislative  enactment,  imposing  heavy  fines  upon 
all  land-owners  who  permit  these  plants  to  blos- 
som and  ripen  seed,  have  vigorously  attacked  them 
with  scythe  and  hoe,  and  have  made  such  decided 
progress  against  them  that  the  land  area  usurped 
by  them  is  yearly  growing  less. 

The  wild  carrot  is  of  later  introduction.  It  is  a 
very  hardy  and  vigorous  plant,  spreading  rapidly 
in  lands  devoted  to  the  growing  of  grasses.  Here 
it  materially  lessens  the  value  of  the  hay  crop, 
and  greatly  interferes  with  the  pasturing  of  cattle. 

Toad  flax,  wild  garlic,  chamomile  and  burdock, 
all  imported  from  Europe,  are  found  in  many 
of  the  cultivated  districts,  but  are  kept  under  con- 
trol by  the  persistent  efforts  of  the  farmer. 

The  ox-eyed  daisy,  while  found  in  a  few  places 
in  the  county,  is  not  as  troublesome  here  as  it  is 
in  some  of  the  neighboring  counties.  The  high 
state  of  cultivation  in  which  most  of  the  lands 
have  been  kept  has  tended  to  destroy  and  exter- 
minate all  weeds  that  interfere  with  successful 


Before  the  discovery  of  anthracite  coal,  when 
the  people  depended  upon  wood  for  fuel,  forests 
were  better  cared  for  and  better  preserved  than 
when  coal  took  the  place  of  wood. 

The  iron-works  at  first  used  charcoal,  thus  also 


inducing  economy  in  wood.  Entire  forests  were 
cut  down  for  such  purposes  and  then  permitted  to 
grow  up  again.  South  Mountain,  the  Martic 
Hills  and  other  woodeS  districts  were  held  in 
large  tracts  by  iron-masters,  who  thus  preserved 
them  and  secured  several  successive  growths  of 

Farmers  at  that  time  pursued  the  same  course, 
cutting  an  acre  of  woodland  for  fuel  every  year, 
and  then  letting  it  grow  again. 

As  the  population  increased  and  the  consumption 
of  coal  became  greater  all  this  was  changed. 
Whenever  timberlands  were  cleared  the  lands 
were  placed  under  cultivation,  thus  rapidly  reduc- 
ing the  area  of  forest. 

From  this  time  some  people  noticed  a  change  in 
climate.  The  rainfall  became  more  irregular,  espe- 
cially during  the  seasons  of  plant-growth.  There 
seems  to  be  greater  uncertainty  in  the  raising  of 
crops,  some  seasons  being  very  wet  while  others 
are  very  dry,  on  account  of  the  destruction  of  the 
forests.  The  effects  of  erosion  have  become  more 
marked.  During  times  of  heavy  rainfall  the 
smaller  streams  rapidly  unite  to  flow  into  the 
larger  ones,  which  in  turn  are  swelled  into  impetu- 
ous and  devastating  floods.  The  rush  of  the 
smaller  streams  down  the  hillsides  rapidly  denudes 
them  of  earth  and  vegetation  and  soon  removes 
most  of  the  soil,  rendering  them  incapable  of  sup- 
porting vegetable  growths  of  any  character.  The 
forest,  by  means  of  its  roots  and  masses  of  inter- 


woven. rootlets,  holds  the  soil  and  prevents  erosion. 
Then,  too,  with  its  layer  of  decaying  leaves  over 
the  surface  of  the  earth  it  holds  a  large  amount 
of  water.  Evaporation  goes  on  more  slowly  than 
in  the  open  fields  ;  hence  the  moisture  is  more 
evenly  distributed  to  the  air  throughout  the 
season.  The  water  in  the  soil  passes  more  slowly 
from  the  wooded  hillside  to  lower  levels  ;  springs 
remain  constant,  and  streams  are  not  subject  to  so 
great  variations  in  volume. 

Since  the  wholesale  destruction  of  forests, 
cyclones  and  storms,  accompanied  with  hail,  have 
become  more  frequent  and  destructive. 

Some  years  ago  a  pamphlet  was  published  call- 
ing attention  to  these  physical  changes  and  recom- 
mending the  replanting  of  timber  in  available 

Governor  Hartranft,  of  this  State,  directed  the 
attention  of  the  Legislature  to  the  necessity  of 
reforesting  the  timberlands,  and  recommended  leg- 
islation to  prevent  the  unnecessary  destruction  of 
pine  forests  in  the  lumber  regions  of  Pennsylvania. 

In  May,  1879,  a  law  was  passed  by  the  State 
Legislature  encouraging  the  planting  of  trees 
along  roadsides.  A  law  was  afterward  passed 
allowing  a  reduction  of  tax  on  land  where  trees 
were  planted.  In  June,  1887,  a  law  was  passed 
encouraging  forest  culture  and  providing  penalties 
for  injury  and  destruction  of  forests. 

In  1882  the  American  Forestry  Association  was 
established.       In    June,    1886,    the   Pennsylvania 


Forestry  Assoctattojt  was  formed  as  a  branch  of 
the  American  Association,  with  its  headq.uarters 
at  Philadelphia.  On  March  28,  1890,  the  Laficas- 
ter  County  Forestry  Association  was  formed  as  a 
branch  of  the  Pennsylvania  Association,  with 
Simon  P.  Bby  as  president. 


By  the  law  of  March  17,  1885,  Governor  Pattison 
was  reqnested  to  appoint  a  day,  to  be  called  Arbo? 
Day^  to  be  devoted  to  tree  planting  along  public 
highways  and  school-grounds  throughout  Penn- 
sylvania. Governor  Pattison  issued  a  proclama- 
tion appointing  April  16,  1885,  as  Arbor  Day. 
Dr.  E.  E.  Higbee,  then  State  Superintendent  of 
Public  Instruction,  issued  circulars  to  the  Super- 
intendents of  schools  throughout  the  State,  re- 
questing them  to  have  Arbor  Day  observed  by  the 
public  schools  of  the  State  by  the  planting  of  trees. 
Arbor  Day  has  ever  since  been  observed  through- 
out Pennsylvania.  There  is  a  spring  Arbor  Day 
and  a  fall  Arbor  Day,  the  latter  occurring  in  Sep- 


Among  the  rare  flowering  plants  found  in  the 
county  are  the  pitcher  plant  (Sarracenia  Purpurea), 
which  grows  in  the  swamp  between  Christiana  and 
Georgetown.  The  leaves  of  this  plant  take  the 
form  of  pitchers,  are  partly  filled  with  water,  and 
are  provided  with  sharp  prickles  extending  down 
toward  the  water. 

Flies  and  other  insects,  when  once  in  the  pitcher, 


cannot  rescue  themselves.  They  fall  into  the  water, 
slowly  decompose,  and  nourish  the  plant.  This 
plant  has  a  large  and  beautiful  flower.  It  blossoms 
in  June.  Related  to  this  in  its  habits  is  the  Sun 
Dew  (Drosera  rotundifolia),  a  small  plant  growing 
in  the  swamp  at  Dillerville  and  near  Smithville. 

This  plant  has  round  leaves,  which  are  armed 
with  sticky  glands.  The  leaf  closes  when  an  insect 
lights  upon  it,  and  with  the  aid  of  the  glands  the 
insect  is  held  until  it  is  decomposed  and  used  by  the 

/  A  very  beautiful  autumn  flower  is  the  fringed 
gentian  (gentiana  crinita),  which  grows  along  the 
Little  Conestoga,  south  of  Millersville. 

The  American  cowslip  (Dodecatheon  Meadia)  is 
a  rare  and  very  pretty  flower.  It  is  found  on  Media 
Hill,  near  Lancaster,  and  on  the  rock  along  the 
Little  Conestoga. 

The  interesting  and  much  admired  family  of 
flowers  called  the  orchids  are  well  represented  in 
Lancaster  county.  Nine  species  of  habenaria  (in- 
cluding the  beautiful  ciliaris),  four  species  of  spi- 
ranthis  and  three  of  cypripedium,  are  found  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  the  county.  Liparis  lilifolia  grows 
in  the  Neffsville  hills,  and  Pogonia  verticillata  in 
the  oak  woods  near  Strasburg.  Besides  these  men- 
tioned, there  are  many  other  rare  orchids,  as  well  as 
rare  plants  of  other  families. 

The  varied  abundant  flora  of  this  county  was 
among  the  first  to  receive  the  attention  of  botanists. 
Here  was  the  home  of  the  distinguished  Muhlen- 


berg,  who  did  so  much  for  American  botany.  He 
analyzed  and  classified  most  of  the  native' plants  in 
the  beginning  of  the  present  century.  Dr.  Thomas 
C.  Porter,  from  1853  ^^  1866,  lived  here  and  care- 
fully examined  all  the  species  accessible  to  him  in 
those  years.  He  classified  the  plants  of  the  county, 
and  gave  in  his  summary  841  species  of  exogenous 
phaenogamus,  328  species  of  endogenous  phaeno- 
gamus,  or  1169  species  of  flowering  plants  in  the 

Besides  this  he  analyzed  and  classified  199  species 
of  cr3^ptogamus,  making  the  entire  flora  of  the  coun- 
ty consist  of  at  least  1368  species. 


In  all  its  varied  forms,  the  animal  life  native  to 
any  region  constitutes  its  fauna.  Many  of  the  lower 
forms  of  animals  feed  upon  vegetable  matter,  and 
nearly  every  plant  has  its  enemy  that  slowly  saps  it 
life  or  stunts  its  growth.  Hence  where  vegetation 
is  luxuriant  there  will  be  a  large  number  of  species 
of  animals.  The  fauna  thus  depends  directly  upon 
the  flora  ;  and  as  the  latter  is  determined  by  cli- 
mate, position,  and  such  local  influences  as  soil  and 
present  or  former  geographical  features,  the  animal 
life  is  distributed  in  zones,  or  faunal  realms.  Lan- 
caster county,  situated  in  the  north  temperate  fau- 
nal realm,  is  rich  in  native  plants,  and  therefore  had 
a  varied  animal  life.  Of  course,  many  of  the  larger 
and  destructive  animals  have  disappeared  with  the 
settlement  of  the  county,  and  those  forms  only  that 


are  not  readily  displaced  by  agricultural  develop- 
ment remain  abundant. 


The  injury  done  by  insects  is  every  year  more  no- 
ticeable. Civilization  and  cultivation  have  changed 
the  conditions  of  life  for  the  native  insects.  By  the 
clearing  away  of  forests  and  the  destruction  of  her- 
baceous plants  -in  tilling  the  soil,  insects  have  been 
deprived  of  their  natural  food,  and  they  have  in 
many  cases  adapted  themselves  to  a  new  diet  of  cul- 
tivated plants.  This  in  some  cases  has  been  very 
favorable  to  their  multiplication,  and  their  ravages 
have  therefore  become  sources  of  great  loss  to  the 
farmer  and  fruit-grower,  and  science  has  thus  been 
called  in  to  devise  means  of.  checking  their  depre- 

An  insect,  so  named  because  its  body  is  cut  into 
sections  by  cross-lines,  passes  through  three  stages 
of  growth,  the  larva  or  infant  period,  the  pupa  or 
chrysalis  stage  in  which  it  is  usually  quiescent,  and 
the  imago  or  adult  stage.  The  science  of  insects  and 
insect  life  is  called  Entomology.  * 


The  Locust  Borer  is  one  of  the  most  destructive 
of  our  insect  pests,  destroying  one  of  the  most  val- 
uable trees,  the  locust.  A  line  of  young  locusts 
may  frequently  be  observed  with  rough  scarred  bark 

^he  most  noted  entomologists  of  the  county  have  been  Dr.  S. 
S.  Rathvon  and  Prof.  S.  S.  Haldeman.  Mr.  Samuel  Auxer,  of 
Ivancaster,  has  a  very  fine  collection  of  insects. 


and  of  stunted  growth.  Examination  will  show 
that  all  has  been  caused  by  the  perforations  through 
the  bark  and  trunk  made  by  the  Lo- 
cust  Borer.  Great  numbers  of  the 
beetles  may  be  found  in  September  on 
the  golden  rod.  Of  a  bright  golden 
yellow  color,  crossed  by  black  velvety  locust  borer. 
lines,  they  are  not  easily  distinguished  from  the 
flower,  and  the  insect  is  thus  an  example  of  protec- 
tive "  mimicry." 

The  Hickory  Girdler,  a  beetle  that  attacks  the 
hickory  and  also  the  pear,  does  a  great  deal  of  dam- 
age by  girdling  or  cutting  off  the  twigs  of  these 
trees.  The  female  deposits  her  eggs  in  a  small  twig, 
and  then  proceeds  to  make  a  deep  incision  all  round 
the  branch  on  the  side  toward  the  trunk.  This 
causes  the  death  of  the  twig  and  affords  food  of  a 
suitable  character  for  the  larva.  They  are  only 
periodically  abundant,  not  annually  so. 

The  Peach  Flat- Headed  Borer  originally  was  an 
insect  enemy  of  the  Beech  tree.  Now,  however,  it 
is  found  almost  entirely  upon  the  peach  and  cherry, 
and  sometimes  upon  the  cultivated  maples.  In 
some  sections,  and  in  certain  kinds  of  soils,  it  is  al- 
most impossible  to  cultivate  the  peach  on  account 
of  its  ravages.  The  larva  bores  into  the  roots  and 
lower  body  of  the  tree  and  soon  causes  the  prema- 
ture death  of  the  tree. 


Corn,  tobacco,  cabbage  and  several  other  plants, 
are  frequently  cut  off  just  below  the  surface  of  the 


soil.  The  work  is  done  by  subterranean  caterpil- 
lars, the  larva  of  several  species  of  moths.  Each 
plant  probably  has  its  own  enemy,  though  it  may 
be  that  the  same  caterpillar  cuts  the  corn  and  the 
tobacco-plant.  The  moth  of  the  cabbage  cut- worm 
has  the  "fore  wings  of  a  dark-ashen  gray  color," 
with  a  lustre  like  satin."  In  expanse  it  is  about 
one  inch  and  three-fourths  ;  in  length  about  three- 
fourths  of  an  inch. 


The  Sphinxes  are  moths  so  named  by  Linnaeus, 
the  great  Swedish  botanist,  because  he  fancied  a  re- 
semblance between  the  larva  or  caterpillars  in  cer- 
tain postures  and  the  great  Egyptian  Sphinx. 
Their  attitudes  are,  indeed,  remarkable.  The  fore 
part  of  the  body  is  held  erect  for  hours  at  a  time. 
The  larva  of  the  Sphinxes  are  nearly  all  large  cat- 
erpillars and  quite  voracious.  The  different  species 
attack  different  plants,  usually  devouring  the  leaves 
completely  or  cutting  them  full  of  holes.  Each 
species  seems  to  be  confined  in  its  ravages  to  a  single 
plant  or  to  the  plants  of  a  single  genus,  or  some- 
times to  a  family  of  plants. 

Many  of  the  moths  are  large  and  fly  rapidly  from 
flower  to  flower  in  the  morning  and  evening  twi- 
light. Their  movements  are  so  rapid,  and  so  con- 
trolled that  they  can  poise  themselves  before  a 
flower  and  extract  its  honey.  To  secure  the  nectar, 
they  are  provided  with  a  long  tongue,  varying 
from  one  inch  to  three  in  length.  This  they  carry 
rolled  up  in  a  groove  on  the  under  side  of  the  head. 


From  their  movements  they  are  known  as  htim- 
ming-bird  and  hawk-moths. 




Some  of  the  Sphinxes  look  like  bees  and  wasps, 
and  fly  with  great  rapidity.  The  members  of  the 
group  are  known  as  Algerians  and  are  diurnal  in 
their  habits. 

Others  again  are  nocturnal  and  also  very  slow  in 
their  movements.  All  are  injurious,  and  prominent 
among  destructive  ones  are  the  tobacco-worm  and 
the  elm  caterpillar,  both  larva  of  hawk-moths. 


The  Burying-beetle  is  one  of  the  most  interesting 
insects,  not  only  on  account  of  its  habits,  but  also 
because  of  its  acute  sense  of  smell.  It  is  to  the  in- 
sect world  what  the  vulture  is  to  bird-life — a  true 

A  small  animal  or  bird,  dead  and  decaying,  is  sel- 
dom seen  about  the  fields  or  in  the  woods,  simply 
because  they  have  their  grave-diggers.  No  sooner 
has  a  field-mouse,  for  example,  died  and  begun  to 
decay  than  the  burrying-beetles  drop  in  upon  it 
from  all  sides  to  bury  it.  Crawling  under  the  ani- 
mal, they  begin  to  undermine.  Excavating  the  hole 
deeper  and  deeper,  the  animal  is  soon  made  to  dis- 
appear beneath  the  surface,  covered  by  the  earth  as 
it  is  thrown  out  by  the  beetles  and  rolls  back  over 
the  animal.  Here  beneath  the  surface  the  beetles 
consume  the  decaying  flesh. 

The  Tiger-beetle,  sometimes  known  as  the  sand- 
fly, is  of  interest  because  of  its  beautiful  colors  and 
predatory  habits.  On  warm  bright  days  they  may 
be  seen  along  sunny,  sandy  roads,  quietly  awaiting 
the  approach  of  some  hapless  insect.  Should  one 
approach  near  enough  it  would  be  pounced  upon, 
quickly  seized  in  the  strong  jaws  of  the  Tiger-beetle, 
and  killed.  They  are  among  the  most  beautiful 
and  active  beetles,  and  fly  as  swiftly  as  a  wasp. 


Fishes  rank  lowest  in  the  scale  of  vertebrate  life, 
and  include  some  low  forms  which  it  is  difficult  to 


locate  in  the  great  series  of  animal  life.  Fishes  are 
characterized  by  small  brain,  low  nervous  organi- 
zation, and  incomplete  ossification  of  the  bony  sys- 
tem, especially  of  the  skull  bones. 

Fishes  are  not  only  interesting  on  account  of  their 
habits  and  beauty  and  perfection  of  form,  but  are 
valuable  for  food.  Among  the  food  fishes  of  the 
county  the  only  one  of  commercial  importance  is 
the  shad.  Coming  up  the  Chesapeake  bay  from 
the  ocean,  it  enters  the  Susquehanna  for  the  pur- 
pose of  spawning,  and  "runs"  in  large  numbers  as 
far  as  Columbia.  The  young  shad,  after  it  is  hatch- 
ed, returns  to  the  sea,  where  it  remains  until  fully 

The  shad-fisheries  of  the  Susquehanna  are  exten- 
sive and  valuable,  and  extend  the  whole  length  of 
the  river  below  Columbia.  The  shad  caught  at 
and  near  Columbia  and  Safe  Harbor  are  especially 

The  Blind-fish  (sometimes  miscalled  the  eyeless 
fish)  has  been  taken  in  the  county  where  some  sub- 
terranean streams  enter  the  Susquehanna.  The 
eyes  are  present,  though  rudimentary,  and  therefore 

Among  other  noted  fish  are  the  wall-eyed  pike 
(often  miscalled  salmon)  of  the  Susquehanna,  and 
the  bass  found  in  nearly  all  the  streams.  The  for- 
mer attain  a  length  of  from  two  to  three  feet,  and 
the  latter  a  weight  of  from  two  to  four  pounds. 

In  local  streams  fish  native  to  the  Atlantic  coast 
streams  are  found.     The  catfish  and  the  sunfish  are 


among  those  most  abundant  and  widely  distributed . 
Trout  and  pike  occur  only  in  clear  cold  streams. 


The  German  carp  are  of  two  kinds,  scale  and 
leather.  A  cross  between  these  two  has  produced 
a  third  called  the  mirror  carp.  These  fish  have 
been  raised  in  Germany  for  several  centuries  in  arti- 
ficial ponds.  They  are  greatly  esteemed  there,  as 
well  as  here,  as  an  article  of  food,  because  of  their 
fine  flavor,  the  cheapness  of  production  and  the 
little  attention  they  require.  They  were  introduced 
into  this  country  from  Germany  in  1877. 

A  properly  constructed  pond  100  feet  square  will 
accommodate  from  400  to  500  carp.  A  steady 
stream  of  pure  water  is  necessary,  also  a  drain  and 
overflow  pipe. 

As  carp  feed  only  on  vegetation,  living  in  their 
native  waters  on  cresses,  lilies,  grass,  moss  and  other 
water  plants,  fish  farmers  should  sow  their  ponds 
thickly  with  wild  rice,  and  plant  water  cress  around 
the  banks  of  the  pond,  just  at  the  water's  edge. 
Roast  potatoes,  beans,  cabbage,  or  any  succulent 
vegetable  may  be  fed  to  them  ;  but  great  care  must 
be  taken  not  to  overfeed  the  fish,  and  no  more 
should  be  fed  them  than  what  they  eat  promptly. 

The  best  time  to  ship  carp  is  during  the  spring 
and  fall.  As  they  are  very  tenacious  of  life,  they 
may  be  shipped  great  distances  in  cool  weather  by 
packing  them  in  wet  moss  or  placing  in  cans. 

The  ponds  of  the  Doctors  Davis  are  beautifully 
situated  one  mile  north  of  Lancaster  city.     They 


consist  of  four  ponds,  the  largest  of  which  contains 
two  acres  and  a  half  of  water  surface,  with  an  island 
in  the  center.  There  is  a  dwelling  for  an  overseer 
and  a  fish-house  loo  by  24  feet. 


Reptiles  are  air-breathing,  cold-blooded  verte- 
brates, distinguished  from  birds  by  having  the  ex- 
ternal covering  of  scales  or  horny  plates,  and  from 
amphibians  by  never  breathing  by  means  of  gills. 
They  include  snakes,  lizards,  turtles  and  crocodiles. 

In  the  more  thickly  settled  parts  of  the  county 
the  venomous  snakes  have  almost  disappeared. 
Formerly  the  copperhead  and  the  rattlesnake  were 
abundant.  Now  the  only  places  in  which  rattle- 
snakes exist  are  in  the  northern  and  southern  hills. 

Two  species  of  garter  snake,  a  harmless  snake, 
are  found  all  over  the  county.  One,  the  riband 
snake,  is  not  common,  and  may  be  distinguished 
from  the  common  garter  snake  by  its  three  broad, 
well-defined  stripes  and  its  slender  shape.  The 
common  garter  snake  is  beneficial,  and  probably 
should  nevei-  be  disturbed.  It  feeds  mainly  upon 
insects  and  injurious  rodents. 

A  great  deal  of  superstitious  prejudice  exists 
everywhere  against  snakes.  No  question  is  ever 
thought  of  as  to  beneficial  character  when  one  meets 
a  snake.  Human  beings  and  snakes  seem  instinc- 
tive enemies,  and  the  result  is  the  weaker  must  die. 

The  racer,  the  pine  snake  and  the  blowing  viper 
all  benefit  the  farmer  by  destroying  a  great  many 
injurious  insects  and  rodents  ;  but,  from  our  natural 


antipathy,  they  are  destined  to  disappear  entirely. 
They  are  not  abundant  now. 

The  milk  snake,  or  house  snake,  is  a  common 
ophidian  of  a  grayish  color,  with  three  series  of 
brown,  round  blotches  bordered  with  black  stretch- 
ing in  a  dorsal  line.  It  is  entirely  harmless,  though 
generally  thought  to  be  venomous.  The  water 
snake  is  abundant  in  damp  places  and  in  streams. 
It  feeds  upon  fish,  frogs,  and  insects.  The  green 
snake  is  found,  though  rarely,  in  the  wooded  por- 
tions.    It  is  a  most  exquisite  little  creature. 


About  one  hundred  and  fifty  species  of  birds  breed 
regularly  in  Pennsylvania.  Of  this  number  proba- 
bly one  hundred  and  ten  may  be  found  in  Lancas- 
ter county.  Many  migrants  pass  through  the  State 
during  the  spring  and  fall  migrations,  in  all  proba- 
bly one  hundred  species,  some  coming  in  autumn 
from  the  shores  of  Greenland,  some  from  I^abrador, 
and  others  from  the  region  situated  ajound  Hudson 
Bay  and  away  northward  of  that  to  the  bleak  and 
desolate  shores  of  the  islands  of  the  Arctic  Archi- 

The  county,  situated  near  the  line  separating 
the  north  and  south  avifaunal  belts  of  the  United 
States  and  protected  on  the  north  by  mountains,  and 
not  far  from  the  head  of  the  littoral  waters  of  Chesa- 
peake bay,  is  favorably  located  for  the  entrance  of 
stragglers.  These  come  from  the  North  and  from 
the  South,  from  the  mountains  and  from  the  sea. 


When  the  winters  of  the  North  are  of  exceptional 
severity,  many  of  the  birds,  resident  in  the  far  North, 
are  driven  toward  the  South,  not  so  much  on  ac- 
count of  the  cold  as  from  the  scarcity  of  food. 
Among  those  thus  influenced  are  the  Arctic  owl, 
the  Bohemian  Waxwing,  the  Shore  I^ark,  the  last  of 
which  we  frequently  see  at  such  times  along  our 
roads,  and  the  great  northern  Shrike,  or  Butcher 

From  the  South,  especially  with  the  wave  of  mi- 
gration that  vernally  sweeps  northward,  come  birds 
of  the  South  that  seem  borne  along  by  the  wave. 
Then  again,  with  every  fall  storm  from  the  ocean, 
many  species,  especially  of  the  I^aridae,  or  Gulls  and 
Terns,  and  an  occasional  Petrel,  are  driven  inward 
from  the  Atlantic. 


At  least  twelve  species  of  the  Fringilline  family, 
which  includes  the  finches,  the  buntings,  and  the 
sparrows,  are  found  in  the  county.  The  most  com- 
mon of  the  finches  are  the  American  Goldfinch,  or 
Salad  bird,  the  Purple  finch,  and  the  Pine  finch  ; 
and  of  the  buntings  and  sparrows,  the  Song  spar- 
row. Indigo  bunting.  Bay- winged  bunting,  and  the 
Chipping  sparrow.  Examine  the  bills  of  these  birds, 
and  you  will  find  them  strong,  stout,  and  conical 
in  shape  ;  therefore  adapted  to  a  diet  of  seeds.  The 
sparrows  and  buntings  are  terrestrial  in  their  habits, 
inhabit  the  fields  and  feed  mainly  upon  noxious 
seeds.  The  finches  are  chiefly  arboreal,  and  feed 
upon  buds  as  well  as  seeds. 


Six  Species  of  swallows,  of  course  excluding  the 
chimney  swallow,  popularly  so-called,  though  in- 
correctly, for  it  is  a  Swift,  are  generally  distributed 
in  favorable  localities.  Their  food  consists  mainly 
of  soft-bodied,  two- winged  insects  ;  and  they  conse- 
quently restrict  the  ravages  of  such  insects  as  the 
Hessian  fly,  gnats  and  mosquitoes.  Sociable  and 
gregarious  in  their  nesting  habits,  they  are  always 


The  great  Warbler  family  contains  some  little 
gems  of  bird-life,  the  most  attractive  of  all  our  birds. 
The  happy  Vireos  ;  the  rollicking  chat ;  the  summer 
warbler,  passing  in  and  out  among  the  foliage  of 
our  shade  trees  like  a  flash  of  beautiful  sunlight ;  the 
Maryland  yellow-throat,  who  constantly  tells  you, 
should  you  approach  their  swamp  abode,  that  there 
are  "witches  here,  "  area  few  only  of  this  large 
family.     All  of  them  are  eminently  beneficial. 

Many  of  our  common  beneficial  birds  are  gifted 
with  the  power  of  song.  Among  these  may  be 
named  the  Robin,  the  Brown  Thrush,  and  most  gift- 
ed of  all,  the  Wood  Thrush,  that  with  its  clear  bell- 
like voice,  makes  its  woodland  haunts  ring.  The 
Mocking-bird  too,  though  rarely,  is  found  in  the 
county  near  the  southern  border. 


An  interesting  family  of  the  great  order  of  Pas- 
seres,  or  sparrows,  is  that  of  the  non-melodious  Ty- 
rant Flycatchers.     The  Bee  Marten  and  the  Pewit 


are  the  best  known  of  the  group.  Another,  not  so 
well  known,  is  the  Great  Crested  Flycatcher,  dis- 
tinguished for  spirit,  daring  and  a  singular  nest- 
building  habit.  No  nest  with  them  is  complete  un- 
less lined  with  cast  off  snake-skins,  or  even  dead 
reptiles.  The  object  of  this  peculiar  habit  is  not 


The  State,  by  the  repeal  of  the  "scalp  act,"  im- 
plied that  most  raptorial  birds  are  beneficial.  With 
a  few  exceptions,  the  hawk  and  owls  do  a  vast 
amount  of  good.  Prominent  among  the  owls  here 
are  the  Screech  owl,  whose  diet  is  mainly  insects, 
the  Barn  owl,  whose  prey  consists  of  injurious  mam- 
mals, and  the  Short-eared  and  Barred  owls.  A 
few  hawks  are  abundant,  prominent  among  which 
during  the  winter  is  the  Red-tailed  Buzzard  hawk, 
and  at  all  times  the  Sparrow  hawk. 


Very  few  of  the  indigenous  birds  are  altogther 
injurious.  The  crow  probably  has  more  on  his 
"account"  of  harm  than  good.  The  "English" 
sparrow,  introduced  into  the  United  States  in  1874, 
since  which  it  has  spread  over  nearly  the  entire 
country,  is  a  true  sparrow  and  therefore  granivor- 
ous.  It  is  not  only  widely  distributed  but  very 
abundant  and  pugnacious.  Directly  destructive 
itself,  it  is  also  indirectly  a  source  of  great  injury, 
for  it  drives  other  birds  away  from  the  farm  and 
the  garden.  Enemies  like  the  screech  owl  are 
probably  growing  up,  which,  if  fostered,  will 
restrict  its  depredations. 


The  Quail,  the  Ruffed  Grouse,  and  the  Upland 
Plover  are  found  in  some  sections  of  the  county, 
though  not  abundantly.  Wild  Ducks,  Snipes,  and 
Woodcocks,  at  certain  seasons,  may  be  seen  along 
the  streams. 

The  Bird  Laivs  of  Pennsylvania  afford  protec- 
tion to  beneficial  birds  of  all  kinds  by  absolutely 
prohibiting  (except  for  scientific  purposes)  their 
destruction  or  the  robbing  of  their  nests.  Game 
birds  by  the  same  law  are  not  to  be  molested  in 
any  way  during  the  breeding  season. 


Mammals,  or  animals  that  bring  forth  their 
young  alive  and  nourish  them  with  milk,  are  the 
highest  vertebrates.  They  breathe  by  means  of 
lungs  ;  and  the  heart  is,  in  all  cases,  divided  into 
four  chambers. 

When  the  county  was  wild,  forest-clad,  and  in- 
habited by  the  Indians  and  the  few  early  white 
settlers,  wolves,  panthers,  bears  and  deer  were 
found.  These  animals  became  the  prey  of  the 
white  hunter  as  well  as  of  the  Indian,  but  as  the 
county  became  more  settled  by  the  whites  this 
larger  game  gradually  disappeared. 


Two  species  of  foxes,  the  red  fox  and  the  gray 
fox,  are  found  in  this  fanual  realm.  The  former  is 
most  abundant  in  the  northern  and  the  latter  in 
the  southern  part  of  the  fanual  belt.     Both  are 


characterized  by  their  shyness,  cunning  and  sus- 
picious of  anything  new  to  them.  Both  have  acute 
sense  of  sight,  smell  and  hearing,  and  great  speed 
in  running.  The  red  fox,  however,  does  not  run 
a  great  distance,  and  is  seldom  hunted  by  dogs  and 
hounds.  It  visits  the  farm-yard  and  seizes  poultry 
for  its  prey,  but  feeds  mainly  upon  animals  of  the 
rodent  family  and  upon  fish.  It  is  said  to  run 
swiftly  for  a  hundred  yards  or  more,  but  is  easily 
overtaken  by  a  wolf  or  a  mounted  man.  The  grey 
fox  is  not  as  rapacious  as  the  red  fox,  and  preys 
upon  quail,  grouse  and  small  birds  just  as  a  pointer 
will  do,  and  runs  down  the  rabbit  like  a  dog. 
When  pursued  by  hounds  in  open  woods  it  will 
often  climb  a  tree. 

Fox-hunting  in  Amerca  in  its  origin  is  a  Southern 
sport,  and  was  originally  confined  mainly  to  the 
South,  from  Maryland  to  Florida,  and  westward 
to  Louisiana.  The  grey  fox  is  always  used  at  fox 
chases,  as  he  possesses  more  cunning  than  the  red 
fox,  leaves  less  scent,  and  is  capable  of  running  a 
long  distance.  When  chased  he  doubles  on  his 
trail,  winds  in  and  out  of  thickets,  and  around  hills 
in  a  way  that  frequently  baflfles  the  hounds  and  se- 
cures his  escape.  Large  crowds  indulge  in  the  pas- 
time in  looking  on  at  these  fox-chases. 


On  account  of  the  agricultural  development  of 
the  county,  the  Gray  Hare  or  Rabbit  is  abundant. 
Like  all  hares,  and  unlike  other  rodent  animals,  it 


has  more  than  two  front  or  cutting  teeth.  Its 
slow  motions  are  awkward  and  clumsy;  but  when 
at  full  speed  as  it  dashes  past  you,  it  seems  won- 
derfully graceful  and  fleet,  and  can  in  the  wildest 
race  make  turns  of  almost  incredible  quickness. 
It  is  taken  in  snares  and  traps,  dug  or  drowned  out, 
and  hunted  by  dogs  and  shot.  Its  flesh  is  delicate 
and  palatable;  and  its  skins  are  used  to  make  hats, 
and  are  dyed  to  imitate  more  expensive  furs. 

In  its  habits  it  is  mainly  nocturnal,  hiding  in  the 
thickets,  "forms,"  and  in  hollow  logs  during  the 
day.  It  is  fond  of  succulent  plants;  consequently  it 
visits  the  garden,  the  clover  and  the  corn-field,  and 
nurseries  of  young  trees.  During  winters  in  which 
snow  covers  the  *  ground  for  a  month  or  more,  it 
is  likely  to  do  a  great  deal  of  damage  to  young 
trees  by  "barking"  them  to  a  considerable  height 
above  the  ground. 


The  Wood-chuck,  Pouched-marmot,  or  Ground- 
hog, is  a  squirrel-like  rodent  animal,  adapted  in 
its  thick  body  and  short  legs  to  burrowing  habits. 
It  digs  its  home  in  fields,  hillsides,  or  under  rocks, 
where  it  passes  the  winter  in  a  torpid  state,  and  dur- 
ing the  summer  may  be  seen  sitting  in  an  erect 
posture,  basking  in  the  sunshine  or  eating  its  food. 
The  head  is  short  and  conical,  with  short  rounded 
ears  covered  with  a  thick  growth  of  hair,  eyes  of 
moderate  size  and  whiskers  numerous.  The  fore- 
feet have  four  toes  and  a  rudimentary  thumb;  the 
hind-feet  five  toes.     It  is  active  and  no  mean  an- 

BRIKF  Hist  OR  Y  OF  LANCASTER  COUNTY.        311 

tagonist  in  defending  itself.     It  is  with  some  people 
the  object  of  a  ridiculous  superstition. 

The  Opossum  is  a  marsupial  animal,  about  the 
size  of  a  large  cat.  Its  thumbs  are  opposable  and 
without  nails,  and  the  tail  bare,  and  prehensile  for 
its  terminal  half  or  more.  The  brain  is  small,  and 
the  jaws  are  provided  with  fifty  teeth.  In  its 
feeding  habits  it  is  almost  omnivorous.  When 
hard  pressed  by  hunger  it  will  feed  greedily  upon 
dead  and  decaying  animals.  When  caught  it 
feigns  death  and  will  bear  torture  without  flinch- 
ing, all  the  time  watching  for  an  opportunity  to 
escape.  When  caught  by  a  limb  in  a  steel  trap  it 
will  liberate  itself  by  cutting  off  the  limb  with  its 
sharp  teeth.  Though  tenacious  of  life.  Vet  it 
usually  dies  by  such  self-amputation  from  loss  of 

The  Skunk  is  an  American  carnivorous  mam- 
mal, closely  related  to  the  weasel,  the  otter,  and 
the  mink.  It  is  provided  with  a  very  effective 
means  of  defence  in  the  form  of  glands  which 
secrete  an  oily  acrid  fluid  of  a  very  offensive  odor. 
The  glands  are  controlled  by  strong  muscles  by 
means  of  which  the  animal  is  able  to  project  a 
stream  of  the  horrible  fetid  fluid  to  the  distance 
of  fourteen  feet.  The  animal  is  in  bad  repute 
among  all  classes  of  people,  and  the  farmer  especi- 
ally, as  it  destroys  large  numbers  of  eggs  and 
sometimes  visits  the  poultry-yard.  It  burrows  a 
gallery  in  a  straight  line  about  two  feet  in  diame- 
ter beneath  the  surface  to  a  length  of  seven  or 



eight  feet.  This  ends  in  a  large  excavation,  in 
which  is  placed  a  bulky  nest  of  leaves.  Here  in 
winter  it  remains  from  December  until  March. 


The  domesticated  animals,  all  of  which  were 
introduced  from  the  Old  World  by  the  early  white 
settlers,  have  a  very  great  aggregate  value.  The 
county,  since  it  is  mainly  an  agricultural  region, 
of  course  pays  a  great  deal  of  attention  to  the 
production  of  fine  stock. 



TN  conversation  not  long  ago,  with  a  gentleman 
^  widely  read  in  the  history  of  the  Indian,  he  re- 
marked that  there  was  probably  at  one  time  in 
Lancaster  county  a  native  population  equal  to  two- 
thirds  of  the  present  white  inhabitants. 

As  proof  of  this  assertion,  he  referred  to  the  vast 
number  of  Indian  relics  found  about  the  sites  of 
their  ancient  villages  and  fishing  camps.  It  would 
thus  seem  tliat  our  county  was  a  favorite  dwelling 
place  of  these  children  of  the  forest,  but 

"  Alas  for  them  their  day  is  o'er, 
Their  fires  are  out  from  shore  to  shore. 
No  more  for  them  the  wild  deer  bounds, 
The  plough  is  on  their  hunting  grounds. 
The  pale  man's  axe  rings  through  their  woods, 
The  pale  man's  sail  skims  o'er  their  floods. 
Their  children — look,  by  power  oppressed, 
Beyond  the  mountains  of  the  West — 
Their  children  go — to  die  !  " 

Anything  pertaining  to  them,  however,  ought  to 
be  of  interest  to  us  who  have  succeeded  to  their 
domain.  This  is  our  reason  for  appending  a  few 
legends  and  stories  that  reflect  their  character,  and 
that  to  a  degree  evince  their  friendship,  however 
remote  it  may  be,  with  other  people. 

Among  the  tribes  of  the  great  Algonquin  family, 
to  which  the  Lancaster  county  Indians  belonged, 


the  legendary  origin  of  man  was  akin  to  that  pres- 
ented by  the  myths  of  all  savage  nations.  This 
origin  they  ascribed  to  a  union  of  Earth  and 
Heaven.  Earth  the  mother,  and  Heaven  the 
father.  The  language  of  their  myths  is  often  so 
fanciful  and  seemingly  absurd  that  the  trend  is 
difficult  to  understand.  One  tradition  of  man's 
early  existence  was  that  his  dwelling  place  was 
under  a  great  lake,  that  he  was  fortunately  extri- 
cated from  this  dismal  abode  by  the  discovery 
made  by  some  one  of  a  hole  by  means  of  which  he 
ascended  to  the  surface.  While  walking  about 
here  he  found  a  deer.  This  he  carried  to  his  sub- 
terranean home  and  killed.  He  and  his  com- 
panions finding  the  flesh  good,  they  decided  to 
leave  their  habitation  of  darkness  and  remove  to  a 
place  where  they  could  enjoy  the  'Might  of  heaven 
and  have  game  in  abundance." 

In  all  the  legends  of  savage  people  there  is  a  ten- 
dency toward  the  deification  of  animals.  The  ser- 
pent, the  bat,  the  owl,  the  eagle,  the  turtle,  are  all, 
in  mythical  tales,  objects  of  worship,  and  are  always 
of  super-terrestrial  origin.  In  the  legends  and  stories 
of  the  Indian,  this  reference  to  his  connection  with 
animals  is  a  conspicuous  feature.  For  instance, 
the  rabbit  and  the  ground-hog  were  rejected  as  arti- 
cles of  food  on  the  ground  of  their  being  related 
to  them. 

The  rattlesnake,  he  said,  was  grandfather  to  the 
Indian,  and  every  one  was  strictly  forbidden  to  in- 
jure it.     The  warning  given  on  one  occasion  to  a 

BRIKF   HISTORY    OF   I^ANC ASTER    COUNTY.         315 

white  man,  who  was  about  to  kill  one,  was:  "  If  you 
do  that  you  are  declaring  war  against  them.  They 
are  a  very  dangerous  enemy.  Take  care  you  do 
not  irritate  them  in  our  country.  They  and  their 
grandchildren  are  on  good  terms,  and  neither  will 
hurt  the  other." 

They  have  a  story  of  the  Deluge  which  is  spread 
throughout  the  New  World,  from  one  pole  to  the 
other.  The  version  of  it  varies  slightly  in  different 
tribes.  One  of  these  is  that  in  remote  a^es  the 
waters  invaded  the  land  as  a  punishment  for  the 
crimes  of  men.  A  few  people  were  spared,  and  they 
retired  to  a  wooden  house  on  the  top  of  a  mountain. 
The  sun  interfered  and  hid  them  there.  When  the 
waters  began  to  go  down  they  let  loose  some  dogs, 
which  came  back  wet.  A  few  days  later  they  were 
sent  forth  a  second  time,  and  this  time  came  back 
soiled  with  mud.  At  this  sign  they  knew  that  the 
waters  had  retired.  Then  they  left  their  retreat, 
and  their  posterity  peopled  the  country. 

Among  the  interesting  stories  found  in  the 
"Algic  Researches"  is  one  giving  the  origin  of 
the  robin.  It  runs  thus :  In  order  to  secure 
through  life  a  guardian  genius,  it  was  necessary 
for  a  young  man  to  fast  for  some  time  as  a  prep- 
aration. If  a  father  was  ambitious  that  his  son 
should  excel  all  others,  this  fast  must  be  quite 

Thus  it  is  said  that  an  old  man  had  a  son  named 
ladilla.  He  was  desirous  that  this  son  should  be 
renowned  for  prowess  and  wisdom.     He  therefore 


doomed  him  to  a  fast  of  twelve  days,  after  which  he 
was  to  receive  food  and  the  blessing  of  his  father. 
A  little  lodge  was  prepared  for  him,  on  the  floor 
of  which  was  placed  a  new,  clean  mat.  Upon  this 
the  young  man  was  to  lie  down.  Here,  day  after 
day,  he  lay  in  perfect  composure,  his  face  covered, 
awaiting  the  mystic  visitation  which  was  to  seal 
his  fortune.  His  father  visited  him  every  morning, 
always  encouraging  him  to  be  patient  and  perse- 
vere, and  telling  him  of  the  renown  awaiting  him 
if  he  fasted  the  prescribed  period.  The  boy  never 
replied,  but  lay  silent,  never  murmuring.  On  the 
ninth  day,  however,  he  spoke  thus  to  his  father  : 
''  My  father,  my  dreams  forbode  evil.  May  I  break 
my  fast  now,  and  at  a  more  propitious  time  make 
a  new  fast?"  The  father  answered:  "My  son, 
you  know  not  what  you  ask.  If  you  get  up  now, 
all  your  glory  will  depart.  Wait  with  patience 
three  days  longer.  It  is  for  your  own  good."  The 
son  assented,  and  lay  until  the  eleventh  day,  when 
he  repeated  the  request.  The  father  again  refused, 
but  added  that  the  next  day  he  would  prepare  his 
first  meal  and  bring  it  to  him.  This  he  did.  On 
coming  to  the  door  of  the  room  with  the  report  for 
his  son,  he  was  surprised  to  hear  him  talking  to 
himself.  He  stopped,  and  looked  through  a  small 
aperture,  and  found  the  young  man  painted  with 
vermilion  all  over  his  breast,  and  in  the  act  of 
finishing  his  work  by  laying  the  paint  as  far  back 
on  his  shoulders  as  his  hands  could  reach,  saying  to 
himself  while  working:  "My  father  has  destroyed 


my  fortune  as  a  man.  He  would  not  yield  to  my 
requests,  but  I  shall  be  forever  happy  in  my  new 
state,  for  I  have  been  obedient  to  my  parent.  He 
alone  will  be  the  sufferer,  for  my  guardian  spirit  is 
a  just  one.  He  has  g^iven  me  another  shape,  and 
now  I  must  go."  The  father  exclaimed:  *'My 
son,  my  son,  I  pray  you  leave  me  not."  But  the 
young  man,  with  the  speed  of  a  bird,  had  flown  to 
the  top  of  the  lodge  and  perched  himself  on  the 
highest  pole,  having  been  changed  into  a  beautiful 
robin  redbreast." 

Of  this  romantic  lore  there  was  abundance  among 
the  Indian  tribes.  It  is  perhaps  meet  that  we  should 
perpetuate  some  knowledge  of  it  and  transmit  the 
"short  and  simple  annals"  of  these  "children  of 
nature"  to  coming  generations,  that  they  may 
know  how  to  appreciate  and  cherish  memories  of 
the  original  and  almost  forgotten  owners  of  Lan- 
caster county's  rich  forests,  fertile  lands,  pictur- 
esque hills  and  beautiful  streams.